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£007 I50t33n n 

.. CaMorniaSta,eL7br7 fy JU 

Presented by 

Utile received *f> 


'//,-./, v/,. 1861, ' 

3l CTION II. ' The Libcarian shall lo be kept a register of nil 
books tssued and turned ; and all books taken by he mem" l\ , 
Legislature, or its officer . shall be returned at the', lose of t 2 ion 
LTJVT™ 'to return any book taken from Z ^Z' 

he shall forfeit and ^ay to the Librarian, for the benefit of he lib a ' 
hree tunes the va „e thereof; and before the Controller shall i s u h ^ 
warrant ,n favor of any member or officer of the I e<dslature or f , 
State, for his per diem, all6wance, or salary, he SKTSSjfi 
such member or officer hasreturned all books taken ou, of the £? r t 
h,m, and has settled all accounts for injuring such books or othlni/ 
CIS. Iiooksmay be taken from the Library by the members of the 

ime't Z G US 0ffiC r: U,ring *• ^ * «* ~* » « any 

.me by the Governor and the officers of the Executive Department of 
h s State who are required to keep their offices at the seat of govenm e m 

of;h T : L ;c hesupremecourt ' ih --°-^-"'-^eTr:s 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 

Volume V.] 


[Number 1. 

Merino Sheep. 

Since the first occupation of California by 
the progressive Yankee and equally energetic 
Western stock men, vast numbers of sheep of 
all sorts and values have been brought hither 
to meet the wants of the country. The first of 
these wants, was that of mutton, and for this 
purpose the stock drover cared but little 
whether the fleece was wool or hair; conse- 
quently large numbers of Mexican sheep were 
among the first importa- 
tions ; and these with 
some thousands from the 
more Western States, con- 
stituted the larger num- 
ber of our flocks. 

But the enormous in- 
O'ease of sheep from all 
sources, soon made the 
matter of mutton a secon- 
dary consideration, for 
the supply soon exceed- 
ed the demand. Reflect- 
iug men at once saw the 
necessity of producing 
either a superior quality 
of mutton or more atten- 
tion must be given to the 
quality of the fleece or to 
both of these. Common 
coarse wools were almost 
a drug in the market, 
and there was no way of 
making better mutton, 
except by changing the 

Importations at once 
began, and nearly all the 
superior breeds both for 
mutton and fine wools, 
were soon represented, 
and crossings with the 
common breeds soon gave 
evidence that '"blood will 
tell." Now we find the 
condition this, an im- 
mense wool product and 
annually increasing; but 
it still lacks to a great ex- 
tent in quality; for the bulk of product must 
go hence for a market, and it costs no more to 
freight a pound of fine wool than coarse. 
Hence the importance of breeding the fine 
wooled sheep. 

There are two breeds of fine wools, that stand 
"head and horns" overall others. These are 
the Merino and the Saxony. The former are 
undoubtedly the best breed of finc-wooled sheep 
in the world. For many years they have been 
the favorite breed among New England growers 
of fine wools, and, taking into consideration 
the size of the animal, weight and quality of 
the fleece, and value for mutton, there is no 
other that can compare with it for the California 

The Saxony produces a finer wool, but it is 
not in such general demand, and the animal is 
diminutive in size, and where crossed with the 
pure Merino, has invariably proved detrimental 
to the latter. It might succeed better here 
than in the more rigorous Eastern olimate, but 
they are nowhere so vigorous as the Merino, 
either with reference to vicissitudes of climate 
or capacity to travel or work for a living. 

As we must send our wools away for a market, 
let every pound we raise be made doubly valu- 
able over that of the old, common breeds and 

selves half the cost of freighting it; let us do 
this by the further introduction and extended 
production of the Merino. 

Entertaining these views on the subject of 
fine wool growing, and deeming it one among 
the most important of our State's interests, we 
think we can hardly do better in the way of an 
illustration for our first page, on the first week 
of the new year, than to give a'faithful delinea- 
tion of the splendid Merino buck, Young 
Eureka, the} property of Severance & Peet. 

Grape Cuttings. 

These can be taken from the vines at any 
time after the falling of the leaf and before the 
spring flow of sap commences. Our experi- 
ence teaches that the earlier cutting*, those 
taken before the first of January are more gen- 
erally certain to make a successful start and 
after growth than those cut later in the season. 

It is common, however, to defer the prepara- 
tion of cuttings till the pruning takes place, be 


their crossings, and in this way save to our- 

He was bred by H. Burrill, of Birdport, Addi 
son county, Vermont. Was sired by "Eureka 
Second," imported by Messr3. 8. & P., and 
sold to Thos. Wilson, of Stockton; grand sire 
"Old Eureka," owned by S. S. Rockwell, of 
Addison Co., Vermont. For eight years he was 
one of tho most celebrated stock rams of his 
time. Messrs. S. & P. aro among those who 
appreciate the importance of introducing only 
the pure blood, as breeding from anything 
lower than this, is only breeding downward. 

They are also the importers of an extensive 
herd of pure blood Merinos, of which tho en- 
graving we present is a true type. 

The Rain-fall. — We have now received an 
amount of rain equal to or exceeding that of 
last year, previous to the first of January. 
There is no longer a doubt in regard to the im- 
mense area that will be devoted to the wheat crop 
the present year, and if the later rains prove 
as opportune and plenteous for the growth and 
filling out of the ripening ear, California will 
again roll up its millions of centals, that will 
astonish the world. 

Oncjs More.— We send the 1st No. of this 
volume of the Press free to a number of old 
subscribers whose term expires with the old 
year, trusting they may yet be pleased to renew 
their subscription. 

it early or late, and this will generally answer 
all purposes if care is had that the cuttings are 
secured immediately at the pruning; but if the 
branches are allowed to lie upon the ground for 
days, as is often the case, before the cuttings are 
secured, exposed to tho sun or drying winds or to 
frost, it greatly lessens their chances of growth. 

Grape cuttings are easily preserved for future 
setting, by "heeling-in" the butts of the same 
in moist earth or thny may bo entirely covered 
for weeks, if not in condition to mold or sweat 
while covered. Where the ground can be prop- 
erly prepared, cuttings can bo set at any time 
during the winter. A correspondent inquires 
the proper time to prune grape-vines that they 
may not blood. Any time after the fall of tho 
leaf and before tho annual spring flow, which 
commences in February or March, depending 
much upon the warmth of tho soason. 

A slight or evon considerable bleeding of the 
vines, works but liitlo injury to them, and 
sometimes it is a positive advantage; forwhere- 
ever there is danger from lato spring frosts, 
the pruning may be delayed until the sap be- 
gins to flow freely, tho bleeding serving to 
strengthen and establish the blossoms into well 
regulated clusters and increased fruitfulness, 
particularly on moist, rich alluviums where 
the vine is apt to prow too much to wood, un- 
less checked in this manner. 

Pruning Orchard Trees. 

Now is the time to give to your fruit trees the 
pruning they may require, either to give form 
or symmetry to the tree, a renewed vigor or to 
induce fruitfulness. In most of our great val- 
leys or on the rolling hills where orchards have 
been planted, we are more or less subject to 
violent storms of wind at the change of the sea- 
sons, both in spring when the blossoms are set- 
ting, and in autumn before winter varieties have 
all ripened. It becomes 
a matter of prudence then 
to keep our newly planted 
trees down so that they 
may form low heads, the 
branches being kept near- 
er the roots, the action of 
ascending and descending 
sap is more rapid, and 
the trunk of the tree 
becomes more stocky and 
able to resist the gales 
which blow off most of 
the fruit on those trained 
up in whip-stock fashion. 
Another advantage of 
low pruning is, that tho 
tree is kept in reach of 
the pruning knife, and 
when the tree come* into 
bearing, a great saving is 
made in gathering the 
fruit. But there is 
another reason in favor 
of low pruning more im- 
portant than all others. 
The fruit growing 8(ason 
of the Pacific Coast, is 
subieet to an almost en- 
dless sunshine, and when 
the trunk and branches 
are exposed to its con- 
stant rays, the bark be- 
comes dry, and vegeta- 
ting action ceases on all 
those parts most exposed. 
The effect is, a dry- 
ing of the bark, causing 
it to adhere closely to tl e 
limb, premature decay is induced, the sap of 
the tree becomes poisoned and what little fruit 
is produced will bo blistered to a greater or less 
extent on account of the lack of leaves, and 
subject to the dry or bitter rot. 

Pacific Rural Press for 1873. — Once more 
have we trimmed our beautiful craft, hauled 
everything taut, and put to sea under the 
most favorable auspices. We have the same 
agreeable companions on board who accom- 
panied us last year, including Mary Mountain, 
and as we take a careful look among those on 
board, we find new faces and friends who 
promiso to help us both in sunshino and storm, 
should the latter overtake us, and will tako 
such notes of our voyage having an agricul- 
tural interest, to bear along with us, that as we 
make our weekly landings at the thresholds of 
tho farmers' homes, our coming will bo grooted, 
and fully deserving, wo hope, of a kind wel- 
come; and as wo make our weekly calls wo 
shall hope to secure tho assistance of other ablo 
seamen for our agricultural craft. 

The Old Year, — We cannot say tho] old 
year sleeps, for it is dead I May we not hope, 
that all that transpired of evil during its life, 
died with it, bequeathing only goodness an 1 
happiness to the young New Year. 

BAoaHrao &&r&&& sps&ss; 

[January 4, 1873. 



Editors Press:— A stranger passing through- 
out our Golden State is at once struck at her 
varied climate, sequestered valleys, natural 
scenery in our mountain gorges, waterfalls and 
giant trees;"at once falls in love with it and 
wonders why should there be such variedness 
in comparison to his eastern home. The tem- 
perature, even in a day's ride, changes from one 
of heat to cold, whereas you might ride hun- 
dreds of miles in the East, the range of heat 
remaining about the same; but by marking the 
extent of territory, influence of mountain rang- 
es, prevailing winds, the cause and effect at 
once appear plain, and the more a person sees 
it, the better he gets accustomed to it and never 
can be satisfied back to his old accustomed 
home, but remains ever within our borders. 
Such has been the case of thousands, and will 
ever remain so. 

To describe the climate of an Eastern State 
it would include the whole, but in California 
you might easily say each county differs in 
some respect, which makes the contrast so 
different; and take the aggregate you possess 
the "Garden of Eden" of the world. 

Those who wish to possess such a home, it 
can be found along the borders of the ocean 
shore, breathing her cool atmosphere, or in 
our valleys of fatness under their own and fig 
tree; along the borders of our viue-elad hills, 
and far up in the snowy peaks of the Sierras, 
congenial to his taste, health and feelings. In 
some respects our climate compares to the 
eastern and western section of Oregon, Utah, 
Nevada, Washington Territory and other places. 
The season, extent of plaiDS, mountain ranges, 
elevated plateaus, mountain streams, arid 
wastes, variety of soil, production of truit, trop- 
ical regions, forests, fall of snow, summer heat 
and cooling winds, making up such a variety 
from other parts, and uniting them in one, 
gives to its possessor a land far beyond the 
classic hills of Italy or sequestered vales ol 
Eden. After taking a cursory glance of the 
climate as a whole, I refer more definitely to 
the wide bosom— the valley of Sacramento, 
with her long range of mountains on the east 
and west, the length three times as long as her 
width, including a number of counties, which 
in the main varies but little, only in some mi- 
nor points. Our seasons strictly do not have 
but two, 

Wet and Dry. 
Our rainy season commences in November, 
but often have showers in September, lasting 
till May. We scarcely have two seasons alike, 
but every eight or ten years we generally have 
a heavy winter, with an extra quantity of rain, 
sometimes flooding our river banks to such an 
extent that portions of the valley become inun- 
dated, such as the tules, and lower points of 
land. The situation of our city in the noble 
Sacramento, is surrounded with a broad and 
high levee, sufficiently strong to encounter the 
strong cuirents that dash against its sides, 
thereby saving her property from being swept 
over by the angry waves, devastating every- 
thing it comes in reach of, such as has been her 
fate many times, but now she is bound around 
so strong with its walls of embankment, that 
she is impregnable for all future time. Our 
railroad that surrounds its limits keeps it 
strong and packed hard for all time. Our 
spring of the year opens in February, although 
vegetation commences as soon as the rainfall, 
bringing it in the dead of winter, of our Eastern 
friends, when the earth is robed in white, and 
dreariness reigns supreme, while we are bask- 
ing in the sunshine of our temperate climate. 
Stock ranges throughout the different por- 
tions of the valley, without any shelter, sub- 
sisting on the range of vegetation, and sheep 
browse on the hill Bide. Our coldest weather 
comes before the heaviest rains fall; frost quite 
severe. Snow scarcely ever falls, still it is in 
tine view on the summit and hill-sides and coast 
ranges. The eastern portion of Oregon is sim- 
ilar to our valley, while the western compares 
with our coast and mountain ranges. Our 
storms come generally from the east and south- 
east. We have had storms from the north but 
rarely. Another beauty in respect to our climate 
is, that no matter what degree of heat or cold the 
day is, the nights are cool and refreshing, and 
the weary laborer as he lies on his couch at 
night to rest, is soon lost in profound slumber, 
and rises strong and refreshed, ready to engage 
in the active duties of the hour. Another 
notable feature — during the rainy season we 
are not visited by such terrific hail-storms and 
high tempests, so common and destructive 
East. Occasionally our earth trembles and 
quakes for the sake of variety. 
Our Dry Season 
Commences with July and remains till October. 
The four seasons blend together so gradually 
that while you are looking for one to open, it 
has passed to the next. No rain ever moistens 
the earth during the dry season, thereby giving 
the farmer plenty of time to harvest his grain; 
and often it is left in the fields for months, till 
he is ready to dispose of it, without any damage. 
Hay is cut here as early as May; grain, a month 

The warmth of the season ripens our fruit 
early; small fruit is found in the market as 

early as the 15th of April, followed by other 
fruits throughout the season. The same in 
regard to other points favorable to our climate. 
To counteract the heat which abounds during 
the summer, a refreshing breeze from the south- 
east, called the trade- winds, sweeps up our valley 
till October, cooling the atmosphere and mak- 
ing it pleasant through the long summer days. 
Occasionally a "norther" occurs, lasting gen- 
erally three days; it is an unwelcome visitor, 
and glad are we when a change occurs. The 
temperature remains about the same, ranging 
from GO" to 70° Fahr. At times, a hot season 
occurs, running up from 9tP to 100° in the 

Passing through our various gardens, situated 
in different portions of the valley, the visitor at 
once rocoguizes 

Tropical Fruit 
Growing in our midst, showing that our winter 
season does not affect the growing of the 
same. We have the orange, lemons, limes, 
olives, almonds, English and American wal- 
nuts; also figs, prunes and grapes of every va- 
riety. Fruit is grown so plentifully that in our 
midst that all can indulge in the luxury through- 
out the year. 

Of vegetables we can say the same, raising, 
as we do, along our river bottoms, some of the 
largest ever found in any State. Many persons 
adorn their homes with shrubbery and flowers, 
which are of such variety that they bloom 
throughout the year; — so on through the sea- 
sons, bringing again the time for vegetation, 
which springs from its slumber and carpets 
"mother earth" with its mantle of green — 
decks her smiling face with flowers of every 
hue, fills the balmy breeze with its odor, and 
stoops to kiss the cheek of Nature. Joy and 
happiness lights every face, and in time — time 
so swift of passage — the golden fruit hangs ready 
to be plucked by the hand of industry ! The 
brown, seared leaf falls and nature fades gently 
back and hides her face as the blasts of winter 
sweep over her sleeping^form. g. b. 

Sacramento County, Dec. 22, 1872. 

Frost or No Frost. 

Editors Press. In your issue of Dec. 21st,under 
the head of " Our Agricultural Notes," you inti- 
mated at least, that there are places in Califor- 
nia, where frosts are never known, or at least 
not worth speaking of. 

Now though a resident of ono of the warm- 
est valleys of central California, there is never 
a winter without an occasional frost here, and 
indeed in any direction around, within a hun- 
dred miles of us. Will you please name the 
locality in California where perfect immunity 
rom frost is the rule with the clerk of the 
lone Valley, Dec. 29th, w. n. 

We can hardly answer our correspondent 
better than by presenting the following from 
the Ventura Signal of Dec. 21st. 
Winter Vegetables- 
There is no question as to tillers of the soil in 
this part of the State making a grand mistake in 
confining their labors too exclusively to the 
production of grain. Many branches of farm- 
ing are nearly or totally neglected, while others 
are overdone. But it is not our object now to 
discuss this matter, except as regards a single 
branch of it — gardening. 

Enough is now known of the capacities of 
this section to render it entirely certain that 
nearly all kinds of garden vegetables can be 
easily and cheaply produced here at seasons 
when they cannot be in the northern part of 
this State, or in any other State of the Union. 
In what other State or region can potatoes, 
cabbages, onions, tomatoes, beans, peas, rad- 
ishes, lettuce, celery, beets, turnips, carrots, 
parsnips, corn, melons and nearly every other 
vegetable that could be named, be found grow- 
ing luxuriantly j u the month, of December, Jan- 
uary, February, March and April? Some of 
these things do better here in winter than at 
any other season. Peas, for instance, are larg- 
er, tenderer and better filled than during the 
month of June. Tomatoes are untouched by 
frost, and as sweet and pulpy as at any other 

Of course there is no extended home market 
for such things, but during the winter and 
spring months it would be almost unlimited in 
San Francisco, and at largely paying prices. 
Such produce can be shipped from here direct 
without danger of loss, and at reasonable 
freight charges. Five acres of peas, beans 
(green), or tomatoes, properly marketed, would 
bring more profit than half the grain farms. 
An Almond Orchard. 
Bearing almond orchards in this new country 
are a rarity; indeed, were it not for the few trees 
of various kinds in isolated localities, planted 
by the missionaries or early pioneers, the ad- 
mirable capacity of Southern California for 
semi-tropical fruit-gowing would be mere mat- 
ter of conjecture. Many trees have been plant- 
ed here within the past five years, though but 
few have yet come into bearing. Of this num- 
ber is the almond orchard of Mr. L. D. Chillson, 
located in Ventura Valley, a mile and a half 
from town. We paid this beautiful place a fly- 
ing visit this week, and through his politeness 
are enabled to lay before our readers a few facts 
that may be of interest and profit. 

He has about 380 trees, about 300 of which 
bore more or less fruit this year, and many of 
them no inconsiderable quantity the year be- 
fore. They are of the hard-shell, paper-shell, 
and Languedoc varieties; were planted five years 
ago last February, and never irrigated but once. 

They are from 20 to 30 feet high, and most of 
them measure from 18 to 21 inches in circum- 
ference about the body. They are straight, 
clean barked, and have a vigorous and healthy 
appearance, showing good soil and cultivation. 

Mr. C. gathered from these trees the past sea- 
son about 2,500 pounds of clean fruit, most of 
which he has sold at an average price of 18 
cents, unbleached, and just as they came from 
the hull. The trees were by no means uniform 
in product, some having but a few ounces of 
fruit, while others bore many pounds. He esti- 
mates the cost of gathering at three cents a 

It will be seen from this that his four-acre 
almond orchard already pays a fine profit, with 
a certainty of rapid increase of profits for many 
years to come. 

Grapes for Raisins and Wine. 

Editors Press : — Your often published re- 
quest for farmers to write for your paper is my 
excuse for sending you a few lines at this time. 
I also feel that it is not quite fair to profit by 
the experience and public spirit of others 
without contributing, if but in a small way, to 
the general fund in return. As the season for 
planting new vineyards is at hand, I will offer 
a few suggestions on that subject, the result of 
seven year's practical experience. 

Although the area devoted to vines has 
rapidly increased the last three or four years, 
but a minority of the State that is best adapted 
to that purpose is yet planted. There 
need be no fear of overdoing the business. Our 
market is almost unlimited if we select the 
right location and plant the right kind of 
vines. There are not enongh of the best 
varieties of table grapes grown in this State to 
supply one large Eastern city, if we could de- 
liver them there at the rates which competing 
roads now building, when completed, will un- 
doubtedly enable us to do. 

Then again, the value of raisins imported into 
the United States in one year is greater than 
the grape crop of this State at present, and 
there is no reason why we cannot supply them 
all. Last, but greatest of all is the demand 
for grapes for wine. I would not advise any 
one to confine himself to one kind of grape, 
but a grape which will admirably meet either 
one or all of these demands would seem to be 
entitled to the first place, and this I claim for 

Muscat of Alexandria. 

It is one of the best table grapes both in flavor 
and keeping qualities, and as far as my exper- 
ience goes, after trying some thirty different 
kinds, unequaled for raisins. It also com- 
mands the highest price for wine. If any one 
knows a better raisin grape he will confer a 
favor on hundreds by publishing the fact in the 
Press. The Flame Tokay and Black Moroc- 
co will bear transportation better than other 
grapes. For red wine I prefer the Zinfindel 
and Kose of Peru. For white wine, German 
Muscatel, Riesling, Berger and German Chas- 
slas. These grapes in this valley this year 
brought twenty-five dollars per ton for wine, 
and but a small part of the demand was sup- 
plied. No reflecting man of this day will plant 
the Mission variety. The net profit of the 
foreign vines in my own vineyard this year was 
more than double that from my Mission vines, 
acre for acre. 

Curing Raisins. 

Now a word about making raisins. I will 
give you my idea, derived from experiments on 
a small scale, it is true, but I think it equally 
applicable to a large operation. All raisins 
that I have seen made by artificial heat have a 
cooked taste. They can be made in the open 
air in the early part of the season, but they 
are exposed to great loss and damage by insects, 
bees, wasps, birds and squirrels, and liable to be 
ruined by rain. 

My plan is this: construct a building with a 
single glass roof sloping to the south, the 
lower side of the roof reaching nearly to the 
ground, the ends and sides boarded tight — 
with double doors at each end of the building, 
the outside doors of wood, the inside doors of 
wire cloth. The floor should be of earth, 
stone or concrete; this, with a curtain to draw 
over the glass roof when the sun is too hot 
makes the whole complete. Opening the out- 
side doors gives the necessary ventilation in 
the daytime and closing them at night time 
keeps the room warm all night without artificial 
heat. The room of course can be made any 
length or width desired. I have made raisins 
that have been pronounced equal to any import- 
ed ones. I would send you a sample, but un- 
fortunately I have none now. 

In conclusion let me say to new beginners, 
that however viuiculturists may differ as to 
the depth, the soil should be stirred in an old 
vineyard, all agree that you cannot work it too 
deep before the vines are planted, and, in fact, 
upon this and thorough after-cultivation de- 
pend the life and growth of the vines. For 
table grapes a black gravel not exposed to frost 
is best; but for raisins and wine the red foot- 
hills are far superior. o. s. b. 
Yountvile, Napa county, Dec. 27th. 

Fruit-tree Borer. 

Much has been written and suggested about 
the best manner of destroying that great pest, 
the borer but so far I as have seen the sug- 
gestions generally terminate by advising the old 
fashioned remedy of poking a slender wire 
after the enemy. 

A neighbor of mine who takes great interest 
in his garden, has been experimenting to pre- 

vent the ravages of the borer on his trees, and 
has been successful in every instance. He uses 
a mulch of several inches in thickness of red- 
wood saw dust, which he lets lie all summer 
round his trees. The trees that had the saw - 
dust were never molested, while the adjoining 
trees were riddled by the borer in every in- 

It is also worth knowing that redwood saw- 
dust makes an excellant manure for trees; it 
should be dug in every winter and a new mulch 
applied, I. Beoo. 

Gilroy, Dec. 25th, 1872. 

Farm Life. 

Eds. Press. — You often nrge farmers to write 
for your paper, and no doubt many would be 
pleased to contribute to so worthy a paper as the 
Press, oftener than they do, were it not that 
it is proverbial among farmers to be "so busy" 
as to leave no time outside of the regular ruu- 
tine of sowing and reaping, and all the con- 
comitants thereof ; yet, none need work always, 
however large the farm may be, if it is managed 
rightly. And no man has a right to keep so 
much land that he has no time for recreation 
or pastime; yet how many do so, not from ne- 
cessity, for want does not compel a man to 
count his acres by hundreds or thousands, but 
from an inordinate desire to heap up glittering 
treasure, until it becomes the sole aim of his 
existence. No matter if it keeps happiness 
from his home, brings lines of care to his brow, 
and scatters the frosts of age on his head, while 
it is scarcely noon of life for him. No matter 
if wife and children are deprived of life's sweet 
golden hours, by incessant toil from earliest 
morn till darkness broods over all things, and 
the wearied farmers seek rest till another day 
comes; wherein each is but a repetition of those 
which have faded in the past, and life becomes 
a burden almost, and is cheered only by the 
hope of "sometime we will have enough 
money," to quit work, leave the farm, and en- 
joy life generally. Does the time ever come 
to such persons ? We apprehend not. 

But while we have many farmers whose ava- 
riciousness is the canker-worm which precludes 
all idea of happiness, we are thankful that all 
are not so, some can appreciate farming and 
farm life and can KtM while working. 

This should be our highest aim to make our 
homes such that it is happiness to live in them. 
And this is within the reach of all; don't let 
the little cottage go to ruin whilo getting ready 
to build that handsome residence you have 
planned; but make it cheerful while you live in 
it; let the four square walls show that its in- 
mates love them, keep it sweet and clean, plant 
clinging vines near and see how tenderly and 
lovingly they will twine about your home. You 
can enjoy the flowers, can have the songs of 
happy birds for music, the gentle winds and 
blessed sunshine, and health and happiness will 
follow, if we all endeavor to understand the 
word content. 

There are many things in our country, which 
need reforming; but none more than the gen- 
eral order of farming. We need reformers, who 
will work to obtain homes, and then strive to 
make them a fit dwelling place for mortals, 
those who will order and plan as though it were 
for life; and whilo catering for the palate, will 
arrange to please the eye, that when the body 
is wearied by toil the senses may delight in the 
beautiful. If the good time ever comes, then 
indeed will man realize that to till the land is 
his "best vocation." We will hear less of the 
endless toil and drudgery of farm life, for men 
will read more and fret less, and through study 
and research be enabled to accomplish their 
plans with less labor, and make their lives a 
grander object than the one of mere labor for 
the means to supply food and raiment; will 
seek to clothe the mind, so it may better be pre- 
pared to meet Nature's various changes, and un- 
derstand the beauties and blessings which arc 
daily passed unheeded by. n. 

Florin, Sacramento Co., Dec. 19th, 1872. 

Moths and Crickets. 

Editors Press: — I have for some time been 
watching, under the head of practical recipes, 
for one to make good merchantable soap, but 
have not yet seen one; please insert the best 
you know. 

To drive away moth, all that is necessary, is 
to keep a small piece of camphor gum about 
your clothes. 

If crickets take up their abodo in your trunk, 
or any other place where clothes are kept, the 
leaves of pennyroyal or wormwood sprinkled 
about, will drive them away immediately. 

To Make Soft Soap With Potash. — To 
cleanse the grease, put it in weak lye; keep it 
as hot as possible and not boil it. When all 
pieces are eaten up, fill the kettle up with cold 
water; let it stand until cold, when the grease 
will rise to the top. Take off and prepare to 
make the soap. Twenty pounds of grease to 
thirteen pounds of potash are required to make 
a barrel of soap. Get the best part of the cake 
and dissolve it; strain the lye into the barrel. 
(There will be settlings in the best of potash; 
but keep it out of the barrel by straining the 
lye.) Melt the grease and strain into the bar- 
rel also, and thus avoid the filth so commonly 
found where one gets near the bottom of the 
barrel. The last is thus made as clean as the 
first With a stick in the barrel stir the lye 
and grease three or four times a day, thorough- 
ly. It will thicken gradually, and make most 
beautiful soap. If made in cold weather the 
barrel should stand in a warm place. 

January 4, 1873.] 

LJ^y p@7ES. 

Squash Seed Fatal to Fowls. 

Jas. N. Bookstaver, Batherford Park, N. J., 
writes to the American Farmers' Club: I feel 
it a duty to call the attention to a discovery 
made by me that may not be generally known. 
The other day my little boy came and told me 
that " a chickey had gone dead." On going 
into the hen-house I found a fine black Spanish 
cock lifeless upon the floor. At first I attrib- 
uted its death to a weasel, or some animal of 
that character; but I could find no marks to 
warrant such a conclusion. A little while af- 
terward I found a dead pullet in the yard. 
This began to alarm me. I had heard of hen- 
cholera, and began to think some such disease 
had made its appearance on my premises. An 
autopsy revealed to me the cause of death, 
they having shortened their lives by a little in- 
discretion in the selection of food. On open- 
ing their crops I found the contents to be corn 
and squash seeds. The seeds had created a 
watery fluid, greatly discolored, that could find 
no outlet. Farmers' wives should be careful 
to place such kitchen refuse beyond the reach 
of the fowls. 

Pumpkin Seeds Also Fatal. 

Wm. Anderson, Ann Arbor, Mich., also 
writes the Club that he has lost many of his 
fowls in the following manner: "The first 
symptom that appears is lameness in one leg; 
after a few days both legs become so weak that 
they cannot stand, and pine away and die in 
two weeks, and sometimes less than that." In 
reference to this matter, Washington Hills, of 
Long Island, says : "One cause of this disease 
complained of is allowing turkeys to eat the 
seeds of pumpkins. About the time farmers 
take in their corn and gather their pumpkins, 
almost invariably the cattle are treated to a 
meal of pumpkins. If the turkeys are around 
the barnyard they also have a meal of seeds, 
and so sure as they do so sure they will be 
lame. Sometimes it kills them. At any rate 
they do not get over it. They will stay lame 
all the season. Nothing will fatten them. In 
fact I have known a whole flock affected in this 
way to be almost worthless, and nothing else 
caused it but pumpkin seeds." 

Prolific Hens. — Theodore Cornish, Wells- 
ville, Alleghany county, New York, furnishes 
some interesting particulars regarding poultry 
keeping. He writes: I commenced keeping 
poultry in 1857, in Oregon. I invested about 
$500 in the business, sold out for $150, took a 
note payable in a year, and never got a dollar. 
In the fall of 1865 I invested lightly, and dur- 
ing the following year kept from 400 to COO 
hens. I learned a great deal of their nature 
and requirements, but did not make it success- 
ful. I made a profit that year of about ten 
cents per head. In 1868 I made another trial, 
and received 30 cents per head profit. In the 
three following years I persisted in raising both 
chickens and eggs, and each of three years had 
larger profits than at any previous time, the 
profit of 1871 being 71 cents per head. This 
year I have kept 126 hens, which have laid 13,- 
487 eggs, or a little more than 107 each. I 
have received for them $224. I have raised 
enough chickens to replace what hens I have 
lost, and the feed at the end of the year will 
have cost $119; leaving me a profit of $105, be- 
sides a large quantity of valuable manure. I 
have kept these hens on three-eighths of an 
acre of laud, and they are what are called com- 
mon fowls or mongrels. — Ex. 

Value of Poultry Manube. — From actual 
experiment it has been found that the drop- 
pings from four Brahmas for one night 
weighed in one case exactly 1 lb., and in an- 
other more than % ft)., an average of nearly 4 
ounces to each bird. By drying, this was re- 
duced to not quite 1% ounces. Other breeds 
make less; but, allowing only one ounce per 
bird daily of dry dung, fifty fowls will make, 
in their roosting house alone, 10 cwt. per an- 
num of the best manure in the world. Hence 
x / t an acre of poultry will make more than 
enough manure for 1 acre of land, 7 cwt. of 
guano being the usual quantity applied per 
acre, and poultry manure being even richer 
than guano in ammonia and fertilizing salts. 
No other stock will give an equal return in 
this way; and these figures demand careful at- 
tention from the large farmer. The manure , 
before using, should be mixed with twice its 
bulk of earth, and then allowed to stand in a 
heap, covered with a few inches of earth till 
decomposed throughout, when it makes the 
very best manure that can be had. — Ex. 

Leghorns as Layebs. — The poultry topic 
coming up, Mr. Fuller said he had kept Leg- 
horns eight years, and finds them the best of 
breeds. During the past two seasons he ad- 
mitted some Dorkings, but this fall, good-by 
Dorkings. Leghorns are always on the lay, 
are chaste keepers at home, and being of 
cheerful temper they don't want to be " brood- 
ing " over chickens, or other troubles. The 
Dorkings are of an inquisitive turn of mind, 
want to see the world, and so are disagreeable 
about small places, but might be liked on 
farms over which they could roam, gathering 
sustenance, and at the same time killing in- 
sects. Chairman Ely remarked that he, too, 
had found the Leghorns excellent for eggs, but 
not possessed of the motherly instinct. 

TlfE Anw- 

Bee Culture. 

It has always surprised me that our people did 
not pay more attention than they do to the cul- 
ture of the honey-bee. Considering the amount 
of capital thus invested and labor expended, it 
is the most lucrative business in the country. 

In this sunny clime where the flowers are 
brim-full with rich sweets for the larger part of 
the year, a colony of bees could pay for the 
hive, the trouble and all expenses the first year, 
and leave a neat little profit in the owner's 

When our people are forced to the conclusion 
that they must practice economy, and take ad- 
vantage of all the resources that a beneficienl 
Providence has placed at our disposal, then 
they will see the wisdom of our advice in this 

In order to show what an important item 
of trade honey is, in certain countries, we ad- 
duce the following: 

"The Island of Corsica, paid to Rome an an- 
nual tribute of 200,000 pounds of wax, which 
pre-supposes the production of from two to 
three million pounds of honey yearly. This isl- 
and contains 3,790 square miles. 

"In the province of Attica, in Greece, con- 
taining forty-five square miles, and 20,000 in- 
habitants, 20,000 hives are kept, each yielding, 
on an average, thirty pounds of honey and two 
pounds of wax. 

"According to an official report, there were in 
Denmark, in 1833, 86,036 colonies of bees. The 
annual product of honey appears to be about 
1,841,000 pounds. In 1855 the export of wax 
from that country was 118,370 pounds. 

"In 1857, the yield of honey and wax in the 
Empire of Australia, was estimated to be worth 
over seven millions of dollars." 

For Beginners with Bees. 

A writer in the New York Mail offers this 
trio of suggestions: 

1. Do not go headlong into this or any oth- 
er branch of rural industry. Be content with 
small beginnings, and take time to gather ex- 
perience. Commence with one stock of bees, 
and before you buy even one, get some recent 
treatise on bee-keeping, and post yourself at 
least in regard to the outlines of apiarian 

2. Begin with a movable frame hive of some 
sort. Bees have been kept advantpgeously, and 
may be still, in straw or common box hives; 
but to attain the best results, a movable frame 
hive is necessary. This kind of hive admits of 
access to the bees, control over them, and from 
one season's observations in such a hive more 
may be learned about bees than by keeping 
them 20 years in a straw or box hive. A single 
stock in such a hive will cost about $10, inclu- 
sive of patent right, and surely this is not an 
investment, to begin with, that need frighten 

3. Do not expect sudden and wonderful prof- 
its, nor be discouraged by reverses. There is 
no speculation in bee-keepiug, any more than 
in any other branch of rural economy. Here, 
as elsewhere, diligence, care, energy and perse- 
verance are essential to success. 

Pbofitable Business fob Women.— One of 
the most profitable as well as interesting kinds 
of business for a woman is the care of bees. 
In a recent agricultural report it is stated that 
one lady bought four hives for ten dollars, and 
in five years she was offered one thousand five 
hundred dollars for her stock and refused it as 
not enough. In addition to this increase of 
her capital, one of these five years she sold 
twenty-two hives and four-hundred and twenty 
pounds of honey. It is also stated that in five 
years one man, from six colonies of bees to 
start with, cleared eight thousand pounds of 
honey and one hundred and fifty-four colonies. 

When properly instructed, almost any woman 
in the city, as easily as in the country, can man- 
age bees, and make more profit than in any 
other method demanding so little time and labor. 
But in the modes ordinarily practiced, few can 
make any great profit in this employment. 

It is hoped a time is at hand when every 
woman will be trained to some employment by 
which she can secure to herself an independent 
home and means to support a family, in case 
she does not marry, or has been left a widow, 
with herself and family to support. — American 
Woman's Home. 


Honey. — The production of honey is rapidly 
i ncreasing in the coast district south of Santa 
Barbara, especially in San Diego county, which 
last year exported 27,600 pounds, and next year 
if the Winter should be favorable, will export 
perhaps 100,000 pounds. One firm has 1,180 
hives and has sold 300 within a year. It may 
be worthy of mention that the peculiar flavor of 
the Californian honey bears a strong resem- 
blance to that of the honey from Mt. Hymettus, 
which like ours is made from wild flowers, and 
has retained something of its ancient reputation 
in Europe for superior excellence even to our 
own time. 

Bees in a Pumpkin. — The Los Angeles Ex- 
press of Dec. 4th, says: H. P. Ma»sey recently 
discovered a swarm of wild bees comfortably 
housed in a dried pumpkin in Martin's corn- 
field. The pumpkin was apparently o( last 
year's growth, and was perfectly dry, and con- 
tained ten or twelve pounds of beautifully clear 
white honey. 

Experiments in Nature's Laboratory. 

The experimental method, now so universally 
accepted as the sole means of arriving at scien- 
tific facts, is mostly carried out in laboratories 
provided with more or less expensive appara- 
tus, which, however large and commodious, ri- 
vals in a pitifully small degree the grand, sub- 
tle, and delicate appliances of nature. No ar- 
tificial arrangements can emulate the enormous 
pressures to which in nature various materials 
are subjected. No furnace constructed by 
man, though seven times heated, can approach 
in intensity of action the heat of volcanic ori- 
gin; and this last is, so to speak, cold when 
compared to the high temperatures of the solar 

What comparison can be made between all 
the varied and skillfully contrived apparatus of 
modern chemistry and that which exists in the 
respiratory, digestive, and circulatory organs of 
animals, or even plants ? Not all the instru- 
ments and processes yet devised by man for in- 
vestigation of organic chemistry are equal to 
the construction of a blood-corpuscle, a cell, or 
an animal tissue. We know that these things 
are produced in obedience to law, as surely as 
that winds blow, iron rusts, and rivers flow in 
accordance with fixed and invariable princi- 
ples. Could we establish the proper conditions, 
a blood-corpuscle would result. 

The feeble experiments of the philosopher 
are merely attempts to establish in each case a 
determinate set of conditions. This done, he 
awaits results. It is only through the agency 
of natural law that he establishes conditions, he 
himself acting in as blind obedience to law as 
does the clod from which he culls a specimen. 
He even thinks in obedience to law, from which 
he can no more escape than matter can escape 
from the mysterious influence called gravity. 

People often speak about violating a law of 
nature, and of the punishment which follows 
such violation, The fact is, however, that there 
is no such thing as breaking through natural 
law. If we eat that which nourishes us, we are 
nourished according to law. If we take arsen- 
ic, it acts to poison us in obedience to other 
provisions of the same inexorable code. To- 
bacco entails nervous and other disorders upon 
man, when used as a stimulant, under the same 
law that it kills ticks on lambs. Nature is 
perfectly indifferent whether a flame burns 
sticks or our fingers. It is the eternal fiat that 
gases heated to incandescence shall produce 
certain effects on certain other substances, and 
neither sticks nor fingers can avade the ever- 
lasting unchangeable decree. Underlying the 
ever-changing complexity of phenomena is the 
never-changing.inflexible, sternly coherent law, 
so much superior to the puny will and strenth 
of man that one wonders at even the careless 
application to it of the term "violation." 

It is questionable whether, in the search for 
artificial appliances through which to control 
conditions, we have not in some measure come 
to underrate the value of close observation of 
results of conditions already established in 

It is quite recent that we have learned to 
appreciate the possible effects of winds in abrad- 
ing rocks exposed to their action. The artifi- 
cial application of the sand blast to the cutting 
of the hardest substances within the last two or 
three years is only a repetition of a process which 
has been going on under the eyes of mankind 
for ages. 

Who has ever thought of consulting any of 
the processes going on in the natural world for 
confirmation or negation of the elementary 
character of those substances now called chem- 
ical elements ? Who has said, "Inasmuch as 
the chemical processes of digestion and assim- 
ilation are infinitely more refined than any I 
can conduct, let me see whether in the animal 
or vegetable economy phosphorus or sulphur 
(which are, to say at least, open to the suspi- 
cion of compound character) is not sometimes 
produced from food which contains neither ?" 
Should such a fact ever be discovered, it would 
as effectually settle the composite character of 
phosphorus or sulphur as could the most suc- 
cessful laboratory analysis. 

All honor to the splendid corps of investiga- 
tors — now, thank God ! in no want of re- 
cruits — who are forcing their way into the in- 
terpenetralia of nature in schools, in laborato- 
ries, in shops, and in garrets ! All honor to 
the genius that has given us the balance, the 
thermometer, and the barometer; that has 
widened our field of vision by the microscope, 
the telescope, and the spectroscope ! All hon- 
or to him, though the humblest, who has added 
one implement to our common stock ! Yet, 
with due reverence to genius we believe there 
is something to be seen with unaided eyes, and 
outside the laboratories and observatories of 
our universities. — Am. Artisan. 

Nickle as a Gas Occluder. — Prof. Raoult 
of Grenoble, has proved that nickle employed 
for twelve hours as a negative electrode in a 
voltameter, condenses at least 150 times its 
volume of hydrogen and abandons entirely this 
gas, when it is taken from the voltameter and 
plunged in water. M. Raoult has made several 
experiments on the production of caloric and 
has succeeded in demonstrating that the inten- 
sity of the heat developed by an electric cur- 
rent is independent of the system of battery by 
which the current is engendered. 

Heating Water Above the Boiling Point 
in Open Vessels. 

M. Donny, a French experimentalist, fouuu. 
that water deprived of air could be raised to 
a temperature of 280° Fah., without boiling, 
and that evaporation then took place explosive- 
ly, the water discharging a sufficient amount of 
steam at a single burst to reduce its tempera- 
ture to that due the pressure to which it was ex- 
posed. M. Deluc observed the fact even 
earlier than Donny, and physicists have attacked 
the subject since. 

M. Dufour, by taking the most delicate 
method and observing the greatest care to avoid 
contact of rough particles and metallic surfaces 
with the water, succeeded in raising the temper- 
ature of very minute globules 347° Fah., which 
is that due to steam under a pressure of 115 
pounds to the square inch. It is found neces- 
sary, however, in such experiments, to operate 
with very clean water in very small quantities, 
and to be exceedingly careful to avoid the 
slightest motion of the liquid, and also to keep 
it from contact with metallic surfaces or min- 
eral substances. 

M. Donny 's experiments were made with glass 
vessels, but M. Dufour was compelled to sus- 
pend his drops of water in a mixture of oil of 
cloves aud linseed oil, to secure the success of 
his experiment. Such conditions evidently 
never occur where water is vaporized in steam 
boilers, and we may probably feel confident that 
such superheating is not likely to produce steam 
boiler explosions. The mass of water in a steam- 
boiler is too large, and is invariably in contact 
with a metallic surface. It is probably always 
in motion, at least, to a slight extent, as the ir- 
regular distribution of heat in all ordinary boil- 
ers, must produce generally some slight circula- 
tion at all times; and finally it rarely happens 
that feed water is absolutely free from impuri- 
ties. While, therefore, we cannot say positively 
that explosions have never occurred, from this 
cause, we are fully justified, probably, in sup- 
posing it to be the fact. — Scientific American. 

Origin of Storms. 

Mr. John Hepburn, of Gloucester, N. J., 
writes to the Scientific American, that a careful 
observation of twelve years past has satisfied 
him that "storms are nursed into being by the 
action of electricity from the sun, and that the 
rays of the sun drives the storms before them." 
He says: "I have made a specialty of watching 
the first traces of gust march, and I have inva- 
riably found that morning gusts come from 
the east; mid-day gusts from' the south and 
evening gusts from the west, and I feel quite 
sure that if scientists will devote a little time 
to the first appearance of any coming gust, they 
will find and admit that there is truth in the 
theory I have advanced. I am of the opinion 
that solar electricity produces earth storms, and 
that most earthquakes are produced by the 
same agency." 

He has noticed that black, stormy clouds ad- 
vance from the sun, pass on beyond, or make a 
stand overhead, and in the latter case mix more 
and run into each other in very great commo- 
tion; then begin to break and act with fearful 
violence upon the earth, sending torrents of rain 
or hail in an opposile direction to that of its orig- 
inal march. He has also noticed gusts come 
up, along through the clouds, pass overhead, 
and for some distance beyond, then return 
against or at a greater or less angle to the sun's 
rays. What he appears to claim as his theory 
is, that the gusts are first set in motion in a line 
with and before the sun's rays; but that when 
once so put in motion the cloud thus formed 
may be driven more or less out of its direct mo- 
tion by side currents, before it commences to 
discharge its aqueous contents, or otherwise ex- 
pend its accumulated fury. 

" Gummate of Ibon " Paper. — Manyyears 
ago Fremy discovered, very unexpectedly at 
the time to the chemical world, that gum, in- 
stead of being, as previously held, an isomeric 
form of starch or cellulose, was the lime salt of 
a peculiar acid, gummic acid. The British Jour- 
nal of Photography states that, very curiously, 
gummic acid combines with feme oxyd, forni- 
iug what may be called an iron gum. To coat 
paper, which is then sensitive to light, " a so- 
lution of perchloride of iron is taken, ammonia 
cautiously added with agitation until a perma- 
nent precipitate makes its appearance. The 
liquid then filtered, paper saturated with the 
solution, and allowed to dry in the dark. The 
coated sheets then floated on some thick mu- 
cilage of gum-arabic. The surface of the paper 
is thus covered with an even layer of the "gum- 
mate of iron." When the paper carrying the 
iron is first coated with the mucilage, the color 
does not at once change, but presently a strong, 
yellowish-brown tint is produced, and the gum 
' sets,' and then the layer dries up, leaving the 
paper very flexible for a long time, and highly 

Therh is no Object Unworthy of Our No- 
tice. — "While I am reading" says a careful 
student on natural history, " a fly settles on my 
hand; I don't kill it; I watch it, with a glass 
perhaps, and see it clean its wings and its head, 
and make friends with it till I feel I can speak 
to that fly; and so it is with everything living. 
If we will humble ourselves and condescend to 
look at the apparently lowest creatures, we shall 
find instruction in the meanest of them." 

[January 4, 1873. 

Nooksachk Valley. 

This beautiful valley is 17 miles northeast from _ 
Whatcom and now has only about 20 settlers 
It produces -wheat, barley, corn, oats, peas and 
potatoes. A large share of the timber has been 
burned. On the bottom lands are alder, vine- 
maple, some small brush, and a few cotton- 
woods. On tho uplands are some very fine 

The River 
Will be navigable far up the valley when cleared 
of jams. Its banks do not overflow except at 
(he jams. The soil along the river banks is 
sandy but becomes more firm and clayey as you 
go back from the river. In 1871 there was a 
light frost on May 6th, and another on Sep. 8th. 
Ice froze during the winter to a thickness of G 
inches. There are peat beds and wild cranberry 
marshes along the river. 

Farms Open to Settlement 
Are 25 to 30 miles from tide-water. Those 
nearer the mouth of the river have all been 

The Skagit River Valley 
Contains 200,000 acres of agricultural and graz- 
ing lands. Its settlement has hitherto been 
prevented by a jam located about ten and one- 
half miles from tide-water. As soon as an ap- 
propriation can be received to clear away the 
jam the timber will become available and the 
land valuable. Then the river can be navigated 
for sixty milts from the mouth and many of its 
tributaries will become navigable. 

The Annual Overflows 
Take place in January and June. Even the 
June freshets do no injury to growing crops. 
The timber on the bottom lands is very simi- 
lar to that of the Nooksachk Valley and indeed 
to that of the river bottomsof AVest Washington 
generally. Vine-maple, alder, cottonwood, crab- 
apple and occasionally a cedar occupy the low- 
lands while the hills are covered with fir, spruce, 
cedar, etc. Salmonberries, nettles, gooseber- 
ries and grasses are everywhere. In some 
places the heavy timber reaches to the river- 
banks. The valley is 20 miles wide above the 
jam and some of the claims first located upon 
the bottom lands have been vacated because the 
freshets interfered with buildings. 

The Nucachamas 
Is a tributary of the Skagit that empties into it 
about twenty miles from tide-water. There is 
a tract of good timber on this river a mile long 
and extending half a mile back from the river. 

Skookum Charley 
Is the chief of a petty tribe of Indians there. 
They have 200 acres of land cleared and are 
anxious to have white settlers come in, from 
whom they can get employment. Above the 
forks is a wide valley of good laud surrounded 
by snow-capped mountains. 

The Mines 
Hive yielded gold and silver and it is rumored 
that valuable coal mines have been found; but 
the region has never been well prospected. The 
party who visited this valley reached it in one 
day from Seattle with a small boat. They think 
if a small steamer was put on this river above 
the jam that trade and settlement would follow 
so as to make it a paying business almost from 
the very first. 

From the Nooksachk River to the British Boun- 
The valley is about 10 miles wide at the upper 
settlement, and 17 miles wide at the mouth of 
the river. There are many small creeks of 
pure water running through these bottoms and 
many prairies of 40 to 100 acres ench covered 
with a wild grass known as blue-joints. There 
are good claims here for- 2,000 or 3,000 settlers 
within a day's ride of the bay. 

The assessed value of property in Whitcom 
county is $500,000, and the population has in- 
creased from 200 to 500 votes within the past 
two years. 

The Bellingham Bay Coal Co. 
Is taking out 70 tons of coal per day, is worked 
with good machinery and islikely soon to prove 

Semiahmoo Bay is four hours ride by 
steamer from Whatcom. This is a small but 
very lovely sheet of water perfectly land locked 
and safe for any vessel at any time. There are 
about a hundred settlers here. 

The Stock Growers' Association of Yreka 
Was organized to prevent the sale of animals 
with bogus pedigrees and to encourage the 
breeding of blooded stock. All pedigrees 
should be entered in the Society's Book and 
any one buying stock from Yreka should be 
careful to see that the pedigree is accompanied 
by thecertificate of the Secretary, James Quinn, 
and the seal of the society. Mr. Wm. McCon- 
nel, the efficient President, is thoroughly iden- 
tified with the success of tho society. 

Mr. Quinn's herd of Ayrshires was selected 
from the herd of F. D. Curtis, and Wm. 
Crozier. They are as follows: 

Bettt 6th, red and white — calved Nov. 
10th 1870. From Betty 4th by Heather Jack 
from Heather Jack 1st. 

Her pedigree is No. 20 of Beacom Herd 
Record. She was bred by Wm. Crozier. 

Habbiet Clancy — lied and white; calved 
June 24th, 1870, from Diana 2d. No. 340% 
Ayrshire Herd Book; by Dover 2d No. 152. 
This cow was bred by F. D. Curtis, celebrated 

in the annals of the American Institute Farm- 
ers' Club. 

Rose 4th— Red; calved Nov. 10th, 1870. De- 
scended from Rose 2d. Ayrshire Herd Book, 
page 21, No. 225. By John Rodgers do. do. 
No. 746. 

Col. Lyman — Red and white; calved in Sept. 
1870. Descended from Jenny Dean, Ayrshire 
Herd Book, page 81, No. 476. By Comet 3d, 
Ayrshire Herd Book, Vol. 2, page 15. No. 133. 
Bred by Wm. Crozier. 

Janet4th— Red and white; calved June, 1869, 
No. 19, Beaon Herd Record, descended from 
Janet 3d. Ayrshire Herd Book, page 80, No. 
464. By Black Douglass, Ayrshire Herd Book 
page 80, No. 99. 

These five animals are the nucleus for a line 
herd of Ayrshires which it is to be hoped will 
prove a source of great profit to Mr. Quinn 
some day. Bnt the chief profit derived from 
these will be distributed among those who avail 
themselves of the opportunity to grade up 
their dairies to first-class milking stock. — Olym- 
pic, Transcript, July 13. 

Rabbit Fur. 

Editors Rural — In a late issue of 
the Press, I noticed an article headed, "Woven 
Fabrics from Rabbits' Fur," which reminded 
me of my own experience in that line. 

During the late war, I was iu the southern 
portion of Alabama. On account of the block- 
ado, we were deprived of Northern goods, and 
as there were no factories in the South, we 
were obliged to manufacture our own cloth. In 
every house was a loom and spinning wheel, 
and we were proud of our home-spun 

Alexander kids were not at all fashionabje, 
(N. B. — Because we could not get them,) so we 
knit or crocheted our gloves of wool or cotton. 
It occurred to me, that rabbit fur would make 
prettier ones than either of those materials, so 
I prucurred half a dozen of skins, and pulled 
out the long outside hair, and then the soft fur, 
underneath. This I mixed with about one- 
third cotton, carded it into rolls, and then 

The yarn was very strong and silky, and be- 
tween a dove and fawn color. The gloves I 
knit of it were very pretty, were as soft as silk, 
and never wore out. E. g. w. 

White River Valley, Nevada^, Dec. 20th, 1872. 








26 n 

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13 II 

20 21 

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1 3 

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111 IT 

5 -'i 
30 31 

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20 21 

27 2> 

4 .lULT. 


13 14 
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27 28 

6 7 
13 14 

.'II 21 
27 2.- 

3 4 

17 18 
I 23 

s Sept. 


i Oct. 


3 4 
17 18 
21 25 






21 22 

17 l k 


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ii ii 

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9 4 
Ii II 
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21 iu 

Wheat Review for December. 

The old year passes away and the new one 
opens with bright prospects for our farmers — 
brighter than ever before. During the month 
prices have leaped from $1.70 to $2.05, and 
freights have fallen from £5 2d. 6s. or $24.91 
per ton to the nominal rate of £3 or $14.58 
per ton. This is equivalent to 72c per cental. 

Receipts during the month have amounted 
to 937,668 centals from bay and coast ports, 
and 246,600 centals delivered at Oakland wharf, 
being a total of 1,184,208 centals for San 
Francisco and Oakland. 

Exports for the same period have amounted 
to 940,439 centals, worth $1,759,391, of which 
511,119 centals, worth *995,130, have been 
sent to Liverpool; 122,971 centals, worth $172,- 
211 have been sent to Cork; 284,971 centals, 
worth $552,940 to Queenstown, and the balance 
to various other ports. This has been carried 
in 47 vessels. We append a synopsis: 
To Liverpool. To Cork. 


St. Joseph.. 
Montrose. . . 
BwonMab. . 


Lrpwlng . . 
Dumloiiald . 
Hugo A Otio 
Root L.Lane 


I.ll/.i ii-liinit 

Amnita. ... j 


Ganymede. . 


St. Niohnlas 
Iron Duke.. 



37 .5 HI 

40 8S0 
28 787 

Total 511,119 

$ 07.855 

111 iMI 








122 024 

Fire ou.en.. 


$20 IKK) 

* 172.211 

To Queenstown. 

< A K< K > 






Sarah Bell.. 






Duke Argyle 

3li, !21 


Britornart . . 



» it v "I Am.,y 





Monte Kosa 

411. IH3 








284.97 1 


To Other Ports. 


D. C. Murray 


Gra\ hound. . 
Columbus . . . 






i*iii." IU CSNTAL8. 


t 200 

38. «0U 


Total Exports. 

















Other Ports 




Sales quoted during the month have aggre- 
gated 340,000 centals, bringing $620,000, being 
an average of $1.82 per cental. We quote tho 

Diagram of S. F. Wheat Rate for past Month: 





1.88 J? 


1 95 








1 95 






1.97 s 






1 95 
1 95 





2 00 
1 97 '1. 















27 'a 



it receded to twenty-five and one-fourth cents, 
standing at an average price of $1.93 3 <i cents 
per cental, and now it has advanced again 
to the figures of the 12th instant. Ship- 
ping and milling wheat advanced thirty cents 
per cental and on the 27th receded to twenty-five 
and twenty-seven and a half cents respectively 
higher than they were at the beginning of the 
month, remaining at an averago of $1 90 and 
$1.97% per cental, but now they are $1.95 
and $2.00 respectively. 

The Highest Prices Paid 
Were for coast wheat, $1.85 on the 9th inst. 
and $1.90 on the 18th; for shipping wheat 
$1.72% on the 3d, $1.75 ontheSth, $1.85 on the 
5th, $1.90 on the 9th, and $2.00 the 12th; and 
for milling $1.75 on the 3d, $1.77% on the 5th, 
$1.89 on the 6th, $1.90 on the 9th, $2.00 
on the 12th and $2.02% on the 31st. 

The Price in Liverpool 
As telegraphed, h»s receded from what it was at 
the beginning of the month. On the 2d inst. 
Californian average was quoted at 12s 3d to 
12s 6d and club at 13s to 13s 3d, or from 
$2.97 to $3.00 and $3.16 to $3.28 on the 3d inst. 
it fell to 12s to 12s 6d for average and 13s 8d 
to 13s for club, or $2.91, $3.00 and $3.07 to 
$3.15, a fall of C cents on average and 9 to 13 
cents on club; on the 9th inst. it fell to 12s to 
12s Id for average and 12s 6d to 13s for club, 
from $2.91 to $2.99 and $3.00 to $3.15, and on 
the 20th inst. it rose to 12s 2d to 12s 5d for 
average and 12s 9d to 13s for club or $2.95 to 
$3.01 and $3.03 to $3.15. This shows a decline 
during the month of 2 cents on average and 13 
cents on club. 

A Scientist Honobeb. — A medal, which 
bears on the obverse the portraits of Dr. Janssen 
and Mr. Lockyer, and on the reverse the chariot 
of the Sun and Plnvbus indicating the prom- 
inences of an uneclipsed Sun, has been for- 
warded to the latter gentleman by the French 
Government, in commemoration of his discov- 
ery of the method of observing the sun's 
chromosphere without an eclipse. 

It is said that Merino wool constitutes the 
greatest portion of the cloths of the world, 
and that it is the wool of which there is the 
highest necessity. 

These Prices 
Represented average quotations only. From 
these it will be seen that the rise which began 
in November advanced with unprecedented 
rapidity in December. We give the mean 
prices of coast and interior, shipping and 
milling. Of these interior includes shipping and 
milling; coast, shipping and distilling wheat. 
Coast wheat starting from $1.50 on the 3d inst. 
rose fifteen cents next day, and on the 10th inst. 
farther rose 10 cents, the 12th witnessing a still 
further rise of five cents. Thus on the 4th inst. 
the rise was fifteen cents over the price prevail- 
ing at the beginning of the month; on the 10th 
inst. twenty five-cents above the same price; 
while on the 12th inst. it was thirty cents high- 
er than the price at the beginning of the month. 
Similarly interior wheat advanced four and 
three-fourth cents on the 3d, on the 5th it was 
six and three-fourth cents higher than at the be- 
ginning of the month; on the 6th inst. eighteen 
and one-fourth cents higher ; on the 9th, 
twenty and one-fourth cents higher, and on the 
12th, twenty seven and a half cents higher, at 
which rate it remained till the twenty-seventh 
inst; when the market growing weak from rains 


Farming, Horticultural and 
Industrial Club. 

At the regular meeting, Friday evening, 
December 27th, the report of the committee on 
trees for street planting (published last week) 
was adopted. A motion was adopted that the 
annual election of officers take place at the 
at the next regular meeting, and that the present 
officers hand in their reports. 

Mr. John I. Fay brought the attention of 
the Club to the fact that the further pickling of 
grapes in the State might be of advantage. 
They make an excellent and cheap sweet 
pickle, and can be preserved in vinegar made 
from their own juice. They are cheaper than 
potatoes in many places. An export trade in 
pickled grapes once started might result in 
much importance to our State, as no other 
section in the Union is so favorable to their 
growth of fine quality. 

Dr. Carr said Mr. flathaway, at San Leandro, 
had informed him that some years ago he had 
covered some old worn out land with leached 
ashes and had got a good crop of clover as a 
result, without sowing any seed. 

Mr. J. P. Moore was unanimously elected a 
member of the Club. Mr. Montandon present- 
ed a copy of ^'Hooker's Flora Britanica " to 
the Club library — its first gift. 

On motion of Mrs. Carr, the Club adjourn- 
ed to Friday evening, January 10th. — Oakland 

Rain Fall. 

As an evidence of the difference in respect to 
the moisture of the earth this year from what 
it was last, we have a striking illustration in 
the reservoir of the Contra Costa Water Com- 
pany. Last year it required a fall of twelve 
inches of rain to fill the reservoir. This year, 
with an additional hight of fifteen feet, the res- 
ervoir was filled by a raiD fall of only six inches. 
We judge by this that six inches of rain the 
present year is eqnal to twelve last. That is, 
the earth had become so thoroughly dried by 
the three years drought, that it requiredarain 
fall of six inches to put the earth in the same 
condition, in respect to moisture, that it was 
the present year before any rain fell. The earth 
in this State is like a sponge, retaining the 
moisture as a reserve power to meet the exi- 
gencies of dry seasons. The hot sun and dry 
atmosphere acts as a powerful attraction, forc- 
ing the moisture from the lowest depths to the 
surface. The three dry seasons had about 
"wrung the sponge dry," and the reason of th« 
great amount of water which the earth absorbed 
last year, and the heavy fall of rain necessary 
to make any perceptible rise iu the streams and 
fountains. There is a scientific principle con- 
nected with this incident which we turn over 
to the University professors and students for 
further elaboration. — Oakland Transcript. 

Asa measure of precaution against the spread 
of cattle plague, the Danish government has 
prohibited the importation of cattle, sheep, 
hides, leather, and even of hay and straw, 
from Great Britain. 

Cohn-cobs are an article of merchandise iu 
request at Paris, and several New England 
firms gather them for shipment. After satur- 
ation with tar and resin they are used for 

January 4, 1873.] 



Our Farming Lands. 

The Morning Call has an excellent article on 
this subject by Thos. Magee, which will interest 
our readers in other States than California : 

In treating of the subject of farming lands 
and their prices, in California, the writer de- 
sires to waylay and secure public attention by 
making several solemn promises. He will not 
even once allude directly to our glorious cli- 
mate, desirable and novel as allusion to it would 
be; he will not once assert that California is 
the garden of the world, that it is the poor 
man's paradise, and that our resources will 
eventually make this the empire State of the 
Union. He is well aware that these expres- 
sions, which might be hyperbolical if used in 
describing other countries, would not be above 
the zero level of frozen fact if used in describ- 
ing this State. He knows, too, that none of 
these expressions have ever been used by any 
other writer, and, consequently, that they would 
have all the novelty of newness, in addition to 
the merit of truth; nevertheless, he will eschew 
all such statements, and deal siihply with a few 
prosaic, but he hopes desirable, points of infor- 
mation relative to the price of farming lands in 
various portions of California, that those who 
contemplate a removal to this State may here 
find answers to questions they would like to 

The nearest rich and large body of farming 
land lies in the 

Santa Clara Va ley, 
Directly south of San Francisco. Bottom lands 
in thit valley are worth $75 to $150 per acre; 
$200 is frequently paid. Such high priced land 
is used for fruit and vegetable raising, and has 
improvements attached which cost $10 to $25 
per acre. The Santa Clara Valley is about forty 
miles long and fifteen to twenty miles wide; no 
large permanent river runs through it; it is 
watered by an extensive system of artesian 
wells. It contains nearly as many towns, first- 
class farm-houses, schools, colleges and 
churches as any of the richest and most thickly 
settled valleys of Pennsylvania or Ohio. A rail- 
road runs through its whole length, and the 
southern end of San Francisco Bay is nearly on 
a line with its northern end. The Santa Clara 
Valley labors under the drawback of having 
been tilled for fifteen or twenty years continu- 
ously in wheat, oats or barley. It has, there- 
fore, lost its virgin freshness, and in some 
places is showing decided signs of exhaustion. 
It suffers in dry years almost as much as re- 
gions much further south and east. 

There are many small valleys hidden in the 
Coast Range, west and south of the Santa Clara 
Valley, which, from their contiguity to the 
ocean and its moisture-laden fogs, can always 
be relied upon to produce large crops, particu- 
larly of potatoes and oats. One of the largest 
and finest coast valleys in the State — indeed, 
probably the very richest — is 

The Pajaro Valley, 
Distant about sixty miles southwesterly from 
San Francisco. It has been cultivated quite as 
long as the Santa Clara Valley, but its soil, as 
a whole, is much deeper and richer, and the 
continuance of its fertility is greatly assisted by 
the moisture named. It does not contain so 
many fine houses as the Santa Clara Valley, 
nor is it subject to such great heat. A railroad 
runs through a portion of it. In addition to 
rail facilities for transportation, the Pajaro Val- 
ley enjoys ocean coast transportation by means 
of schooners and freight steamers. Few por- 
tions of the State produce finer or larger crops 
than the Pajaro Valley. Land there is worth 
an average of at least $100 per acre; $200 is 
frequently asked, bu^, not often paid, unless the 
improvements are unusually good. There are 
many choice spots in it whioh, with the improve- 
ments, are really worth that price, and pay a 
fair income on it. 

The finest and largest valleys north of, and 
contiguous to, San Francisco, are the 

Napa, Sonoma and Russian River Valleys. 

They open about thirty miles from the city. 
A railroad runs through each of them, and 
small steamers and schooners make their way 
partly up two of them, through sloughs and 
rivers. Napa Valley is the most beautiful of 
the three, but Sonoma and Russian River Val- 
leys would challenge admiration in any coun- 
try. Each is walled in by elevations that can, 
in most places, hardly be dignified by the name 
of mountains; and yet to which it would almost 
be an insult to apply the reduced name of hills. 
Land in the very choicest portions of these 
magnificent valleys can be bought for an aver- 
age of $100 per acre, while much that begins in 
the valleys and ends in the embraced of the hills 
can be bought for $40 to $60 per acre. The 
grape and peach are the favorite fruits produced 
in Napa and Sonoma Valleys, as strawberries, 
raspberries, blackberries and peaches are the 
favorite fruit crops in the Santa Clara Valley. 

The average wheat crop raised in Napa, Rus- 
sian River and Sonoma Valleys is at least 25 
bushels to the acre, while 40 bushels is not an 
uncommon crop. Grape-growing is now the fa- 
vorite agricultural pursuit in Sonoma Valley, 
and is very largely practised in the two others 
likewise. Bearing vineyard land is worth about 
$300 per acre; 5 to 7 tons is a fair yield. The 
grapes generally sell for 1 to lJi cents per 

pound at the vineyard or near to it. Even in 
the dryest years, Sonoma, Russian River and 
Napa Valleys produce good crops. The cele- 
brated valley of Wyoming, in Pennsylvania, or 
that of the Mohawk, in New York, do not in 
any respect surpass, and in many points do 
not equal, Napa Valley in the charm of rural 
beauty, varied verdure and interlarded pictur- 
esqueness of valley, oak -clothed rolling hills, 
and mountain scenery. 

Oilier Northern Valleys. 

There are a number of other rich and small 
valleys in the upper portions of Napa and So- 
noma counties, and in the vicinity of Lakeport 
in the adjoining county of Lake; the land in 
these valleys is good, but the transportation 
facilities are not so cheap or rapid, and the 
country is not so far advanced. Land in these 
valleys is worth an average of $50 per acre. 
The Sacramento Valley. 

The very richest land in the greatest valley 
of the State — that of Sacramento — between 
Marysville and Red Bluff, a distance of 83 miles 
by rail, is worth $30 to $50 per acre. Wheat 
and barley are the favorite crops, and the aver- 
age yield of each is large. Few cases of fail- 
ure of crops have ever occurred in any portion 
of that region, while in ninny portions of it 
such a thing as failure from drouth is unknown. 

The Sacramento Valley is not so verdant or 
attractive in its general features as the other 
valleys named; neither are the improvements 
to be found in it so good; but, as a whole, its 
soil is not surpassed for fertility or variety. A 
great trunk railroad — the California and Oregon 
branch of the Central Pacific line — runs through 
the Sacramento Valley from Junction Station 
to its head, at Redding, 152 miles north of Sac- 
ramento. There are towns along the line of 
this road at intervals of about eight miles. The 
soil of much of the land in the other great val- 
ley of California, that of 

The San Joaquin, 
Is thin and sandy, but with the aid of a liberal 
rainfall, it produces crops of the largest and 
plumpest wheat. With irrigation, that valley 
— much of which in dry seasons seems a hope- 
less desert — will become the very garden of Cal- 
ifornia, for the production of wheat, barley, 
corn and cotton. Irrigation will insure two 
crops yearly — wheat or barley first and corn 
next — and that without deterioration of the life- 
giving qualities of the soil. The surplus waters 
of the rivers which flow down the western flanks 
of the Sierra Nevada and through the San Joa- 
quin Valley seaward, can be stored in natural de- 
pressions and by enlarging the area of existing 
lakes, in a convenient and easy manner. The 
work will not be expensive, considering the vast 
transformation it will effect in the products and 
reliability of the land. When these irrigation pro- 
jects — -the necessity and value of which have 
been but lately perceived — have been completed, 
the farmers of this valley will be in a position 
to draw upon an exhaustless fertilizer at a 
much smaller annual expenditure than the 
New England farmer now has to make for 
such fertilizers as manure, phosphate, gypsum, 
guano, etc. Water is life to land anywhere, 
but it is so to an exceptional and remarkable 
degree in California. The Mohave Desert, on 
the southeastern borders of the State, nearly 
equals the worst portions of Sahara in sandy 
sterility; yet even there water is the only ele- 
ment of fruitfulness wanting. This fact was 
plainly demonstrated last year. A sheep-raiser 
discovered water near the surface of the ground, 
in the desert named, and now he has one of 
the finest bodies of sheep-raising land in the 
State. Land on the bottoms of the rivers of the 
San Joaquin Valley is worth $20 to $40 per 
acre. Good crops can be raised in such loca 
tions, even in years of drought. Such seasons 
are experienced every six or seven years in Cal 

The Valley of Kern River 

Is situated in and near the southern head of the 
great San Joaquin Valley. It lies on bottoms 
formed by deposits of the river from which the 
valley derives its name. There are yet large 
bodies of the very richest bottom lands, owned 
by the Government, and open to preemption 
and settlement, in Kern River Valley. No 
larger ayerage crops of wheat, barley, corn, cot- 
ton or alfalfa clover have ever been grown in 
California than have been produced in that re 
gion. Cattle raisers had possession of it, and 
kept settlers away until about two years 
ago; but the cattle are being crowded out, 
and settlements and farm-houses are in- 
creasing fast. There is still at least fifty 
thousand acres of land of the richest quality 
open to preemption in Kern River Valley, while 
there are yet fully two million acres of public 
land in Kern, Tulare and San Joaquin Valleys. 
Probably not more than one-third of this land 
can be relied upon for the production of crops 
in more than three years out of six; but even 
after this admission is made, it will be seen that 
there is still an immense quantity that is as re- 
liable in respect to crops as the Santa Clara 
Valley, which is by no means classed as one of 
the most drouthy sections of our valley lands. 
Farming in the great valleys of California, too, 
let it be remembered, is not the closely-follow- 
ed and costly science it is in the Eastern-At- 
lantic States. The lands receive a scratching, 
only, with gangploughs, and the crops are cut, 
threshed and harvested with rushing, labor-sav- 
ing machinery. These are generally owned by 
parties who move from farm to farm in the sea- 
son of crop-gathering. The seed is the chief 
expense; for, though the existence of an outra- 
geous fence law leaves the crops open to trespass 
on the part of predatory cattle, much of the 
land is unfefceed. One good crop, in seasons 

when wheat will bring from 1% tol% 
cents a pound near the ground where it is 
raised, will pay for the cost of the land, at 
eight dollars an acre, in addition to defraying 
the cost of ploughing, seed and harvesting. 

The main Southern Pacific Railroad, and the 
San Joaquin Valley branch of the Pacific Rail- 
rord now run through and afford rail connec- 
tion to the whole San Joaquin Valley. Land 
is worth an average of about $10 per acre. 
Much of the bottom land — notably that on Bear 
Creek, near Merced — is worth $50 to $60 per 
acre, and pays a handsome percentage on those 

The Great Stearns, Grant, 

Or rancho, twenty miles from Los Angeles, con- 
tains many thousand of acres of the very rich- 
est land in California. The grape, orange, 
lemon, citron, walnut, almond, and other semi- 
tropical fruits, attain their greatest perfection 
in that portion of the State. The most bounti- 
ful crops of the cereals and esculents of the 
temperate zone are also gathered there; 40 to 
140 bushels of corn, barley, oats and rye per 
acre, and 100 to 500 bushels of potatoes, are 
raised in that region. The climate is balmy 
and delightful. Artesian wells have recently 
been bored in that locality. Water is obtained 
at depths of 40 to 100 feet. 

Land on the Santa Ana River is worth $15 to 
$50 per acre. Much of the land in Los An- 
geles and adjoining southern counties is depen- 
dent on irrigation for certainty of crops, the 
rainfall being insufficient in about three years 
out of seven or eight; but, on the river named, 
a farmer named Sears raised 140 bushels of corn 
to the acre, without irrigation, in 1871. 


The writer does not pretend that the fore- 
going facts contain a full epitome of the loca- 
tion and prices of desirable land in all portions 
of California. There are many other localities 
equally deserving of mention, which are omit- 
ted only because he has not visited them, and 
has no facts in his possession relative to their 
lands. Nearly all of the most prominent val- 
leys, north and south, have been referred to, 
however, and outlines of information as to the 
products and prices of land in them given. 
This, under any circumstances, is all that could 
reasonably be expected in the limited space of 
a daily paper, 

It has frequently been claimed that land is 
too high in California. Had there never been 
such a thing as the curse of Mexican grants and 
the monopoly to which they gave rise, undoubt- 
edly land would now be cheaper and good Gov- 
ernment land more plenty in the State; but, 
even after this admission has been made, it can 
still be claimed that land is really not dearer 
in this State than in the Western-Atlantic 
States, when the greater fertility of our soil, 
mildness of our climate, and advantages accru- 
ing therefrom are taken into account. Some 
of the States referred to have the advantage of 
California in the possession of more Govern- 
ment land; but a comparison of this State with 
Illinois, Iowa, Minnesota or Indiana will, we 
think, show conclusively that the prices asked 
here are not nearly as high, relatively, as they 
are there, particularly after allowance is made 
for the advantages of climate and produc- 
tiveness alluded to. The valleys of this 
State are much nearer to tide water 
than the surplus grain raised in the States re- 
ferred to. No farmer in this State has ever 
yet found it more profitable to use his grain as 
fuel than to sell it at the current rates; while in 
many of the extreme Westein States, prices — 
even in this year of extreme rates — are so low 
that corn has been quite generally used for 
fuel. We make loud complaints here of rail- 
road charges, and they are still worse off in this 
respect in the Western-Atlantic States, as the 
following brief quotation from a recent issue of 
the Chicago Tribune will show; 

"The present freight charges to New York are 
nearly double the average of last year, and 
the advance in freights is of necesssity taken 
from the price of grain in the hands of the pro- 
ducers. The rise in domestic freights is in sym- 
pathy with the advance in ocean freights, but 
the oppression upon the products is none 
the less severe. It consumes thtir product. It 
is no longer the case of sending one bushel to 
pay the freight of another; that operation no 
longer pays. The producer, if freights go any 
higher or the price of grain should fall in Liv- 
erpool, will have to send some money along, in 
addition to the corn, to pay the freight on the 

Upon the whole, therefore, it may be claim- 
ed that the farmer's advantages in California 
very greatly outweigh his drawbacks. Those 
who contemplate immigration to this State will 
certainly lose money every year they delay in 
coming. The State is growing; unpopulated 
districts are being settled, and railroads are 
being very rapidly extended. These and other 
marks of progress all tend to increase the price 
of farming lands. 

The Brightening Prospects of the American 
Isthmian Canal. — The latest advices represent 
the prospects of the long-proposed Isthmian 
Canal as bright and brightening. The timely 
surveys ordered three years ago by the Presi- 
dent — who takes a lively interest in the enter- 
prise — while not exhausted for engineering 
purposes, are now sufficiently matured to jus- 
tify several undeniable deductions. 

Twenty-five miles an hour is shown by sig- 
nal service observations to be the average ve- 
locity, of a storm; when it is twice that velo- 
city, it becoms a tornado< 

Value of Agricultural Experiments. 

The State has gained many millions of dol- 
lars prospectively by virtue of a number of suc- 
cessful experiments which have been made in 
agriculture during the last ten years. There is 
the plan of dry sowing of wheat land, which, 
while there is nothing involving scientific re- 
search, and the usage does not always involve 
very thorough farming, yet taken in connection 
with summer fallowing has really augmented 
very largely the agricultural resources of the 
State. A way has been found to produce a good 
crop of wheat with the smallest possible quan- 
tity of moisture from rain fall. The minimum 
quantity would vary somewhat by proximity to, 
or remoteness from, the sea coast. In some of 
the interior valleys land thus treated would 
produce a fair crop with from twelve to fourteen 
inches well distributed through the season . In 
the coast counties, say from Monterey Bay to 
Humboldt Bay, a fair crop of wheat might be 
expected from summer fallowed land with dry 
sowing, with the help of eight inches of rain. 
These are the approximate facts which have re- 
sulted from a great number of experiments 
made during the last ten years. 

During the same period, also, nearly all the 
experiments in reclaiming swamp land in this 
State have been made. Many of them were 
very costly and at best only prepared the way 
for better methods. The reclamation of swamp 
land is no longer an experiment — that is, one 
may now go about this business with the cer- 
tainity of favorable results, and with a very 
accurate knowledge in advance of what the re- 
clamation will cost per acre. A vast body of 
lands, producing nothing, will be raised from a 
condition of comparative worthlessness to that 
of the very best lands in the State. 

Then we were poorly off for grasses. The 
wild oats once so abundant were disappearing 
from the hill-sides. Overstocked grazing lands 
were producing less than formerly. A search 
was made in all quarters for some kind of grass 
which would survive the long droughts of the 
summer season. Except in a few natural mea- 
dows, hay crops were made from annual sowing 
of tame oats, barley or wheat. When the crop 
was taken off there was nothing but dry stub- 
ble left. Out of nearly a hundred experiments 
in propagating new grasses one has been suc- 
cessful. But that one has already compensated 
for all the other failures. Alfalfa is the one 
perennial grass which is perpetuated by the 
roots, and which, when once well set, is proof 
against the dryest seasons. The demand for 
alfalfa seed has been so great of late that the 
price has gone up from 16 cents a pound to 
about 30 cents, as we learn, with the tendency 
still upward. Farmers may yet have to devise 
measures to import the seed for themselves, in 
order to get it at any moderate price. Probab- 
ly only the best land will be sown with alfalfa. 
But when an acre which would hardly sustain 
a sheep will carry fifteen, or five head of cattle, 
the productiveness has been raised to a point 
which not only surpasses the most sanguine 
predictions, but will finally add millions to the 
real wealth of the State. We have found out 
how, without irrigation we can keep-the mea- 
dows clothed in perpetual verdure. 

Passing over the cotton and ramie experi- 
ments, the former of which has been advanced 
nearly or quite to a successful branch of agri- 
culture, and the latter is by no means given 
over as a failure, we have some most import- 
ant results from the various trials which have 
been made in tobacco growing and in curing the 
leaf. Incidently we may note the fact that the 
bnsiness of manufacturing cigars in this city 
has quite outgrown mere local limits. A large 
number of men are constantly employed in mak- 
ing cigars for the Eastern market. But until 
recently nearly all the tobacco was imported. 
But now it is claimed that there is no tobacco 
produced in the United States equal to some 
which was grown and cured in California du- 
ring the past year. These results are the fruit. 
it is said, of about fifteen years of experiments. 
We hear of an association which will plant 500 
acres in tobacco the coming season. The result 
of one experiment last year was the production 
of 1,500 pounds of tobacco per acre at a cost 
not above four cents a pound, which was worth 
in the market at no time less than fifty cents a 

These are only some of the most important 
results which have been obtained chiefly 
within the last ten years. It is doubtful if all 
the mineral discoveries on this coast, during 
the same period, have been of so much real 
importance to California as the successful agri- 
cultural experiments which we have noted. — 

Cattle Trade. — Kansas City has become the 
depot of the cattle trade by rail from the re- 
gions beyond. This season 100,000 head of 
cattle have reached there by the Kansas Pacific 
railroad; 13,000 by the Missouri River, Fort 
Scott and Gulf Railroad; 18,000 by the Leaven- 
worth Railroad, and by the Atchison, Topeka 
and Santa Fe Railroad 21,000 — making a total 
of 152,000 head, with 50,000 head yet to come 
in. As a oonsequence of this concentration, 
Kansas City has become an important point for 
the slaughtering and packing of cattle. 

The receipts for New York city for nine 
months of 1869 averaged 1,000 barrels of eggs 
per day. A barrel contains some 80 dozen, 
or 960 eggs; the aggregate, therefore, was itt 
one day nearly 1,000,000. One thousand bar- 
rels of eggs, at an average price of 30 cents per 
dozen, amounts to $24,000 per day, or $8,70P,-« 
000 per annum 

3PJL03!«IPj(IQ 3R* ujER, A..E* «PjR,3s3o* 

[January 4, 1873. 

!-|0f4E ^jiD p^Rp. 

Hill vs. Level Culture. 

A correspondent of Mmm's Rural furnishes 
the following experiments on raising potatoes, 
■which will, no doubt, interest many California 
growers of that universal esculent: 

On the first day of June I planted a piece of 
land containing one-eighth of an acre, with 
Peerless potatoes; soil a light sandy loam. It 
was manured with a small shovelful of yard 
manure in the hill. One-half of the piece in 
alternate rows was hilled; the other half kept 
as near level as possible. The part hilled pro- 
duced six bushels of large, marketable potatoes 
and three bushels of small potatoes. The part 
not hilled produced six bushels and fifty-five 
pounds of large and two bushels and two 
pounds of small potatoes— a difference of fifty- 
five pounds of large in favor of the part not 
hilled, and a difference of fifty pounds of small 
in favor of the part hilled. The potatoes on 
the part not hilled were much larger and better 
than those in the part hilled. The season here 
has been a very wet one; therefore, I think 
more favorable for potatoes hilled than a dry 
one would have been. I believe a great deal of 
worse than useless labor is expended in hilling 
potatoes, as well as corn and other crops. 

Applying Superphosphate to Potatoes. 

I also planted one-fourth of an acre with 
Peerless, with just one bushel cut to single 
eyes, two pieces in each hill; soil, light sandy 
loam, manured with ashovelfulof yard manure 
to four hills. On half of the piece in alternate 
rows, a small tablespoonful of superphosphate 
was put in each hill. Before the last hoeing a 
handful of unbleached wood ashes was put on 
the hills of the whole piece. The half on 
which phosphate was put produced seventeen 
bushels and ten pounds of large, and five bush- 
els and fifty pounds of small potatees. The 
part where no phosphate was put produced 
thirteen bushels and thirty-five pounds of large, 
and Beven bushels and fifty-five pounds of 
small potatoes— a gain of three bushels and 
and thirty-five pounds of large potatoes in favor 
of the phosphate, and a gain of two bushels 
and five pounds of small potatoes in favor of 
no phosphate. The value of the phosphate ap- 
plied to one-eighth of an acre was fifty cents. 

I have cultivated some twenty-five varieties 
of potatoes, and think the Peerless is the best 
of them all in quality, productiveness and free- 
dom from disease. Several varieties planted 
close to the Peerless this year rotted badly, 
while scarcely a tuber of the Peerless was af- 

Suit on a Wool Contract. 

Kneeland & Hoglen are engaged in the busi- 
ness of wool growing at Larabee Creek, Hum- 
boldt county. On the 26th of March last they 
made a written agreement to sell their spring 
clip of wool to T. R. Hutchinson, at the price 
of forty cents per pound in gold coin, deliverei 
at Hydesville. It was estimated the clip would 
amount to about two thousand fleeces. The 
contract stipulated that the wool should be free 
of burrs or any foreign matter. 

Hutchinson filed a complaint in the Nine- 
teenth District Court, this morning, againi-t 
Kneeland & Hoglen, to recover damages for 
breach of contract. Hutchinson alleges that 
the meaning of the agreement was, that the 
wool named shonld be the wool of old sheep; 
that it is the custom of wool growers in Cali- 
fornia to pack their wool in large closed bales 
or bags and that purchasers have no opportu- 
nity of examining the same. The wool amount- 
ing to 8,430 pounds was received by him in 
September last, and the sum of $3,881.04 was 
paid therefor. 

The wool was then sent to a wool exchange 
to be assorted and graded, when it was discov- 
ered that excepting about 500 pounds, it was 
lambs' wool, and dishonestly packed. Seeds, 
burrs and foreign matter were found in large 
quantities. Whereupon plaintiff offered to re- 
turn the wool to defendants and demanded that 
his money be repaid, which tender defendants 
refuse. Hutchinson asks damages in the sum 
of $3,921.94, with interest and costs. 

Scientific Exactness in Curing Meat. 

The recent improvements in the processes 
for preserving meat are excellent exemplifica- 
tions of the tendency to bring careless and hap- 
hazard operations under the control of exact 
method. Nothing can be simpler than the 
theory of salting meat, and nothing more irreg- 
ular and uncertain in its results. The outer 
portion of the meat is generally over-hardened 
by the salt, while the interior is withdrawn 
from the antiseptic action. The smoking, 
where that is practiced, is liable to equal irreg- 

Mr. Martin de Lignac brings the whole 
thing under strict rules of quantity, and with 
certain and uniform results. By his process 
the pieces of meat are first weighed, and it is 
determined beforehand just how much salt each 
piece must have. Each ham is laid on a scale, 
while in the other pan is placed a weight equal 
to the him, and the brine which it is to receive. 
A flexible india-rubber tube terminates in a 
narrow pipe, which is made to penetrate to the 
interior of the ham. A tap is then turned, and 
the saline mixtnreforced Into the cellular tissues 
of the meat under a pressure equal to a column 
of water sixteen feet high. The mass of the 
ham swells, the weight increases, and at the 
precise moment when it has received the 
proper amount of brine, as indicated by the 
balance, the workman closes the tap. 

The interior being thus duly salted, the ex- 
terior parts are made to receive their share by 
steeping in a tab of 'brine for a suitable time 
afterward. They are then carried to the smok- 
ing chamber, which is kept at a steady temper- 
ature, and a given amount of smoke is iutro- 
doced by the uniform combustion of a weighed 
quantity of oak wood in a fire-room below. 
The pyrol igneous action is therefore constant 
and equal, and nothing being left to chance, 
the result is always successful. 

I. L. D. — Under the above peculiar heading 
the Carson Appeal, gives the following item: We 
were allowed by Mr. Whitehill, State Mineral- 
ogist, at our earnest solicitation, to publish the 
following item of his travejs through Southern 
Nevada on his exploring tour in the Summer of 
last year. Near the summit of the Clarke 
mountains, in the Kingston range, on its east- 
ern slope, there is a limestome cliff with smooth 
surface, almost perpendicular, and 250 feet in 
bight. About 100 feet from the base of the cliff, 
on its front, are engraved the above characters 
of immense size, 60 feet high and 2% deep 
which may be seen at a great distance. There is 
no tradition respecting these characters. The 
cros< and the Roman letters seem, however, 
to argue the workmanship of Jesuit missiona- 
ries. A mission was established at the mouth 
of the Gila river in 1633, and also at various 
points in New Mexico, by Eusebius Kino. 
There is also an old map extant representing 
forty towns and villages in Arizona. Probably 
the letters were made by the followers of the 
good priests while making some settlements in 
the vicinity, in their endeavors to Christianize 
the Indians; or while passsingby on a tour to 
California, where permanent missions had been 

Oyster Shells and How to Burn Them. — In 
reply to "A Subscriber," Perryville, Penn.: 
Oyster shells, when burned, produce a lime ex- 
actly similar to that from a majority of the pure 
limestones. Any animal matter they may con- 
tain, of course, is destroyed by the heat, and 
the simple caustic lime, with a very small pro- 
portion of phosphate of lime, remains. They 
may be burned by putting them in conical 
heaps, with coal or wood for fuel, spreading 
over the heaps damp leaves, straw, or soda, and 
covering closely with a few inches of earth. 
The heap should be fired and burned slowly, 
air being given as needed by means of vent- 
holes at the bottom to sustain slow combustion. 
If the heap falls in at any place, as it burns 
down, more shells should be added until the 
hole is filled up, damp leaves thrown on, and 
covered again with earth. Three days are suffi- 
cient to burn a heap of 500 to 1,000 bushels. 
When they are burned, the lime should be 
spread immediately, or while in a caustic state, 
on plowed ground, and harrowed in, or on grass 
land, and a harrow drawn over it to insure an 
even distribution. 

Another "Ancient City." 

Col. W. T. Roberts, -who recently went 
down to Arizona, hunting for diamonds, 
etc., reports the discovery of the ruins of 
an ancient city, which covers an aroa of 
about three square miles. It was enclosed 
by a wall of sandstone neatly quarried and 
dressed, ten or twelve feet thick, and 
which, judging by the debris, was fifteen 
or twenty feet high before its fall. In 
most places it had crumbled away and 
fallen, and was covered with sand, but in 
many places it was still standing six or 
eight feet above the sand-banks which had 
drifted around it. The entire area inside 
of this had at one time been covered with 
houses, built of solid sandstone, which 
showed excellent masonry in their con- 
struction. This ancient city is situated in 
Arizona, about ninety miles from the 
boundary line between Utah and Arizona, 
and the same distance from the western 
Colorado line. It has the appearance of 
being an old Aztec city that has been 
deserted for hundreds of years and fallen 
to ruins. It is entirely of stone, and not 
a stick of worked timber is to be found 
among the ruins. Nothing but the walls 
are standing, and none of them now are 
left more than eight or ten feet above the 
sand, which is eight or ten feet deep. The 
walls still bear the traces of many hiero- 
glyphics, cut deep into them, showing 
various Indian customs and superstitions. 
There are also the ruins of stately monu- 
ments, built of square block sandstone, 
well quarried and showing good masonry, 
which are worked with notches and crosses 
cut into them at regular intervals. 

The city is covered with sand, which it 
is thought has blown there from the desert. 
The sand has become solid and packed by 
the rains. Under the sand is a layer of 
blue clay, six or eight feet deep. No 
bones, implements or relics of any kind 
were found, with the exception of some 
pieces of pottery of dark color. These 
were embellished with paintings of 
flowers and ornamental figures in blue 
colors. The coloring matter is of a blue 
mineral substance of some kind. It is 
perfectly indelible, and piecesl of pottery 
which have been exposed to storms, which 
have worn away the solid masonry of the 
walls of the city, show their colors as 
fresh and bright to all appearances as 
when new. The pottery itself has been 
found to be perfectly fire-proof upon trial 
in crucibles and furnaces. 

Value of Apple Pomace. — Apple pomace, at 
the cider mills, is generally thrown away as 
worthless. It may be used with benefit as a 
mulch for apple trees and currant bushes. It 
kills the weeds and grass about them and en- 
riches the soil. I have applied it behind the 
cattle in the barn as an absorbent, and made a 
compost heap of it by mixing a cask of lime to 
half a cord of pomaoe. Cattle eat it if given to 
them before it heats and sours, and I coincide 
with the opinion of an old farmer, who .emark, 
ed, that the best way to compost any vegetable 
matter was to pass it through the stomachs of 
the cattle, if they would eat it. Most cattle 
eat it if not fed to them in too large quantities 
at one time. The pomace of apples contains 
about ten per cent, of starch, gelatine and fibre 
and is fully equal as good food for stock as 
turnips of the same weight" — Maine Farmer. 

The above may be suggestive of economizing 
the grape pomace, of which large quantities are 
now accumulating, in various parts of the State. 

Delays of Law— Courts of Conciliation. 

No one has satisfactorily answered the ques- 
tion, why is the business of our Courts always 
behind hand ? This subject occupied the at- 
tention of the French Government, years ago, 
and a remedy was devised, which has worked 
admirably in all lawsuits that occur in the or- 
dinary dealings of industry and commerce. 

Courts of conciliation were appointed for 
every district of town and county. The Judges 
are selected from retired men of business gen- 
erally, who know the ns lal disputes between 
neighbors, and who have an instinct that 
quickly discerns which is the crooked stick. 
We have by invitation, attended the hearing 
and deciding, in a case in Paris. The written 
agreement, as is usual, had been drawn by the 
magistrate two months before. In a moment 
he perceived who was wrong, and in ten min- 
utes the case was settled. He invited the 
plaintiff to retire, and then addresssed the de- 
fendant: "My friend, vou have got the wron» 
impression, will you take my advice? " "Yes" 
sir." "Then let me settle the matter for you " 
The defendant retired and plaintiff re-entered. 
"It was a Madame. Madame," said the Judge, 
"you are both good people— too good and too 
wise to affect yourselves, and break friendship 
over such a matter. I am sure you would will- 
ingly yield a little on both sides rather than 
nurse ill-feeling." "Oh, yes, Monsieur, if he 
would also be reasonable. I leave it all to you, 
Monsieur." In a moment they shook hands; 
apologised for words said in anger; all was set- 
tled and two adversaries were made friends. 
Moreover they entered into an extended con- 
tract, in proof of reconciliation. No lawyer 
appears, no costs are paid, and not one case in 
fifty is ever appealed. And of such appeals, 
not one case in a hundred is ever reversed. 
Surely the system is eminently practical for 
California. Let benevolent minds be interested 
in advocating this most desirable reform. 

There are just such men in California, who 
are competent in capacity and inclination 
for judges of courtsof conciliation, and to whom 
such daily occupation from two to three o'clock 
would be a merciful dispensation, to say noth- 
ing of tbs alluring title it would confer. They 
must have no politics. How much ill-feeling, 
how much permanent malice now engendered 
would be averted, if all mechanics and trades- 
men would make bargains before such a judge 
and mutually agree to be bound by his final 

This is worthy of the notice of all associa- 
tions. It ought to be the leading object of 
every united confraternity to confer upon its 
members and their families, the unquestioned 
benefits of this system, as well for its economy 
as for its moralitv. — Alia. 

Encouragement to Farmers. — An agricultu- 
ral writer furnishes the following conundrums 
for farmers to consider: "Farms and farm 
hands, with the current prices, are poor prop- 
erty and return a small interest, but remember- 
ing Portland, Chicago, and Boston, and re- 
membering there is not a town of 16,000 in- 
habitants that may not be swept out of exist- 
ence in a night, and remembering there is no 
absolute and ever-lasting investment bat in the 
soil, is not 3 per cent, in perpetuity better than 
6 or even 10 per cent, in the unstable commod- 
ities of brick and mortar, bonds and mortgages, 
insurance policies, and warrantee deeds which 
warrant nothing at all ?" 

Burning Lime with Corn. — The Waterloo, 
Iowa, Courier, in commenting on the burning 
of corn for fuel, says: 

"While at Iowa Falls, recently, the writer ob- 
served that Mr. Wells, was burningcorn as fuel 
in his patent lime kiln. Mr. W. assures us that 
with wood and corn in. about equal parts, the 
fire was better, and scarcely more expensive, 
and that the lime was somehow vastly better. 
Really it looked like the 'long ago,' to seethe 
hjndreds of bushels, of bright corn thus con- 

What is Slate, and How was it Formed? 

That slate may have been once mud is made 
probable by the simple fact that it can be turn- 
ed into mud again. If you grind up slate, and 
then analyze it, you will find its mineral con- 
stituents to be exactly those of a very fine, rich, 
and tenacious clay. Wherever the top of the 
slate beds and the soil npon it is laid bare, the 
black layers of slate may be seen gradually 
melting, if I may use the word (says the Rev. 
Charles Kingsley in "Town Geology"), under 
the influence of rain and frost, into a rich te- 
nacious clay, which is now not black like its 
parent slate, but red, from the oxidation of the 
iron which it contains. But, granting this, 
how did the first change take place ? It must 
be allowed at starting that time enough has 
elapsed, and events have happened, Bince our 
supposed mud began first to become slate, to 
allow of many and strange transformations. 
For these slates are found in the oldest beds of 
rocks, save one series, in the known world; 
and it is notorious that the older and lower the 
the beds in which the slates are found, the bet- 
ter — that is, the more perfectly elaborate — is 
the slate. The best slates of Snowdon (I must 
confine myself to the districts which I know 
personally) are found in the so-called "Cambri- 
an" beds. Below these beds but one series of 
beds is as yet known in the world, called the 
"Laurentian." They occur to a thickness of 
some 80,000 feet, in Labrador, Canada, and the 
Adirondack mountains of New York; but their 
representatives in Europe are, as far as known, 
only to be found in the northwest highlands of 
Scotland and in the island of Lewis, which con- 
sists entirely of them. And it is to be remem- 
bered, as a proof of their inconceivable antiqui- 
ty, that they may have been upheaved and 
shifted long before the Cambrian rocks were 
laid down "unconformably" on their worn and 
broken edges. 

Street Car Tracks. — Much complaint is 
made of the obstructions to ordinary travel pre- 
sented by the street car tracks of this and oth- 
er cities in the United States. The most or all 
this objecticn could be avoided by the adoption 
of the English form of streetcar tracks. The car 
tracks in Loudon consist of a flat strip of iron, 
witha groove for the flange of the wheel to run in. 
The rail is not sunk, but laid exactly level with 
the surface of the pavement, thus presenting no 
obstacles to ordinary vehicles. The cars are 
constructed with outside seats as well as .in- 
side. If the plan of track described works well in 
London, why will it not also answer for San 
Francisco ? 

Shell Mounds on the California Coast 

San Pablo is about fifteen miles from Oak- 
land, and lies almost dne north, and the road 
follows the beach. When within three miles of 
the town we came to a shell mound, says a cor- 
respondent of the St. Louis Globe, rising up 
from the plain to almost the dignity of a hill, 
and which is now covered with a growth of 
shrubbery. There is no telling when or by 
whom that mound was raised, but it is almost a 
mile long and half a mile wide. 

Fragments of pottery made of red earth, not 
to be obtained anywhere in this State, are 
found on the surface and near the top; and 
about two years ago Mr. McHenry, the owner 
of the land, dug a trench, and at a depth of 
twenty feet, sixty feet in from the west, near 
the base, found numerous skeletons of Indians 
of all sizes, and some bones of dogs and birds, 
and many implements of stone. One baby hail 
been rolled in a monstrously long piece of red 
silk, like the mummies, and had been covered 
with a coating of a sort of asphaltum. Mr. 
McHenry also found in other parts of the hill 
evidences enough to show that this mound was 
a burying place for some extinct tribe of In- 
dians, as the skulls are different from all others 
known in some particulars. 

Where the red silk came from would puzzle 
any one to know, as this must have been a 
primitive race, judging by the rude implements 
and utensils. All the skeletons were in a sit- 
ting posture, with their faces turned northward. 
Tha shells that form this mound are oyster, 
clam and mussel shells, all having been exposed 
to the action of fire, and nearly all broken fine. 
Very rarely are entire shells found. The samo 
kind of mounds, though not so large, are found 
near San Mateo, on the San Francisco side. 
They are all near the shores of the bay, and 
have been made of shells of the oysters and 
mussels that the Indians used as food, and 
which they evidently roasted to open. 

The Reported Chicago Grain Frauds. — 
Some of the Chicago papers are demanding 
that the grain stored in that city be weighed so 
as to ascertain the exect amount, as it is be- 
lieved by many that the quantity stated as 
Btored does not exist, except on paper. It is 
stated, that one railroad has reported 100,000 
bushels received, while the Inspector claims 
that not one-tenth the amount actually came 
into that city over that road. Also, that the 
weekly statement shows an increase, while ac- 
tual additions of receipts and exports show a 

The Leavenworth, Lawrence &, Galveston, 
and Kansas City and Santa Fe Railroad Com- 
panies are building large machine shops at Ot- 
tawa, Kansas, at a cost of $400,000. 

January 4, 1873.] 

UsEfllL ffJfOR^JION. 

How to Varnish. 

Varnishing should always be done in a warm 
atmosphere 72 deg., or as warm as you can com- 
fortably work in. In a reduced atmosphere wa- 
ter is always present, an invisible dew, and will 
giveto varnish a milky and clouded appearance, 
even on a fine summer day this may happen, 
and the only way to obviate the difficulty is to 
heat to 72 degs., sufficient to keep the moisture 
suspended in the air until the solvent has en- 
tirely evaporated leaving the gums in a thin 
glossy coat; the brilliancy and defensive value 
of the varnish will depend upon this. 

To produce a brilliant surface have your work 
in the varnish room a few hours before varn- 
ishing that it may acquire the same tempera- 
ture as the atmosphere. Smooth the surface, 
wash off and wipe dry with a chamois skin or 
piece of old silk, removing all traces of dust, 
moisture or grease — no oil or grease should be 
allowed or used — have your brush as large as 
the nature of the work will admit — soft, clean 
and free from loose hair. Lift the varnish light- 
ly with the brush, charging moderately, and ap- 
ply a thin coat. Begin at a little distance from 
the edge or at the inside of the panel, highest 
point first, and work to the outside edge in di- 
rect, long, rapid, and steady strokes with a 
moderate pressure, sparingly upon the edges 
and angles, working alternatelytowardtheends; 
spread evenly and quickly the thickness of pa- 
per and draw lightly for finish, in this great 
care and watchfulness are required. 

After varnishing expose your work to the heat 
of the sun or keep in heat free from dust and 
draught. Cold air and draught passing over 
varnish will dull the surface wherever they ex- 
tend. If the varnish should so become chilled, 
the brilliancy and clearness may be restored by 
giving the surface another thin coat, and imme- 
diately hold near the fire to dissolve the chilled 
coat but not too near to blister. 

Power of the Eye in Viewing Minute Ob- 
jects. — The smallest particle of a white sub- 
stance distinguishable by the naked eye upon a 
black ground, or of a black substance upon a 
white ground, is about the l-400th of an inch 
square. It is possible, by the closest attention, 
and by the most favorable direction of light, to 
recognize particles that are only l-540th of an 
inch square; but without sharpness or cer- 
tainty. But particles which strongly reflect 
light may be distinctly seen, when not half the 
size of the least of the foregoing; thus, gold 
dust of the fineness of l-1125th of an inch may 
be discerned with the naked eye in common 
daylight. When particles that cannot be dis- 
tinguished by themselves with the naked eye, 
are placed in a row, they become visible; and 
hence the delicacy of vision is greater for lines 
than for single particles. Thus, opaque threads 
of no more than l-4900th of an inch across, or 
about half the diameter of the silkworm's fibre, 
may be discerned with the naked eye when 
they are held towards the light. — Carpenter's 
Animal Physiology. 

Q©©D He^LT^. 

The Water Telescope. — For seeing under 
water, consists of a tube to enable a person 
looking over the gunwale of a boat to rest the 
head on ons end, while the other is below the 
surface of the water; the upper end being so 
formed that the head may rest on it, both eyes 
seeing freely into the tube. Into the lower end 
is fixed (water-tight) a plate of glass, which, 
when used, is to be kept under the surface of 
the water; so that the spectator, looking down 
the tube, sees all objects at the bottom whose 
reflective powers are able to send off rays of 
sufficient intensity to be impressed on the re- 
tina, after suffering the loss of light caused by 
the absorbing power of the water. Light in 
passing through pure sea-water, loses half its 
intensity for each 15 feet through which it passes, 
says Sir John Leslie. In clear water the bot- 
tom may thus be seen at the depth of twelve 
fathoms. This contrivance is much used in seal- 
shooting along the northern and western 
islands of Great Britain, where, sometimes in 
the form of an ordinary washing-tub with a 
piece of glass fixed in its bottom, the shot seal 
is looked for, and the grappling-hook let down 
to bring him to the surface. The Norwegian 
fisherman also often use this telescope when 
their anchors get into foul ground, or their 
cables warped on a roadstead. 

Motion of the Eye. — On coming into a room, 
we think we see the whole side of it at once — 
the pictures, the cornice, the chairs — but we 
are deceived; being unconscious of the Motions 
of the Eye, and that each object is rapidly, but 
successively, presented to it. It is easy to show 
that if the eye were steady, vision would be 
quickly lost; that all those objects which are 
distinct and brilliant, are so from the motion 
of the eye; that they would disappear if it were 
otherwise. For example, let us fix the eye on 
one point — a thing difficult to do, owing to the 
very disposition to motion in the eye. When 
we have done so, we shall find that the whole 
scene becomes more and more obscare, and 
finally vanishes. If we then change the direc- 
tion of the eye but ever so little, at ence the 
whole scene will be again perfect before us. 
These phenomena are conseqent upon the re- 
tina being subject to exhaustion, by the lights, 
shades, and colors of objects continuing to 
strike upon the the same relative parts, and 
thus exhausting the nerve; but when the eye 
shifts, there is a new exercise of the nerve. 

Cultivate Habits of Careful Observation. — 
Prof. Buckland in a late address asked his au- 
dience, which he supposed containedyoung mi u 
who one day would be among the rulers and 
chief men of our land — to see for themselves, to 
hear all they could, but not accept as gospel 
what they heard till they had proved it. He 
wished to encourage a habit of examination and 
inquiry among young and old, and gave 
amusing instances of attempts that had been 
made to impose on himself. A "monster," 
said to have been shot in the woods of Japan, 
was brought to him, and a large sum asked for 
it. A hideous wretch it was when produced, 
but he soon discovered that it was made of 
gutta percha, and was ingeniously fitted with 
eyes, teeth, nails etc., from various incongruous 

tJsEffliV Effective. — A citizen of Bedford 
county, ^"has invented a machine to melt the 
snow M*d Von a railroad track as the train 
runs, by mVs f a flame of sufficient intensity 
to produce \ re8U it instantly. The invention 
is just in t*Aif effective 

Bogus Chinese Pearls. — Minute descrip- 
tions have been written of the manner in which 
the Chinese claim that they obtain real pearls 
by placing foreign substances within the shell 
of the fish which produces pearls, when the 
animal, unable to get rid of it, makes a deposit 
of "pearl" matter around it, so that it becomes 
a real pearl. Professor Buckland has recently 
shown that this is possibly a deception which 
has been quite successfully practiced upon the 
"outside barbarians." During a recent lec- 
ture he exhibited a large pearl shell in which 
were seven or eight images of the God Buddha, 
coated with a secretion of mother of pearl. 

The professor said it was claimed by the 
person who presented the shell that the oyster 
deposits this secretion itself, when Master 
John Chinaman inserts these images. Mr. 
Buckland was sceptical, but said nothing till 
he had proved that the secretion was as much 
artificial as the little images themselves. It 
was a solution of the real mother of pearl, arti- 
ficially applied and painted over the images. 

How the Diamond Cuts Glass. — Dr. Wallas- 
ton ascertained that the parts of the glass to 
which the diamond is applied are forced 
asunder, as by a wedge, to a most minute dis- 
tance, without being removed; so that a super- 
ficial continuous crack is made from one end 
of the intended cut to the other. After this, 
any small force applied to one extremity is 
sufficient to extend this crack through all the 
whole substance and across the glass; for since 
the strain at each instant in the progress of the 
crack is confined nearly to a mathematical 
point at the bottom of the fissure, the effort 
necessary for carrying it through is proportion- 
ally small. Dr. Wollaston found by trial that 
the cut caused by the mere passage of the dia- 
mond need not penetrate so much as the two- 
hundreth part of an inch. He found also that 
other mineral bodies, recently ground into the 
same form, are capable of cutting glass; but 
they cannot long retain that power, from want 
of the requisite hardness. 

Force of Lightning. — In August, 184G, St. 
George's church, at Leicester, England, was 
entirely destroyed by the effects of a thunder- 
storm! The steeple was burst asunder, and 
parts of it were blown thirty feet; while the 
vane-rod and top part of the spire fell perpeu 
dicularly down, carrying with it every floor in 
the tower. Mr. Highton, in comparing the 
power of this discharge of lightning with some 
known mechanical force, states, that one hun- 
dred tons of stone were blown a distance of 
thirty feet in three seconds; consequently a 
12,220 horse-power engine would have been 
required to resist the effects of this single 

The Blood. 

Blood, in its ordinary condition, is always 
fluid; withdrawn from the vessels of tha living 
animal and left for a time to itself, it separates 
into two portions, a semi-solid mass, and a liq- 
uid portion, in which the mass floats; the solid 
part is called the clot. This phenomenon (the 
formation of the clot) is due to the presence of 
fibrine in the blood; it is held in solution in 
the serum during life; but when this loses its 
influence ovi-r it, it solidifies, enclosing with it 
the globules; and thus forming the red gelatin- 
ous mass called the clot. 

Blood is the special agent of nutrition, and is 
the general restorer of what is lost. But in ad- 
dition it is proved, by simple experiments in 
blood-letting, and of transfusion, to form an es- 
sential stimulus for the perform\ance of the 
functions of life. By severe loss of blood we 
become enfeebled and seemingly dead; but if, 
before this happens, the blood of another ani- 
mal be transfused into the veins of the suffer- 
ing individual, the vitality is restored. 

The importance of the globules is also proved 
by the same experiment; for if simple serum be 
so transfused, death takes place. The fibrine 
of the blood also plays an important part; for 
when the blood is deprived of its fibrine and 
injected into the veins of a dog, the animal 
dies with symptoms resembling those of putrid 
liver. The influence of the blood over nutri- 
tion may also be readily demonstrated. With- 
draw the blood more or less from an organ, and 
it gradually wastes away in proportion to the 
quantity withdrawn, while, on the contrary, 
the greater size of the muscles in those who 
employ them actively, and hence draw to them 
a larger amount of blood. To the important 
functions and uses of the blood, some physi- 
ologists go so far as to assert that "the life is 
blood," in that the entire principle of life ex- 
ists in the blood. 

A morbid condition of the blood is the fruit- 
ful source of many diseases.- Cleanse the viti- 
ated blood whenever you find its impurities 
bursting through the skin in pimples, eruptions 
or sores; cleanse it when you find it is ob- 
structed and sluggish in your veius; cleanse it 
whenever it is foul. Keep the blood healthy 
and all is well; but with this vital fluid diseased, 
there can be no lasting health. 

Substances that Most Resist the Action of 
Cold. — Pure alcohol, ether, bisulphide of car- 
bon, and glycerine do not freeze at any tempera- 
ture to which they have ever yet been subjected. 
Ammonia freezes at about 45" below Fah. zero, 
and pure nitric acid at about the same point. 
Mercury freezes at — 39° Fah., sulphuric acid 
and some other substances require also a tem- 
perature far below the zero of Fahrenheit scale 
to produce solidification. The union of any 
liquid, which by itself remains fluid at a very 
low temperature, with water, will raise its freez- 
ing point. 

The Pilot Fish. — That little fellow, crossed 
with blue stripes, that is said to pilot the shark 
to its prey is really no pilot at all. The idea is 
a delusion. He is no more a pilot to a shark 
than the starling is to the sheep. Do we 
think the starling is in love with the sheep 
that it settles on its back? No; it is then 
busily ridding the sheep of its natural torment- 
ors — its Norfolk Howards. Such an office does 
the so-called pilot fish fill in regard to the 

Utilizing Cotton Waste. — The experiment 
at Westville, Conn., of a factory for the extract- 
ing of oil from cotton waste has proved a decid- 
ed success. By this process old grimy, greasy 
rags and waste cotton are rendered perfectly 
pure, odorless and merchantable. The waste 
of the Connecticut and Massachusetts cotton 
mills will more than supply the Westville Oil 
Extracting Works with materials. 

Poisonous Confectionery. -If a report just pre- 
sented to the Newcastle (England) town council 
had been available at the time Christiana Ed- 
munds was on her trial, it might have been 
found useful in support of the theory of her lu- 
nacy. No one but a lunitie, it might have been 
nrged, would take the trouble to poison confec- 
tionery and thereby incur suspicion, where 
there are, ready-made to hand and openly sold 
in shops, sweetmeats artistically coated with 
deadly poison. That such is the case in New- 
castle-upon-Tyne, is shown by a report of Mr. 
Pattinson, analytical chemist, upon which the 
local corporation have decided to take immedi- 
ate action. Mr. Pattinson says he has examined 
various samples of sugar confectionery sold in 
Newcastle, and finds that nearly the whole of 
the articles colored yellow and orange are so 
colored by chromate of lead. Out of thirty- 
five different kinds of sweetmeats examined, 
obtained from twenty different dealers, twenty- 
eight were colored by this poison. Some of the 
articles contained upwards of a tenth of a grain 
of metallic lead, the engaging substance being 
supplied to manufacturers under the names of 
"lemon chrome" and "orange chrome." Mr. 
Pattinson adds that "Some of the confectionery 
contained plaster of Paris to the extent of 1% 
per cent., besides a good deal of wheaten flour." 
If parents were allowed their choice, they 
would doubtless prefer this last named adulter- 
ation to the lead salt mentioned above. 

Nourishment in Food. 

The wholesome or unwholesome charactti 
any aliment depends, in a great measure, on 
the state of the digestive organs, in any given 
case. Sometimes, a particular kind of food is 
called wholesome because it produced a bene- 
ficial effect of a particular character on the 
system of an individual. In this case, however, 
it is to be considered as a medicine, and can be 
called wholesome only for those whose systems 
are in the same condition. Very often a sim- 
ple aliment is made indigestible by artificial 
cookery. Aliments abounding in fat are un- 
wholesome, because fat resists the operation of 
the gastric juice. The addition of too much 
spice makes many an innocent aliment 
injurious, because spices resist the action of 
the digestive organs, and produce an irritation 
of particular parts of the system. 

In any given case, the digestive power of the 
individual is to be considered, in order to de- 
termine whether a particular aliment is whole- 
some or not. In general, we can only say, 
that aliment is healthy which is easily soluble, 
and is suited to the power of digestion of the 
individual; and, in order to render the aliment 
perfect, the nutritious parts must be mixed up 
with a certain quantity of innocent substance 
affording no nourishment, to fill the stomach; 
because there is no doubt that many persons 
injure their health by taking too much nutri- 
tious food. In this case, the nutritious parts, 
which cannot be dissolved, act precisely like 
food which is, in itself, indigestible. 

It is a very mistaken idea that the nourish- 
ment in food is according to the quantity; a 
person may eat a great deal of some articles, 
and receive very little nourishment from them. 
The quantity of nourishment depends greatly 
on the aromatic flavor contained in food; and 
whatever is insipid to the taste is of little ser- 
vice to the stomach. Now, the difference be- 
tween good cookery aud bad cookery lies prin- 
cipally in the development of the flavor of our 
food; articles properly cooked yield the whole 
of it; by good cookery we make the most of 
every thing — by bad cookery, the least. 

Power of Man to Endure Cold. — One who 
took part in a telegraphic expedition in Siberia 
writes as follows: — "I didn't believe that it 
would be possible for me to lie out in the snow, 
without shelter, in a temperature of even 20 
deg. below zero, but I have done it once in 50 
deg. below, and repeatedly in 45 deg. One of 
Bush's parties, in February of last year, passed 
the night on an open, barren steppe, with their 
spirit thermometer standing 78 deg. below zero, 
or 100 below the freezing point. Quicksilver 
they molded into solid bullets with four min- 
utes' exposure to the air. It is true they did 
not dsre to go to sleep that night, but I believe 
that, had they been properly fitted out with 
heavy furs and wolf-skin sleeping bags to tie 
over the head, they might have done it with 
perfect safety. 

"I'm afraid you would thiuk that I was avail- 
ing myself of a traveler's privilege, and relating 
a very large 'yarn,' if I told you how comforta- 
bly I have slept on the snow in a temperature 
of 30 deg., 40 deg. aud 45 deg. below. We are 
obliged to sleep in fur bags, of course, with our 
faces entirely covered, to take the utmost care 
to have our fur stockings perfectly dry; but I 
have slept in that way through the long Arctic 
nights as comfortably as ever I did in bed at 

New Use for Mica. A new use has been 
found for mica. It is now attracting public at- 
tention as a material for roofing buildings, for 
which purpose it has been found to be peculiar- 
ly adapted. 

Mechanism of the Bones. — In the human 
skeleton there are commonly enumerated 2fi0 
bones, which present every variety of size 
and figure. But all these varieties may be 
reduced to three classes : the long and round, 
as the bones of the upper extremities; the broad 
and flat, as the bones of the skull; or the 
short and square, as the separate bones that 
compose the vertebral column. The long bones 
are adapted for motion, the flat for protection, 
and the square for motion combined with 
strength. Accordingly, the long bones are 
moulded into lengthened cylinders, and form so 
many levers, exquisitely constructed and com- 
bined. In the employment of the flat bones 
for the covering of some of the more tender 
and delicate organs, as the brain and spinal 
cord, the form of these bones adds to their 
strength, as in the vaulted roof of the skull; 
while in the construction of the vertebral col- 
umn, composed of the short and square bones, 
which are so adjusted, as to afford a limited 
range of motion with a great degree of strength, 
so many and such opposite purposes are effect- 
ed by means so simple yet so efficient, that no 
fabric constructed by human ingenuity ap- 
proaches the perfection of this admirable piece 
of mechanism. 

An Intelligent Druggist.- — It is said a Syra- 
cuse druggist recently received the following 
prescription, with a request to put it up: — Fix 
kramps — Tinct kamfire, won ounce; tinct lode- 
num, a little tinct hot drops, a few drops; tinct 
kyan pepar, five cents worth; klonform a little, 
but not much, as it is dangerous medicine. 
Dose, half-teaspunefnl when the kramps come 

The Art of Walking. — In a graceful human 
step, the heel is always raised before the foot 
is lifted from the ground, as if the foot were 
part of a wheel rolling forward; and the weight 
of the body supported by the muscles of the 
calf of the leg, rests for the time on the fore 
part of the foot and toes. There is then a 
bending of the foot in a certain degree. But 
where strong wooden shoes are used, or any 
shoe so stiff that it will not yield and allow this 
bending of the foot, the heel is not raised at all 
until the whole foot rises with it; so that the 
muscles of the calf are scarcely used, and, in 
consequence soon dwindle in size, and almost 
disappear. For the same reason in Paris whore 
the streets have (few or) no side-pavements, 
and the ladies have to walk almost constantly 
on tiptoe, the great action of the muscles of 
the calf has given a conformation of the leg and 
foot, to match which the Parisian belles proud- 
ly challenge all the world — not aware, probably, 
that it is a defect in their city to which the pe- 
culiarity of their form is in part owing. 

Bisulphide of Carbon on the System. — This 
substance is a deadly poison. Its vapor when 
inhaled converts the iron of the blood into sul- 
phide of iron, causing death. It is a very vol- 
atile liquid; and its manufacture is quite dan- 
gerous from the above mentioned reasons. A 
vessel of it placed in a close room would cause 
death about as rapidly as carbonic acid or char- 
coal fumes. A cup full of the bisulphide 
placed in a tight apartment filled with grain 
will in a few hours kill not only every weevil 
but also its larva; and eggs. It is a very useful 
substance, but at the same time, under certain 
conditions, an extremely dangerous one. 

A correspondent of the /Scientific American 
calls attention to the danger to be apprehended 
from the efforts now being made to free it from 
its very disagreeable smell, and says: — "Why 
on earth people want to smell bisulphide of car- 
bon for, I cannot understand. The more disa- 
greeably it smells the better, for thereby some 
warning is given of its presence, 

«iL v^I3& Jj \jj 

[January 4, 1873 


DEWEY <3t CO- 


Pkinoipal Editob W. B. FAVER, A.M. 


Office, No. :«S Montgomery street, 8. E. corner of 
California street, where friends and patrons are invited 
to our Scientific Pbess, Patent Agency, Egraving and 
Printing establishment. 


Subscriptions payable in advance — For one year $4; 
six months, $2.60; three months, $1.25. Clubs of ten 
names or more $3 each per annum. $5, in advance, will 
pay for 1 S year. Remittances by registered letters oi 
P. O. orders at our ri6k 
Advertising Rates. — 1 week. 1 month. 3 months. 1 year. 

Pur line 25 .80 $2.00 $5.00 

One-half inch $1.00 $3.00 7.50 20.0) 

One inch 2.00 5.00 14.00 88.01 

Large advertisements at favorable rates. Special oi 
reading notices, legal advertisements, notices appearing 
In extraordinary type or in particular parts of the paper, 
inserted at special rates. 


Saturday, Jan. 4, 1873. 

Table of Contents. 

Pruning Orchard Trees. 1. A Year of Great Interest 
Tear Culture; We Mean Improvement; Scions foi 
drafting; New Books, 8. ILLUSTRATIONS. - 
Merino PlTH. Young Euicka, 1. Angora Goat, Sultan 
2d, 9. 

CORRESPONDENCE.— Climates; Frost or N< 
Frost; Grapes fur Ktisins a!id Wine; Fruit-tree Borer. 
Farm Life; Moths and Crickets, 2. 

HOME AND FARM.— Hill vs. Level Culture; Suit 
on a Wool Contract; Scientific Exactness in Curing 
Meat; Another •Ancient City; " What is Slate, and How 
Was it Form -.1? Delays of Law— Courts of Concilia- 
tion; Shell Mounds on the Cali ornia Coast, 6. 

The Water Telescope; Motion of the Eye; Cultivat< 
Habits of Careful Observation: Power of the Eye ii. 
Viewing Minute Objects; Bogus Chinese Pearls; How 
the Diamond Cuts Glass; Force of Lightning; Sub 
stances that Most Resist the Action of Cold; The Pi- 
lot Fuh, 7. 

GOOD HEALTH.— The Blood; Poisonous Confec- 
tionery; Mechanism of the Bones; An Intelligent 
Druggist; Nourishment in Food; Power of Man t« 
Endure Cold; The Art of Walking; Bisulphide ol 
Carb u on the Svsteui. 7. 

HOME CIRCLE.— Th- Year That is to Come. 
(Poetry) ; After the Accident— Month of the Shaft. 
(Poetry) ; For the Last Time; Listen; An Awful Lone- 
some Man in California; Folding Lined. 10. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN.- The Rabbit on the 
Wall, (Poetry); •• "l'was My Mother's;" The Ten 
Words: An Item forBoya, 10. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY.— Table Customs; Indian 
Fritters; Apple Tapioca Pudding; Apple Souffle; Car- 
ngau CusUrd, 10. 

POULTRY NoTES.-SquaBh Seed Fatal to Fowls; 
Prolific Hens; Value of Poultry Manure, 15. 

THE APIARY.- Bee Culture; For Beg.nners WitL 
Bees, Prohtable Business for Women, 15. 

MISCELLANEOUS. -Our Harming Lands, 5. 
The Melon Question; The SiUphur Banks of Laki 
County; Copper Faced Type. 9. Cheaper Sewing Ma 
chines; Practical Uses of Geology, 11. Nooksachk 
Valley. 12- Experiments in Nature's Laboratory 
Heating Water Above the Boiling Point in Open 
Vessels; Origin of Storms; •' Gun. in ate of Iron, 15. 

Farmers' Clubs. — We have heard of the or- 
ganization of several new Clubs in different 
parts of the State, and if the Secretaries of the 
same will report to us their proceedings, or we 
can obtain the same from the local papers, we 
shall always find room for them, and thus 
spread abroad the good that may be developed 
by their discussions. If the farmers of the 
State would unite under a grand central, union 
organization, and work together for their own 
interests and the general good, they could be- 
come a power in the land that would be felt. 

Ths Chronicle Press. — We were among the 
invited, to witness the performance of the new, 
Chronicle Press, now in full and complete opera- 
tion in the basement of the building occupied 
by the proprietors of that popular and vigorous 
daily. To say that we were highly pleased, tells 
but half the story of our belief, for we doubt 
if there is a more perfectly working piece of 
machinery in ths form of a printing press on 
the Continent. It wasn't the champagne that 
prompted this. 

Interesting to Wine Growers. — It will be 
seen by reference to our advertising columns 
that the California Vine Growers' and Wine and 
Brandy Mahufacturers' Association are to have 
a meeting at Sacramento, on the 15th of Janu- 
ary next. 

They propose to have our products of the 
grape represented at the International Exhibi- 
tion at Vienna, and to transact other business 
of importance, and a general attendance on the 
part of all interested in this great industry 
should be had. 

Evert fanner ought to plant at once a tract 
of land in forest trees for his own use. 

A Year of Great Interest. 

We expect 1873 to be a year of more than or- 
dinary interest to the agriculturists of Califor- 
nia. During the prosperous year just closed, 
innumerable projects have been conceived, 
that only require another year in which our 
garners shall burst with their fullness, to see 
them all in a condition that will interest not 
only our own people, but the people of the 

The great question of , can we raise cotton? 
seems to have been pretty clearly established 
if not definitely answered in the affirmative. 
But still it wants just one more year with its 
greatly extended acreage of cotton, to satisfac- 
torily establish it as a fixed fact; and now that 
we have a prospect of all the rain necessary 
for that or any other crop, 1873 will be lookod 
to, to settle this important question. 

Ramie, jute, opium and silk are among the 
products that another year will determine as 
to there adaptability to many localities in the 
State, where at present there exists at least a 
doubt. The present winter, should it continue 
wet, with accompanying floods, will almost set- 
tle the question of the stability of the levees 
that have been raised for the reclamation of the 
tule lands of the two great valleys. 

Large districts of country will have been 
brought under cultivation by means of arti- 
ficial irrigation, and the effect of winter, spring 
and summer irrigation, in ditches or spread out 
upon the surface, will, for the first time in the 
State on a large scale, be thoroughly tested, 
and we have no doubt its immense benefits 
clearly demonstrated. Its effect upon an ex- 
tended cotton culture, on lands that without it 
would produce nothing, will be one of unpre- 
cedented interest, as affecting the value of 
large districts of our State. 

In the live stock department, more than the 
tsual interest has been shown in the importa- 
tions of improved breeds of animals, that have 
found purchasers all ovor the State, indeed 
Oregon, Washington and Montana are in no 
respect behind us in their efforts to grow su- 
perior stock, and immense herds of sheep and 
cattle have found their way there to test the 
capability of their climate for the wintering of 
itock upon the natural grasses of the country, 
and great interest is centered in the result. 

There is a fair prospect that both wool and 
nohair will find a market at our doors, at 
goodly rates above the ruling prices of last 
year,. Should this transpire and the coming 
;lip, with what was left over from last year, 
be pretty generally disposed of, and we have 
the anticipated yield of fruits and cereals, a 
greater interest will be felt, as to what Califor- 
nia's future is to be, than has been since the 
golden interest of the early days. 

We Mean Improvement. 

We have now been with our readers for two 
years. We claim to have given a better paper 
during the last twelve months than before, and 
yet there is room for improvement. We shall 
strive to maintain our paper as the best of its 
kind in the world, for the farmers of the Pacific 
Coast. We have year by year an additional ex- 
perience to profit by; we shall embellish our 
journal with finer, and a larger number of en- 
gravings than ever before, and have made the 
arrangements to do it. Our market reports 
will be mado by our own reporter and can be 
relied upon. 

If our friends will remind us of anything we 
omit, or will suggest that which to have notic- 
ed, would interest them, we hold ourselves 
ready to respond to the fullest extent in our 
power. We are satisfied that our readers ap- 
preciate the correspondence that weekly ap- 
pears in our columns; and for this reason we 
hope to see it largely extended and over many 
new signatures. 

To Oua Subscribers and Friends in Mon- 
terey and Santa Clara Counties. — Our Gen- 
eral Agent and Traveling Correspondent, Mr. 
L. P . McCarty, will visit the following places 
during the month of January: — Watsonville, 
Castroville, Salinas City, New Republic, Na- 
tividad, San Juan (.South), Gilroy, San Jose", 
Santa Clara, Saratoga and Mountain View. 
San Joaquin and Alameda Counties will be 
visited by the same Agent during the month of 
February. We commend him to the kind at- 
tention of those on whom he may call, and 
hope he will be able to increase our already 
large lists of subscribers in the places named; 
and we will try and see that the Rural shall 
meet their fullest expectations. 

Pear Culture. 

Experience has demonstrated that the pear 
withstands the vicissitudes of the climatic in- 
fluences of California, even better than the ap- 
ple; and that its culture in all parts of the State 
has met with complete success. It is undoubt- 
edly better fitted to the warm sunshine of onr 
long summers than the apple, though the latter 
may find its genia! position at hights among 
the foothills and mountains where the pear 
would not as well succeed. 

Warm sunny France has ever been the home 
and paradise of the pear, and from there we de- 
rived all of ourbest varieties, until at last a few 
kinds were originated in our own Atlantic 
country worthy of a place in the catalogues of 
good pears. With our climate, so strikingly 
genial for the growth of this excellent fruit, we 
ought to originate at least a few new varieties 
equal to the best, and we hope pomologists 
will turn their attention to this subject. 

The] pear, particularly the autumn and win- 
ter varieties, will bear transportation better 
than the apple, and bring a higher price both 
in the home and Eastern markets. Indeed, it 
has already become an export fruit for the 
European market, and one which will increase 
as the qualities for export shall become more 
fully developed by experiment, and the tastes 
of consumers consulted. 

Of all fruits, perhaps no one is better adapted 
to general use, as an article of food. Its invit- 
ing appearance, sprightly vinous flavor, sugary, 
melting, aromatic taste and nutritious ingre- 
dients, both in its fresh and cooked state, should 
commend this fruit £o an increased and exten- 
sive cultivation. 

Scions for Grafting 

Now is the time to make all needed collec- 
tions of apple and pear grafts for use next 
spring and upon orchard trees, or any time 
upon the roots of trees taken from the ground 
to be cut up into three or four inch pieces, to 
be grafted at leisure and packed away in moist 
earth in cellar or outhouse to await the spring 
setting in the nursery row. 

In the choice of scions never take from the 
water-shoots or suckers that start from the body 
of the tree and push up through the older 
branches; but preference should always be 
given to sound and fully matured wood, at the 
ends of the lower or more nearly horizontal 
limbs. Carefully conducted experiments have 
shown that trees grown from such scions are 
more likely to produce trees of a low, spread- 
ing habit than when taken from the central, top 

Cuttings should, if possible, be cut with half 
an inch of the previous year's wood, tied in 
bundles, made even at the butts, all properly 
marked or labeled so that no mistake can oc- 
cur in regard to kinds. Set them upright in 
in moist earth, pressing each bundle firmly 
down into it, that it may come in contact with 
every scion, and keep them entirely shaded till 
wanted. There is much less mystery in 
the matter of tree grafting than many sup- 
pose, and can be done by the big boy of al- 
most any farmers' family after being once 
shown how. 

Correspondence. — We like to hear from men 
who candidly give us their views on matters 
pertaining to all the diversified interests of the 
farm, the garden and stock-growing. We com- 
mend the plain, practical hints in the letter of 
G. S. B. in the present number. Shall we hear 
from others on the same or similar subjects ? 
The few words from E. G. W., on the availa- 
bility of the Fur of Rabbits, are well spokin, 
and we hope she will divide her leisure mo- 
ments between the knitting-needle and the pen, 
and let the products of the latter find their way 
to the columns of the Rural. And here we 
wish to have it distinctly understood that, when 
we say— Farmers, write for your paper — we mean 
the wives, daughters and sons of farmers as 
well, for we consider them all farmers; as the 
little boy thought the honors belonged equally 
to himself and mother when his father was 
elected fourth corporal. We think he was right, 
about it. Ladies, will you write for us ? 

Farm Life — Is another subject admirably 
treated of in our present number, by Mrs. N. B. 
We would like to receive further notes from 
the same pen. 

One of the most attractive of onr door-yard 
ornaments is pampas grass, and when in full 
plume is exceedingly showy. 

New Books. 

Hobb's Architecture. — There is certainly no 
excuse for ugly features in architecture in this 
country, if the publication of books of designs, 
ground plans, etc., will prevent the erec- 
tion of such unseemly structures. The work 
before us is one of this description, and a really 
valuable one — indeed, it is quite in advance of 
most which have preceded it. It contains 
nearly one hundred ground plans and designs, 
most of which are somewhat costly but many 
of which are well adapted to persons of moder- 
ate means. 

Madame De Stael defines architecture as 
"frozen music;" another writer styles it 
"crystallized sentiment." The outlines of a 
beautiful building are like "a joy forever." 
The individual who has no eye or taste for the 
appreciation of beautiful forms in architecture, 
is incapable of one of the highest types of en- 
joyment to which the human mind can attain. 
Such a person is to be pitied. All have not the 
means to create such sources of enjoyment for 
themselves; but even a peasant may look upon 
a queen. So may the poorest in the commu- 
nity have real joy in admiring the creations of 
those whom fortune has blessed with means 
and the inclination to provide such enjoy- 

The intent of the work before us is to create 
a love for choice architecture, and to assist 
those who may be about to build, and have 
means to indulge more or less in taste, to so 
expend their money that it shall be a perpetual 
joy as well as comfort and necessity. In look- 
ing over its pages the reader can scarcely fail 
to find some plan which will serve to convey an 
idea of what he wants. J. B. Lippincott, Phil- 
adelphia, publisher. For salo by A. Roman <S 
Co., of this city. 

United States Constitution. — We have be- 
fore us "A Concordance of the Constitution of 
the United States of America, with a Compiled 
Index, and Questions for Educational Pur- 
poses, by Chas. W. Stearns. M. D." The 
Constitution of our own country is made quite 
too little a study in schools, and by the masses 
of the people. One of the chief reasons of this 
neglect is perhaps due to the difficulty of find- 
ing this important document printed in con- 
venient form, with proper helps for its study. 
The little book before us seems to be well 
fitted to meet this objection, and it should 
hence meet with a large sale. The "questions" 
are so framed as to make the study both an 
easy and interesting one. 

The Bronze Turkey.— Careful culture has 
produced from the common turkey a breed 
so distinct, and so superior in size and beauty 
of form, as to merit the attention of every ama- 
teur fowl breeder. The benefits to be derived 
from the culture of improved breeds of animals, 
is in nothing more apparent than in the tur- 
key. We refer the reader to the advertisement 
of Geo. B. Bayley in our columns, for the par- 
ticulars in regard to the "Bronze turkey. " 

Another Farmers' Club.— We learn from 
the Secretary of the organization of the Stan- 
islaus Farmers' Club. Head quarters, Branch 
township Post Office, La Grange, Stanislaus 
County. Officers— Robert R. Warden, Presi- 
dent; J. W. Roberts, Vice president; S. M. 
Gallup, Secretary; Jos. Dominici, Weather and 
Crop Reporter. We expect to be furnished by 
the Secretary with reports of proceedings at the 
earliest moment for place in the, Rural. 

Coffee.— Having succeeded in producing the 
growth of nearly all the kingdoms of Europe 
and States of the Union, growing more wheat 
than the Northwest, taller corn than Indiana 
and Illinois, higher trees than Maine, and 
larger onions than Connecticut, rivaling with 
her crude young vineyards the vintages of the 
old Rhine, and the world-famous champage 
districts of France, giving pampered fashion a 
more delicate silk than Italy, the protean and 
fertile Golden State is now embarking in coffee 
culture; and her enterprising and energetic 
sons tell us that in a few years their " cafetals" 
will produce more and better coffee than all the 
old countries of the earth put together. And 
it is more than' likely that the Californians will 
keep their word in the matter, for they have 
never yet broken a promise of this kind, and in 
imagination we may confidently reiara.Cali- 
foruia coffee prized above "Java and " \1'' is 
cha" in the great Continental J-aibition 5 
1876.— Phil. In. Q ot 

The price of wheat still ma iiu ns the Un 
rise, $2 per cwt. The pro-j ct of anoth«>!! 
bountiful harvest has not affe" it. 


January 4, 1873.] 

The Melon Sugar Question. 

An Eastern exchange says: Professor Col- 
ton, of the New York World, and a chemist of 
large experience, puts a quietus on the melon 
sugar question. Thirty years ago when sugar 
was scarce in the West we used to make syrup 
from watermelons, but did not pay even then. 
Mr. Colton says: 

A long experience in practical manufactur- 
ing operations has taught us not to accept any 
theory as a fact, if there is a possibility of 
proving it by actual trial. Hence, having 
known the watermelon in a section where it 
grows in the greatest perfection, we have been 
somewhat chary in accepting the glowing state- 
ments of the amount and quality of sugar to 
be derived from it put forth by one of our co- 
temporaries in the California land of wonders 
and plenty. 

In fact, we went further, and tried the mat- 
ter by practical operations. We went to Wash- 
ington Market and bought some good, sound 
Southern melons, fresh from Norfolk. These 
we treated in accordance with the directions of 
the Pacific Rural Pbess, and we know, in 
addition, probably as much as they do about 
boiling the true sug ir-cane juice. The result 
of our experience was: 110 pounds of water- 
melons yielded fifty-six pounds of pulp; this 
by pressure yielded four gallons and a gill of 
juice, weighing eight pounds nine ounces to 
the gallon. 

In boiling we skimmed off a gill or more of 
refuse. From the process we got one quart of 
very pleasant tasting syrup, but it has not crys- 
tallized yet, and shows no signs of doing so. 
Now for figures. Suppose a man raises 3,000 
melons on an acre of ground; averaging six to 
a hundred pounds there would be 50,000 
pounds, equivalent in the result to 500 quarts 
of syrup, or 125 gallons. If this molasses 
could be sold at wholesale for seventy cents per 
gallon it would yield eighty-seven dollars per 
acre; but as a new product it could not be sold 
for that price. Yet estimate at eighty-seven 
dollars per acre, and from this deduct expenses 
of raising the melons and making the sugar, 
and there might be fifty dollars profit per acre. 

We do not believe that in practical opera- 
tions it would amount to one-half that sum, 
and we confess we do not see in this "melon 
sugar question" the solution of our present 
difficulty of high-priced sugar and continued 
sparse supply. We may be wrong, but we still 
believe that bringing under cultivation the mil- 
lions of acres of good sugar lands in Florida, 
the southern parts of Georgia, Alabama, Mis- 
sissippi, Texas, and we may add California, 
will much more surely produce us large quan- 
tities of good sugar than Utopian experiments 
with melons and beets. 

There is not an acre of those lands which 
cannot be made to produce 2,000 pounds of 
sugar and thirty gallons of syrup, while many 
will yield more. What sort of competition 
would a melon sugar maker have with such a 
product ? These experiments may be well 
enough in Germ ny, where they cannot grow 
sugar-cane, and where labor is cheap, but all 
we need is to improve the great resources with 
which we have been blessed. 

We do not need to try expensive experiments 
with melons as an uncertainty when we have 
an unoccupied area of 25,000,000 acres, which 
will grow true sugar-cane with perfect ease, 
and there is no part of our country in which 
the sorgum or imphee will not grow, and 
from which a better molasses can be made than 
from the melon. 

Another View of It. 

Editobs Rural Press: — With your permis- 
sion I desire to look into this "quietus" of 
Professor Colton of the New York World, that 
"chemist of large experience," and see of what 
it consists. At his own low estimate of $87 
per acre yield, he would deduct $37 as the cost 
of raising the melons and making the syrup, 
leaving $50 profit per acre; when the fact is an 
acre of melons can be cultivated and the prod- 
uct made into sugar for $25. 

The Professor does not believe that "in 
practical operations an acre will yield $50, or 
half that sum." Now practical operations have 
taught us not to accept any man's — "we do not 
believe" as a fact, if there is a possibility of 
proving it by actual trial, and having seen it 
tried, we know the Professor is at fault. We 
know that melons for sugar making, will yield 
a profit of over seventy-five dollars per acre. 
The Professor also waxes eloquent over 
"Utopian experiments with melons and beets," 
when if the quantity of cane sugar produced 
from an acre is but 2,000 pounds, an acre of 
melons or beets will exceed it. 

Lands in California will produce easily 20 
tons of beets to the acre, or 40,000 pounds. 
The beets are now yielding by factory process, 
eight per cent of sugar, or 3,200 Sis. per acre, 
whvj&tt 1^,200 pounds more than the Professor 

proposes^ get from sugar cane, and yet would 

speak of V success in beet sugar making as a 

«<tJtopia n beriment. " 

But tak%he professor's low estimate of 
profit as a ^s, viz„ fifty dollars per acre, we 

would like to have him point to an acre of 
wheat or corn in the Atlantic States that has 
paid a larger profit than fifty dollars . 

The Professor obtained one quart of "very 
pleasant tasting syrup," and yet says sorghum 
or imphee will make a better molasses than mel- 
ons. We cannot accept his theory, on this point 
when experiments prove to the contrary. His 
quart of syrup would not crystallize; and he 
claims to know as much about boiling the true 
sugar-cane juice as we do. Doubtless he does, 
and yet knows little or nothin gabout boiling 
melon juice, as his failure to make a syrup 
that would crystallize would certainly indicate. 

The Professor may yet live to see beet and 
melon sugar manufacture made a profitable 
branch of American agriculture, as it has long 
been in European countries. w. w. 

The Angora Goat. 

The fleece of the Angora goat is the mohair 
of commerce, and is rapidly becoming one of 
the staple products of California. We see no 
reason to change our opinion on the subject of 
its intrinsic value, or the adaptability of our 
climate to the successful growing of the animal, 
from what we said in our October 5th number 
and previously, that California will be the bast 
mohair producing country outside of Asia. 

We have given this Subject more than a mere 
passing notice, and from the weight and quality 
of fleece produced here from pure bred animals, 
we are convinced that the climate of California, 
and the whole vast breadth between the Coast 
and the Rocky Mountains is even better adapted 
and will grow a finer and larger goat than the 
country of which it is a native. 

It is therefore one of those interests that 
should be fostered and encouraged, and we 
take a pleasure in starting our first number of 
the fifth volume of the Rural with notices of 
the Merino sheep and the Angora goat, - with il- 
lustrations of both. All that is wanted to set 
the mohair business on a sure basis is a home 
market, with a factory for its manufacture into 
all the fabrics it is capable of being wrought 
into. Next to this is an agent or factor, who 


will buy the mohair at our doors, as it is now 
bought up and secured in the countries of Asia 
for an English market. 

And this feature of the" business will come 
with the increase of the product, so that there 
is sufficient encouragement even now, for a 
largely extended production of the goat in all 
its grades, but the higher and purer the blood 
the better. 

In our delicate little engraving which we 
present, can be recognized the pure blooded 
Angora goat as bred by Mr. N. Gilmore, of El 
Dorado, El Dorado Co., from pure stock of his 
own importation. "Sultan 2d," which is here 
represented, was bred by Mr. G. from his im- 
ported ewe, "Dido," by imported buck "Sultan 
1st," they being part of a lot of ten ewes and 
five bucks, imported by Gray & Gilmore in 
the winter of 1867-8. 

This herd has now increased to seventy head 
pure, and 1,100 grades after having supplied a 
a number of persons throughout the State with 
both pure bloods and graded ewes for starting 
in the business. "Sultan 1st" took the first 
premium at the State Fair of 1870; "Sultan 
2d" took the first premium at the State Fair 
of 1871 and 1872. Five of Mr. G.'s kids also 
took the first premium at the Fair of 1872. 

The fleece as shown in the cut is only about 
half grown, as the photograph from which the 
engraving is copied was taken at the time of 
the State Fair last September, he having been 
shorn the 1st of April last, when he clipped 7% 
pounds. As he has grown considerably since, 
he will doubtless clip from 8% to 1) pounds next 

We have heard a grower of mohair assert that 
there never was that goat grown in Asia that 

would yield 7 pounds of hair, but we are assured 
that it has often been exceeded in this State, and 
we have no reason to doubt it. California will 
yet beat the world on goats and mohair. 

The Sulphur Banks of Lake County. 

These are situated near the shore of an east- 
ern arm of Clear Lake, about eleven miles from 
the town of Clear Lake and one and a-half 
miles from the celebrated borax lake, from 
which they are separated by a ridge of moun- 
tains. The sulphur is found in a decomposed, 
volcanic rock, which is very much fissured; 
from these fissures issue the steam and hot 
gases which deposit the sulphur. The gas 
is most abundant toward evening, at which 
time it is impossible to stay in the "work 
holes" for any length of time, on account of 
the excessive heat aud suffocating nature of the 
gases, which appear to issue at irregular inter- 
vals, for while examining some of the fissures 
containing sulphur, we could work for some 
minutes without inconvenience, when suddenly 
there would be an escape of gas, which would 
nearly suffocate us, causing dizziness and a de- 
sire to get out into the open air as soon as 
possible. These gas-escapes seem to have a 
fatal effect on quail and hares, as we found 
several dead in the fissures. They probably 
select these warm places on cold nights, and 
are killed by the noxious gases. 

Evidences of solfatara action are evident 
along a line extending from the shore of the 
lake S. E. for more than half a mile, though 
the sulphur banks worked do not extend to 
half that distance. There are a number of 
mineral springs on the line of the " banks" — 
among them soda, alum and borax springs. 

One cavity, opened in working for sulphur, 
which we called "The Devil's Teakettle" re- 
sembles the "Witch's Cadldron" at the Gey- 
sers. The water is not so hot, but it keeps up 
a contioual sputtering, and makes about as 
muth noise as the "Cauldron." One of our 
party took one look at it, and concluded he had 
got enough of the sulphur banks, and was 
quite anxious, like the Teutonic gentleman to 
"dhrive on," thinking like him, that the Sa- 
tanic regions were "not var vrom dis Mace." 

On the border of the Lake near the reducing 
works is a hot spring containing borax, used by 
the Indians of the neighboring raucheria for 
washing, the borax and the heat doing away 
with the necessity of using soap; the hot water 
and gas (carbouic acid) percolate up through 
the sand over an area of perhaps 100 feet 
square, part of the outlet being beneath the 
Lake. Localities can be selected of any desira- 
ble temperature from that of the water of the 
Lake to a temperature too hot to hold the hand 
in. During a recent stay of several days in the 
neighborhood, this spring was a source of coin- 
fort to our party, being an excellent washing 
place on cold mornings. The company owning 
the banks are taking steps to ascertain whether 
the springs can be utilized asa profitable source 
for obtaining borax; a well has been sunk some 
50 feet from the works and 150 yards from the 
Soda Springs; strong borax water was struck at 
a depth of 18 feet. 

Mr. Wm. Murdock has charge of the property; 
he employs six men and reduces something 
over two tons of ore per day; two furnaces are 
in use, and one out of repair. The retorts 
which will reduce about 200 tons before being 
renewed cost $500 each at the works; wood 
costs $3 per cord. When looking on while the 
workmen were "drawing" the furnaces it re- 
quired but a very little stretch of the imagina- 
tion to think one's self in the Lower Regions. 
There are other deposits of sulphur in that 
county and vicinity, of which more anon. 

L. G. Yates. 

Centreville, Cal., Dec. 25th, 1872. 

Timber. — President Grant indorses the recom- 
mendation of the Commissioner of Agriculture, 
that in disposing of public lands, that one-tenth 
be reserved in timber where it exists, and that 
where it does not exist, inducements be offered 
for planting this proportion. It is probable 
that the bill before Congress will be amended 
in accordance with the President's suggestion. 
From experience on the frontier, and knowl- 
edge of the circumstances of settlers on the 
public lands, President Grant is able to esti- 
mate correctly the probable result of such 
Legislation. He knows exactly what the aver- 
age settler can do, or will try to do. — Northern 

Farmers' Club. — On Saturday a meeting was 
held in the Town Hall. The audience was not 
large, but those present evinced a deep interest 
in the proceedings. Gen. John Bidwell occu- 
pied the chair. Dr. W. P. Tilden and John 
Whiteside were chosen Vice Presidents and 
R. H. Allen, Secretary. Gen. Bidwell and Dr. 
Tilden addressed the meeting. A committee of 
five was appointed to draft a constitution and 
by-laws, to name permanent officers and to do 
all other things necessary for organization. — 
Northern Enterprise. 

A grove of trees in five years would by prun- 
ing and thinning supply a family with wood, 
and would not cost much more to plant than 
the price of a year's fuel. 

Copper-Faced Type. 

Every type founder professes to have a for- 
mula peculiar to himself for the mixture of the 
alloy known as "type metal." They all agree 
that it is composed of metals mixed in about 
the following proportions, viz: — Lead, five- 
tenths; Antimony, three-tenths, and tin, two- 
tenths; to which is generally added from one 
to three pounds of copper to the hundred of 
the alloy. This mixture makes probably the 
most durable metal used for the purpose. It 
is not so brittle but that it can be bent slightly, 
as it is well known that a too brittle metal 
granulates quickly from the friction of printing 
and soon wears out. 

Tin is the metal that gives durability, but its 
cost is nearly fifty cents per pound with lead at 
six cents and antimony at twenty, or thereabouts ; 
hence the economical type founder strives to 
get along with as little of the expensive metal 
as possible. 

Type made fifty years ago was poor in dura- 
ble qualities compared to that made to-day. It 
was not till cylinder presses came into use, and 
the demands of the daily Press called forth 
those type-destroying machines, the "Hoe 
Type-revolving Printing Presses," that the 
ingenuity of type foundries was taxed in 
vain to make a metal to meet the new de- 

About twenty-five years ago the ingenuity of 
inventors brought out several substitutes for 
the old "type metal alloy." Type made wholly 
of copper by pressure in steel dies was tried ; 
but the trouble with it was that the thinner let- 
ters like the l's, i's and points would bend and 
could not be made to keep their shape. Brass 
was also used, but it was destructive of 
the 6teel dies. India rubber, too, was 
used. But with all its imperfections 
they neither of them could displace 
the common type metal alloy. In 
1850, Dr. Newton obtained a patent in the 
United States and Europe for increasing the 
durability of type, by depositing a thin coating 
of copper by the aid of galvanic electricity upon 
the face of ordinary type. A company was 
formed at that time in New York, and continues 
tn-dav in successful and profitable operation. 
Nearly every daily paper in the large cities of 
the Union use the copper-faced type. Its du- 
rability is about three times that of ordinary 
type, and the expense is twenty per cent, added 
to the type-founderss' prices. 

That is to say, type for which the type founders 
charge fifty cents per pound canbecopperfaced 
for ten cents additional. The process is one 
requiring more than ordinary care in the elec- 
trotyper. The type founders' page of type is 
locked up in a small brass chase having a flange 
upon each of two ends; it is then turned upside 
down, the chase resting upon a metal frame 
suspended immediately above a solution of sul- 
phate of copper. The face of the type should 
just touch the solution, so that the copper 
should not be deposited more than half- 
way to the shoulder of the type. The 
object of the manipulator is to deposit as great 
a thickness of copper as he can without allow- 
ing it to become so thick as to make the type 
become one mass by the copperuniting between 
each separate type. A nice adustment of the 
battery power is necessary to attain this end. 
The temperature of the room in which the 
work is carried on is also an important element. 
The difference between the freezing point of 
water and 150 degrees Fahrenheit being as 
one to ten at the latter point in the 
amount of deposited metal. In New York 
the temperature is carefully adjusted by 
artificial means. The equable climate of 
San Francisco very much facilitates the opera- 
tion here. 

Of course the deposit of copper upon the 
face of the type gives the lines a heavier ap- 
pearance when printed. In newspaper work 
this is no objection; nor do some printers think 
it detracts from appearance of book work, but 
its use is pretty much confined to the daily 

Other metals besides copper have been 
suggested for making type more dura- 
ble, but none have answered the pur- 
pose so well. About twenty years ago 
some parties in England thought to evade 
the "Newton Patent" by the substitution 
of nickel. It was advertised as an improve- 
ment, but never come into use. Nickel is a 
difficult metel to deposit with the galvanic bat- 
tery; it is very brittle when deposited and hence 
is not tc durable as copper. The color, too, 
beeing to much like type metal makes it diffi- 
cult for the eye to detect whether the deposit is 
going on correctly or otherwise. Its cost is 
also an objective, beiug about four times that 
of copper. 

Plant trees in the garden, along the side- 
walks; a few trees in the bleak pastures will 
improve the appearance of ranches, as well as 
serving in time for a grateful shade for stock 
in the long hot days of the dry season. 

C. P. Adamson, who has a large farm on the 
San Joaquin, reports prospects in that section 
quite flattering. The rain-fall has been abund- 
ant, and the prospects for good crops never 

The hills are putting on their emerald robe. 



[January 4, 1873. 

The Year That is to Come. 


What are we going to do, sweet friends, 

In the year that is to come, 
To baffle that fearful fiend of death. 

Whose messenger is rum? 
Shall we (old our hands and bid him pass, 

As he has passed heretofore, 
Leaving his deadly poisoned draught 

At every unbarred door? 

What are we going to do, sweet friends, 

still wait for crime and pain, 
Then bind the bruises, and heal the wound. 

And soothe the woe again ? 
Let the Bead still torture the weary wife, 

still poison ttie coming child, 
still break the suffering mother's heart, 

Still drive the sister wild ! 

Still bring to the grave- the gray-haired sire, 

still martyr the brave young soul. 
Till the waters of death, like a burning stream, 

o'er the whole great nation roll; 
And poverty take the place of wealth, 

And sin and crime and shame 
Drag down to the very depths of hell 

The highest and proudest name. 

Is this our mission on earth, sweet friends, 

In the years that are to come ? 
If not, let us rouse and do our work 

Against this spirit of rum. 
There is not a soul so poor and weak. 

In all this goodly land. 
But against this evil a word may speak, 

And lift a warning hand. 

And lift a warning hand, sweet friends, 

With a cry for home and hearth. 
Adding voieo to voice, till the sound shall sweep, 

Like rum's death-knell, o'er theearth. 
And the weak and wavering shall hear, 

And the faint grow brave and strong, 
And the true and good and great and wise 

Join hands to right this wrong.' 

After the Accident: Mouth of the Shaft. 


"What I want is my husband, sir, — 

And if you're a man, sir. 

You'll give me an answer, — 
Where is my 7oi 

Penrhyn, sir, Joe. — 

Six months ago 

Since we crime here — 
Eh ?— Ah, you know ! 

Well, I am quiet 

And still. 
But I must stand here, 

And will ! 
Please — I'll he strong— 

If you'll just let mo wait 

Inside o' that gate 
Till the news comes along. 

" Negligence" — 

That was the cause; 

Butchery ! — 

Are there no laws- 
Laws to protect such as we? 

Well, then !— 

I won't raise my voice. 
There men : 

I won't make no noise. 
Only you just let me be. 

Four, only four— did he say- 
Saved ? and the other ones I — Eh ? 

Why do they call ? 

Why are they all 
Looking and coming this way ! 

What's that?— a massage 1 

I'll take it. 
I know his wife, sir, 
I'll break it. 
■/ Foreman !" 

Ay. Ay ! 
" Out by and by" — 
11 Just saved his life." 
" Say to his wife 

Soon he'll be free," 
Will I?— God bless yon, 
It's m'-f 

— [Scribner's for Jan. 

For the Last Time. 

There is a touch of pathos about doing 
even the simplest thing "for the last time." 
It is not alone kissing the lips of the dead 
that gives you this strange pain. You feel 
it when you look last upon some scene 
which yon have loved — when you stand 
in some quiet city street, where you know 
that you will never stand again. The 
actor playing his part for the last time, the 
singer whose voice is cracked hopelessly, 
and who, after this once, will never stand 
again before the sea of upturned faces, 
disputing the plaudits with fresher voices 
and fairer forms, the minister who has 
preached his last sermon — these all know 
the bidden bitterness of the two words, 
" never again." 

How they come to us on our birthdays, 
as we grow older. Never again young, 
always nearer and nearer to the very last — 
the end which is universal, the "last 
thing" which shall follow all last things, 
and turn them, let us hope, from pains to 
joys. We put away onr boyish toys with 
an odd heartache. "Wo were too old to 

walk any longer on our stilts — too tall to 
play marbles on the sidewalk; yet there 
was a pang when we thought we had 
played with our merry friends for the 
last time, and life's serious, grown up 
work was waiting for us. Now, we do not 
want the lost toys back. Life has other 
and larger playthings for us. May it not 
be that these, too, shall seem in the light 
of some far-off day, as the boyish games 
seem to our manhood, and we shall learn 
that death is but the opening of a gate 
into the new land of promise? 


Do you wish to do something towards 
making your home happy? Do you desire 
that your brothers and sisters should be 
glad to havo you with them, and that you 
should always be a welcome companion 
to your parents and your children? Do 
you want to have your society coveted 
everywhere, and to feel the pleasure? 
Would you like to help people to think 
well, and to have them save their best 
thoughts for you? Would it please you to 
get all the good yon can out of the people 
yon know? 

If so, learn to listen. 

But first learn what listening is— for it 
is not merely the exercise of the sense of 
hearing. The stupidest of us all can keep 
ears open and mouth shut. To listen prop- 
erly means to make other people talk 
properly. That is a social definition, if it 
is not a Websterian one. The good listener 
is a cause of talking in others, and by a 
proper exercise of this valuable and too 
scarce gift, makes the diffident say what 
they think, and the verbose think what 
they say. For the greatest talkers are 
careful when they find they have a good 
listener. They know that they may not 
often be so fortunate, and they talk their 
best. The adept in listening may some- 
times hear more prosing than he likes, 
but if he be skillful this will not often 
happen. When it is impossible to get 
anything interesting or useful out of a 
man, he need be listened to no longer. 
Every one of sense will agree to that. But 
it is astonishing how many good things 
some very unpromising persons will say 
if they be properly and concientiously 
listened to. 

To be sure it is very hard for some per- 
sons to listen. They have a gift of talking 
and they like to exercise it. But these are 
the very persons who should do a great 
deal of listening. They know what a 
luxury it is to talk, and they should give 
their families and friends a chance to learn 
the art. Besides, like farmers, they will 
often find much advantage in a rotation of 
crops. A season of listening is often a 
most excellent preparative for a season of 

It is often supposed that if a man has a 
good thing to say, he will say it, but this 
is not necessarily the case. Very often he 
never says it, because no one will give him 
a chance. He don't want to waste his 
speech on fools, and the smart folks want 
him to content himself with hearing what 
they have to say. This happens— not in 
connection with very good things perhaps, 
but with things that might lead to very 
good things — every day and every hour, 
in thousands of families, all over the 
land — to say nothing of society. 

There are those who so seldom have a 
chance to speak to interested ears, that 
they gradually draw themselves into them- 
selves, where, not generally finding much, 
they intellectually pine away. 

To be sure, we should not fail to become 
good talkers if we can; but, do what wo 
may, we can only make one talker of our- 
selves, whereas, by proper listening, we 
may make a dozen talkers of other people. 
— Scribner. 

"What Alexis Thinks of us. — It may be 
gratifying to know what Alexis, the prince, 
thinks of us, for at last we have it; but 
why did he wait until he got to Singapore 
before he said it, keeping us in suspense 
meanwhile? He says we are a country of 
splendid men and handsome women, and 
that he wants to visit us again . He declares 
that we not only have the most beautiful 
ladies in the world, but more in proportion 
to population than any other country; the 
only thing he complains of here is news- 
paper interviewers, who evidently tried 
him sorely or he would have forgotten it 
before reaching Singapore. 

The Empress Elizabeth of Austria has 
written to the woman's rights club Vienna: 
" Ladies, take my advice, and keep away 
from politics. There is nothing but 
misery in it." 

Velvet is more worn by our fashionable 
young ladies on the streets this winter, than 
it has ever been before. 

An Awful Lonesome Man in California. 

In the shanty, which in California's 
early days, did duty as office for the bank- 
ing, postal and express business of Wells, 
Fargo, & Co., in Marysville, there sat, one 
Saturday evening, a misanthropic and de- 
jected-looking individual, whose long and 
unkempt hair and beard, cowhide boots 
and rough dress bespoke the miner. For 
over an hour he sat there the picture of 
despair, with not a word or look for any 
one present. Miners came, left their 
"dust," took their coin in return, and ex- 
changed greetings with all present save 
the one morose man whose apathy nothing, 
it seemed, could disturb. Finally there 
entered a young miner with a beaming 
face, who after completing his business at 
at the counter, turned to the agent in 
charge and remarked that on tho previous 
Saturday lie had some dealings with the 
bank, and thought that some mistake had 
been made on his account. 

" Guess not," said the agent. "Our 
cash was all right, and I reckon we keep our 
books pretty straight." 

But upon the request of the miner that 
the account should be examined, the ac- 
count was looked at, an4 it was found that, 
through a clerical error, the miner had 
been paid just $50 too much. 

" That's just what I make it," said the 
latter, " and here's your money." "With 
this he threw down the gold, and received 
the thanks of the agent. 

While this conversation was in progress, 
the misanthropic miner had preserved his 
looks of utter indifference; but when he 
saw the money actually returned, his face 
brightened up, he rose slowly, walked to- 
ward the honest miner with a slow and 
honest step and said: 

"Young man, don't you feel lonesome 
in this country ?" — Patterson Guardian. 

Why American Women are Delicate. — An- 
other reason of the delicacy of our women is the 
far greater Style affected by all classes in dress, 
and the wearing of corsets during early youth. 
Naturally if one has attained a full and fine 
physical development, tight corsets, heavy skirts 
close-fitting boots and weighty chignons cannot 
injure to the same extent as when these appli- 
ances of fashion are put upon the soft and 
yielding muscles of a young and growing girl. 
The noble ladies of England exercise many 
hours daily in the open air. They do not dis- 
dain to don heavy-calf-skin shoes and colored 
petticoats, in which to perform this duty. 
This, of course, would not alone make them as 
healthy as tluy are, wore not their constitutions 
strengthened by a proper physical education 
before they are eighteen years of age, but it 
suffices to retain them in a good degree of 
health. Our fair Americans early in the day 
attire themselves in charming morning cos- 
tumes, with white skirts; ard then they are 
averse to soiling these by exercise, and the 
least dampness deters them from a promenade. 
American ladies think far more of dress and 
fashion, and spend more money and time on 
their toilets, than any women in Europe, not 
even excepting the French, from whom all our 
fashions come. — Galaxy. 

Folding Linen.— The women of the 
old province of Anjou are celebrated for 
their art in folding linen. The renown 
is an odd one, but it has, nevertheless, 
bestowed no mean celebrity on the ladies 
of Angers. The art does not flourish now 
as it used, and is, indeed, nearly confined 
to the grand old housekeepers of the grand 
old chateaux of the place. The linen 
presses of a magnificent Gothic hospital 
still show, too, some chefs d'eouvre of the 
kind. The good sisters throw open the 
doors of their immense cupboards with a 
natural feeling of pride, and reveal to the 
astonishment and admiration of the visi- 
tors tho wonders of their dexterity. In a 
vast sheet, folded into a trough, twenty- 
four sheep, formed of chemises, are drink- 
ing, guarded by a night dress in the shape 
of a shepherd, and so on. Linen castles, 
windmills, towers, and abbesses are fre- 
quent tows de force of these dexterous 
linen folders. 

There is no greater everyday virtue than 
cheerfulness. This quality in man among men 
is like sunshine to the day, or gentle, renewing 
moisture to parched herbs. The light of a 
cheerful face diffuses itself, and communicates 
the happy spirit that inspires it. The Bonrest 
temper must be sweetenod in the atmosphere 
of continuous good-humor. 

Sorrow is General. — One can never be 
the judge of another's grief. That which 
is a sorrow to one, to another is joy. Let 
us not dispute with any one concerning 
the reality of his sufferings; it is with 
sorrows as with countries — each man has 
his own. 

Y©dflq F OLK s' GolJ^jI. 

The Rabbit on the Wall. 

The cottage work is over. 

The evening meal is done : 
Hark! through the starlight stillness 

Von hear the river run. 
The little children whisper. 

Tin n speak out one and all ; 
11 Come, lather make for Johnny 

A rabbit on the wall." 

He smilingly assenting, 

Tbev gather round his chair: 
" Now. grandma, you hold Johnny, 

Don't let the candle flare." 
So speaking from his fingers, 

He throws a shadow tall. 
That seems the moment after, 

A rubbit on the wall. 

The children Shout with langhti p, 

Tiie uproar loader grows; 
Then grandma chuckles faintly, 

And Johnny chirps anil crows. 
Then ne'er was gilded painting 

up in lordly hall, 
(oive half tiie simple pleasure 

This rabbit on the wall. 

"Twas My Mother's." 

A company of poor children, who had been 
gathered out of the alleys and garrets of tho 
city, were preparing for their departnre to new 
nnd distant homes in the West. Just before 
tho time for the starting of the cars, one of the 
boys was noticed aside from the others, and 
apparently very busy with a cast-off garment. 

The superintendent stepped up to him and 
found that he was cutting a small piece out of 
the patched lining. It proved to be his old 
jacket, which having been replaced by a new 
one, had been thrown away. There was no 
time to be lost. " Come, John, come!" said 
the superintendent," what are you_ going to do 
with that old piece of calico?" 

"Please, sir," saiil John, "lam cutting it to 
take with mo. My dear dead mother put tho 
lining into this old jacket for me. This was a 
piece of her dress, and U is all I shall have to 
r tier hy." And as the poor boy thought 
of that dear mother's love, and of the sad death- 
bed scene in the old garret where she die.], he 
covered his face with his hands and sobbed as 
if his heart would break. 

But the train was about leaving, and John 
thrust the little piece of calico into his bosom, 
" to remember his mother by," hurried into a 
car, nnd was soon far away from the place 
where he had seen so much sorrow. 

Many an eye has moistened as the story of 
this orphan boy had been told, and many a 
heart prayed that the God of tho fatherless and 
motherless would be his friend. He loved his 
mother, and we cannot but believe that he 
obeyed her and was a faithful child. 

The Ten Words.— The Jews call the Ten 
Commandments by the name of "The Deca- 
logue," which signifies the "Ten Words." As 
these precepts cannot be learned in too many 
ways, we here give the sxibsUtnce of them in ten 
lines, poetically arranged, which will help the 
memory to recollect them in jtifl. 

1. I am the Lord thy God — serve only me; 

2. Before no image bow thy impious knee; 

3. I'se not My name in trifles, nor in jest ; 

4. Dare not profane My sacred day of rest; 

5. Ever to parents due obedience pay; 

6. Thy fellow-creature, man, thou thalt not 

7. In no licentious conduct bear a part; 

8. From stealing keep with care thy hand 
an! heart; 

9. All false reports against thy neighbor 

10. And ne'er indulge a wish for his estate. 

An Item for Boys. — It is not necessary that 
a boy who learns a trade should follow it all his 
life. Governor Palmer, of Illinois, was a conn- 
try blacksmith once. Thomas Hoyne, a rich 
and eminent lawyer, also of Illinois, was once 
a bookbinder. Erastus Corning, of New York, 
too lame to do hard work, commenced as a 
shop-boy in Albany. When he applied for em- 
ployment he was asked, " Why, my little boy, 
what can you do?" "Can do what 1 am bid," was 
the answer, which secured him the place. Sen- 
ator Wilson, of Massachsetts, was a shoemaker. 
Thurlow Weed was a canal-boat driver. Er- 
Governor Stone, of Iowa, was a cabinet-maker, 
which trade the late Hon. Stephen A. Douglass 
also worked at in his youth. Large numbers 
of men of prominence now living have risen 
from humble life, by dint of industry, without 
which talent is as gold coin on a barren island. 
Work alone makes men bright, and it does 
not alone depend on the kind of work yon 
have to do whether you rise or not ; it depends 
on how you do it. 

It is a curious fact that if the same letters of 
the same size precisely are painted on two 
boards, the one white on a black ground, and 
the other black on a white ground, tho white 
letters will appear larger, and be read at a 
greater distance, than the black. This is what 
is called the irradiation of light. It depends on 
this that the impression made on the bottom of 
the eyo by bright objects extends a little wider 
than the actual portion of the organ struck by 
the light, and, invading the space occupied by 
the lighter objects, makes the bri; .'. Vr appear 
larger than they really are. 

"When a young man," said E>J. Dela van 
"I was going with some gay yo'S rueii on ' 
drinking lark, when I suddenl^'Tiierl fl0o '.' 
and left them. On the spot orOieh I ttaf j 
that hasty resolution to reforr'tends apart of 
my property — the Delavan F* 6 - " 

January 4, 1873.] 





Table Customs. 

Editor Ohio Farmer :— It is a sad fact that 
there are many families in the country in which 
exists a feeling of inferiority when thrown into 
the company of city or refined people. This 
feeling is not lessened when they are playing 
the part of hosts, and the awkwardness felt is 
in exact keeping with the home customs. Well- 
to-do families are not unfrequently found in 
the rural districts wherein there is a great 
want of system, order and politeness, and es- 
pecially is this found at the table. 

A lady from the city, or any well-regulated 
household, does not feel comfortable when 
seated at the table of a friend or simple ac- 
quaintance, as the case may be, and requested 
to "help herself or be at home," and she had 
a thousand times rather "be at home" than to 
reach over the table for this and that in place 
of being helped. It does not increase her 
appetite at all to have the madam cut bread 
from the loaf as it is wanted with the knife she 
is eating with, nor to see each member of the 
family cut from the butter with their individ- 
ual knives, first drawing them through their 
mouths to make them clean (?) or to have the 
pie cut with an eating-knife and passed around, 
each taking a piece upon a greasy plate, and 
perhaps one-half filled with meat, potato, cab- 
bage, etc. 

I might enumerate any number of such in- 
delicacies, far too-often practiced, but will not 
take up space to do so, but wish to simply add 
a suggestion as to the remedy. A family, to 
appear well to others, must be so systematized 
in its regulations that there is harmony at all 
times in action, if not in words. Cultivation 
is not necessarily dependent upon capital, for 
those the most humble in circumstances can 
have admirable harmony in their home affairs. 
Seventy-five cents will supply a table with a 
very neat silver-plated butter-knife, and every 
pantry is supplied with sufficient cutlery to 
afford an extra knife for the bread, meat, pie, 
and with sufficient table-ware to afford each a 
clean plate for pie, a cup for boiled egg, etc. 
The bread can be as well cut in the pantry and 
brought to the table properly sliced, as to be 
messed out as required ; the pie can as well be 
served on small, clean plates from the pantry 
as in the manner above mentioned. 

Now, some may say that this method is more 
trouble than profit, and not necessary to prac- 
tice when only the family is together. I do 
not propose to argue the question at all, but 
will add, if not practiced when the family only 
is together, it never will be. The members of 
one's family should be the dearest objects of 
earth; the sons and daughters should be taught 
those rules in social life which will enable them 
to stand above ridicule and command respect, 
and every one is at liberty to adopt them, for 
they are free. I said, however, that I would 
not argue the question, and I won't. — Ohio 

Carrigan Custard. — Procure an ounce of 
carrigan moss, and divide it into four parts; 
one part is sufficient for one mess. Put the 
moss into water, and let it remain until it 
swells; then drain it, and put it into two pints 
and a half of milk, and place it over the fire; 
let it boil twenty minutes, stirring it continu- 
ally; then strain it, sweeten it with loaf-sugar; 
put into cups, and grato nutmeg over the top 
of them. 

Yule Cake. — Take one pound of fresh butter, 
one pound of sugar, one and a half pounds 
of flour, two pounds of currants, a glass of 
brandy, one pound of sweetmeats, two 
ounces of sweet almonds, ten eggs, one 
quarter of an ounce cinnamon. .Melt the 
butter to a cream, put in the sugar. Stir till 
quite light, adding a little allspice and pounded 
cinnamon. In a quarter of an hour take the 
yolks of the eggs, and work them in two or 
three at a time, and the whites must by this 
time be beaten into a strong srow, quite ready 
to work in. As the paste must not stand to chill 
the butter, or it will be heavy, work in the 
whites gradually, then add the orange peel, 
lemon and citron; cut in fine strips, and the 
currants, which must be mixed in well with the 
almonds; then add the sifted flour, and a glass 
of brandy. Bake this cake in a tin hoop in a 
hot oven, for three hours, and put twelve 
sheets of paper under it to keep it from burn- 

Practical Uses of Geology. 

How to Cook Ham. — There is as much differ- 
ence in the cooking of ham to make it good as 
in the preparation of any other meat for the 
table. My method is this: For a good size 
family take a medium sized ham, put it into 
hike warm water iu a kettle and place it on the 
stove, covered as tightly as possible; allow no 
more steam to escape than is necessary. A ham 
weighing sixteen pounds I allow to boil from 
four to five hours, then to stand in the water 
until cold. If taken from the stove at night, I 
do not take from the kettle till morning. I use 
the same plan when boiling beef or tongue, 
and believe therein lies the secret of having 
nice tender and well flavored meat. — Ohio 

Ginger Bread. — I take a cup of molasses 
and stir flour into it until it is very stiff in- 
deed — till I can make it take no more, then 
put some salt and a teaspoonful of saleratus in 
a cup and dissolve in a little water; then fill the 
cup full of boiling water and pour the whole 
into the dish containing the molasses and flour 
and stir the whole until well mixed. Add three 
great spoonfuls of melted lard or butter, 
stir it well and the cake is ready to bake. It 
must be baked quickly to be good. — Lizzie. 

Crullers. — Three eggs, one cup sugar, five 
tablespoons melted butter. Use flour enough 
for stiff paste. Boll out and cut into any shape 
you may fancy. 

Indian Fritters. — Take three tablespoonfuls 
of flour, boiling-water, the yolks of four eggs, 
the whites of two, hot lard or clarified dripping, 
and jam. Put the water into a basin, and pour 
over it sufficient boiling-water to make it into 
a stiff paste, taking care to stir and beat it well, 
to prevent it getting lumpy. Leave it a little 
time to cool, and then break into it (without 
beating them at first) the yolks of four eggs 
and the whites of two, and stir and beat all 
well together. Have ready some boiling lard 
or butter; drop a dessertspoonful of batter in 
at a time, and fry the fritters of a light brown. 
They should rise so much as to be almost like 
balls. Serve on a dish, with a spoonful of pre- 
serves or marmalade dropped in. between each 
fritter. This is an excellent dish for a hasty 
addition to dinner, if a guest unexpectedly 
arrives, it being so quickly made, and it is 
always a great favorite. It takes from five to 
eight minutes to fry the fritters. — Mrs. Beeion's 
Everyday Uoolcery. 

Apple Tapioca Pudding. — One coffee-cup of 
tapioca, covered with three pints of cold water, 
and soaked over night. In the morning set it 
on the side of the range, or stove, stirring it 
often, till it becomes transparent. If too thick, 
add more water, till it is as thin as good, clear 
btarch. Stir in a small teaspoon of salt. Fare 
and core, without breaking, as many good ap- 
ples as will set close on the bottom of a medium- 
sized pudding-dish. Fill the holes full of sugar, 
and a very little nutmeg and cinnamon; then 
pour over the tapioca, and bake slowly till the 
apples are soft and well done. To be eaten 
with hard sauce, which is made as follows: 
One cup sugar, two-thirds of a cup of butter, 
beaten together until perfectly smooth and 
white. — Western Rural. 

Cheaper Sewing Machines. — There arjpears 
to be a prospect that the price of sewing ma- 
chines will be reduced. The patent for the 
Wheeler & Wilson machine will shortly expire. 
During the last session of Congress there were 
several unsuccessful efforts made to have it ex- 
tended, and the application for an extension is 
still before the Senate Committee on Patents, 
with little prospect of its being reported this 
Winter. In case the application for an exten- 
sion be defeated, it is thought the price of sew- 
ing machines will be brought down to $20 or 
$25. In the testimony filed before the Com- 
mittee, given by skilled machinists, it is stated 
that the average cost of manufacturing sewing 
machines is $7 to $12. This patent is owned 
by what is known as the sewing machine combi- 
nation, but the application for extension of the 
patent is in the name of A. B. Wilson. Many 
of the smaller machine companies oppose the 
extension. There are, before the Committee, 
petitions signed by over twenty thousand per- 
sons, many of whom have from one to twenty 
machines in operation in manufacturing estab- 
lishments, asking that the extension be refused. 
The old companies have made millions upon 
millions upon their patents, and it is now time 
that their monopolies should be done away with, 
and the public benefitted by throwing the bus- 
iness of making and selling machines open to 
competition. The question seems hardly to ad- 
mit of argument. — Call. 

Apple Souffle. — Always stew the apples 
nicely, then adding a littlegrated lemon peel 
and juice, and omitting bvtter; line the sides 
and bottom of a baking-dish with them. Make 
a boiled custard with one pint of milk and two 
eggs, flavoring with lemon and sweetening it 
to taste. Let it cool, and then pour into tho 
center of the dish. Beat the whites of two 
eggs to a stiff froth (they can be left out of the 
custard), spread them <ner the top; sprinkle 
white sugar over them, and brown in the oven. 
The stewed apples should be about half an 
inch thick on the bottom and sides of the pud- 

The Bessemer Saloon Steamboat. — The pro- 
ject of the Saloon for the avoidance of sea- 
sickness seems to have taken tangible shape 
since the demonstration of the fact that the an- 
ticipated results will follow from such a mode 
of construction. Mr. Bessemer has associated 
himself with Mr. E. J. Reed, a gentleman of 
means and scientific attainments, to carry out 
the project, and a company has been formed 
with a capital of $1,250,000. Two vessels are 
to be immediately constructed for the Channel 
navigation. In]addition to the advantage of the 
comparatively motionless Bessemer saloon and 
promenade deck, they will embody every im- 
provement for space, comfort and speed that the 
skill of the designers can introduce. 

The Signal Service and the Fisheries. — 
General Myer, the head of the United States 
Signal Service, has intimated his desire to pro- 
mote the interests of fishermen through the op- 
erations of his department, as we learn from 
the Gloucester Telegraph, by establishing sta- 
tions which shall not only notify the fishermen 
of changes in the weather, but also of the move- 
ments of fish, such as mackerel, herring, etc., 
along shore. The idea seems to be an excellent 

The object of geological investigations and 
the general result of such inquiries being un- 
derstood, it remains to consider the various 
modes of its application to practical purposes 
in useful detail, so that we may clearly prove 
that this science, which not long ago amused 
the public mind, and alarmed the timid with 
vague speculations and unfounded theories con- 
cerning the origin of things, now involves 
much that is necessary to be known, and has 
become an essential part of sound education; be- 
ing, in fact, as important to the engineer and 
miner as astronomy is to the navigator. Since, 
however, it is the case that geology embraces a 
wide range of subjects, some of which bear 
more directly on the natural history of living 
and extinct races of animals and vegetables, 
while others are more strictly mechanical, — 
and that the latter are those chiefly concerned 
in the practical application with which we have 
to deal, — a very brief summary of such facts 
may be useful in entering on a new department 
of the subject. It will appear, on a little con- 
sideration, that the facts in question are of 
very distinct kinds, aud may be considered 
separately; for we may regard the earth's crust 
either as the place upon which, or within, vari- 
ous operations are to be performed, or we may 
regard it as the great depository of all useful 
and valuable mineral substances, of whatever 
nature. Thus the agriculturist will regard the 
earth and the rocks present in his district as 
providing the soil, and supporting theplant me- 
chanically; but he may also look for valuable 
minerals to mix with his soil on the surface, 
and may be obliged to consider what hidden but 
determinable facts will interfere with or assist 
his draining. 

So again, the architect and engineer will re- 
quire to dig in some places for stone and clay, 
in order that they may erect some structure in 
anothor place, where it is important that the 
foundation should be sound, aad where no un- 
usual difficulties need be anticipated. And so 
also the miner, while he is merely anxious to 
extract mineral wealth, must also regard aud 
carefully estimate the difficulties he will have to 
contend with, while piercing to great depths be- 
neath the surface, or burrowing to a distance 
within a hill. Now in order to understand the 
application of geology thus presented, it is 
necessary to be familiar with certain principles 
and facts, relating chiefly to those masses of 
matter already described as rocks, and concern- 
ing which it is important that the practical ge- 
ologist should know both their mechanical and 
chemical condition, and their mechanical posi- 
tion. Such facts duly appreciated, and the 
basis of geological science once laid, itis useful 
to notice how completely, not only the earth 
structure but the habits and even civilization of 
its inhabitants, corresponds to this geological 
condition. Thus in our own country it has 
often been observed that the inhabitants of the 
mountain districts differ much from those of 
the plains, while those of the lowlands vary ac- 
cording to the nature of the underlying rock, 
because that influences the cultivation. The 
geological structure and configuration of any 
country are the main foundations of its physi- 
cal aspect; and the various operations of eleva- 
tion, depression, and denudation, which it is 
the object of the geologist to study, are in affect 
the cause of all modification of the aspect and 
structure as originally impressed. Thus the 
mere fact of a line of hills in a country or a dis- 
trict, sloping gradually on one side and much 
steeper on the opposite side — or elsewhere, of 
hills rising regularly and with monotony — will 
of itself mark the physical cause of such appear- 
ance, whether it is due to a distinct elevation, 
or to the outcrop of some hard bed. Wherever 
distinct and definite physical features occur, 
some geological cause may always be traced; 
and on the other hand, every important geolo- 
gical event that has last happened in a district, 
is indicated by physical features. 

A knowledge of this is often extremely useful to 
the traveler; for in this way he may determine the 
probable direction, or even the possible exist- 
ence of rivers and mountain ridges, and also 
the places where natural mineral riches are 
likely to be found. The nature and use of 
geological maps and sections — of which many 
and excellent examples are produced by the 
geological survey, may also be recognized in 
their application to important practical ques- 
tions constantly arising in agriculture, agricul- 
tural engineering, architecture, civil and mili- 
tary engineering, and mining. Each of these 
pursuits and professions having reference to 
material obtained from the earth, and also to 
the earth as the basis of operations, involves 
many facts of direct geological interest. It is only 
by a knowledge of geology, and of the mode of 
applying such knowledge, that much progress 
can be made in the higher and more suggestive 
departments of these sciences, and will not be 
considered that there has been any unnecessary 
consideration of details in what has been said 
concerning the nature of rock masses, their 
chemical composition, the mode in which they 
were aggregated, and the changes they have 
since undergone. These facts being the founda- 
tion of practical geology, are in every way 
worthy of careful consideiation, and can- 
not be to well understood or too often 
thought of by practical men. Whilst the 
application of geology to agriculture, engineer- 
ing, and mining, are direct and immediate, and 
require each in its turn the careful attention of 
the student, there is one other less manifest 

but equally connected with the subject, 
may be regarded as preliminary. It is not 
alone to mechanical arts and appliances that 
the study of nature is essential. It is equally 
so to those whowould represent the varied phys- 
iognomy of nature in its rocks and mountains, 
hills, valleys, and plains, and who for this pur- 
pose learn the arts of drawing and painting, 
and apply them to represent the forms and col- 
ors that please the eye and instruct the intellect. 
The artist as well as the engineer, and the critic 
iu art as well as the artist, require knowledge 
and science, that the one may produce, and the 
other recognize and appreciate, a true transcript 
of nature. — Anslead. 



Made from Solid Rock and 

" Clear as Crystal." 

Tliey Have No Equal ! 


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No. 9 Montgomery st., Lick House Block, 
San Francisco. 


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System for Beginners 



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3?.JL X 3? jC G »R»T3 3R, Jw x* 3PIR> IS S S* 

[January 4, 1873. 

p^Rfl«Er\S I[* CoJjtCIL. 

San Jose Farmers' Club. 

The Club met Saturday, the 28th, Jesse Hob- 
son presiding. 

At the request of the Club, the Secretary read 
from the Pacific Rural Pjrkss, a criticism. 

Mr. Spencer, from the Market Committee, 
announced that the stalls in the City Market 
were fitted up and ready for the reception of 
produce. Thus far nothing had been received. 
Mr. Spencer notified the Club that unless the 
articles were brought to the Market for sale, 
the speculation would not bo very profitable. 

When the announcement of selection of ques- 
tion for next meeting was made, Mr. Berglen 
moved that the question of irrigation be post- 
poned for one week. 

Mr. Hobson asked the names of throe of the 
best varieties of winter apples. 

Mr. Berglen thought the Newtown pippin 
and white winter pearmain. 

Mr. Kennedy said that one characteristic of 
the pearmain is its prolifieuess, it bears good 
crops every year. 

Mr. Berglen said the pearmain dried out, 
and the Newtown pippin if it rotted, did so in 
spots, which did not affect the balance of the 

Mr. Cadwell suggested Smith's cider as an 
excellent apple to keep. 

Mr. Hatch asked if the Tea Wheat had ever 
been cultivated in this valley. He said it had 
been iutroduced into New England a few years 
ago. It is a spring wheat, beardless, and super- 
ior for manufacturing flour. 

Mr. Berglen said he thought it was the same 
as was called beardless wheat. 

None of the Club seemed to recognize this 
grain by the name given, and Mr. Hatch prom- 
ised to procure specimens for examination and 

Mr. Hatch also asked the best variety of 
sweot corn raised for table use in this valley. 
The best variety he had ever seen is the mam- 
moth sugar corn, and would like to kuow if 
that variety had ever been cultivated here. 

Mr. Cadwell said the best corn he had ever 
raised was the Evergreen corn. He had never 
seen the variety referred to by Mr. Hatch. 

Mr. Hobson said he thought that the largest 
corn was the best for this climate. 

Mr. Cadwell said that on dry soils a small 
early kind is best; a kind that will mature be- 
fore the dry season is too far advanced. He 
had sent East and procured some seed of what 
is known there as "Squaw Corn," and had got 
a large yield -and a good quality. 

Mr. Hatch said he had procured the "Mam- 
moth Sugar" from Prof. Hastings. It was not 
very late. He had some seed with him that he 
would give to the members of the Club for 

Mr. Berglen said the worm? troubled the 
green corn, nearly every ear being more or less 

Mr. Cadwell said that depended partly on 
the season and partly on the variety. 

Mr. Dubois spoke in regard to the criticism 
of the Pacific Rural Press on the proceedings 
of the last meeting of the Club. He thought 
if the Club got out of bounds it ought to be 
called to order. He also thought" the Club 
should thoroughly investigate the subject of 
grasses until they find a perpetual grass, or a 
substtute which will furnish green feed for 
stock all the year round. He was not certain 
there is such grasses, bnt he thinks there may 
be. He had noticed a grass in the Cory 
vineyard which had been green during all of the 
late dry Beasous, but did not know if it was 
good for feed. He wanted information in re- 
gard to this. He also wanted to impress on 
the minds of farmers the benefit to be derived 
from rolling the land after the crop is in; he 
wanted every one to try it. 

Mr. Cadwell said he had prepared some 
thoughts on the advantages of our State over 
other States, but as there was such a small at- 
tendance he would defer his remarks until next 

Mr. Settle said he was a member of the Com- 
mittee on Experiments, and asked Mr. Dubois 
if he would undertake an experiment with rues- 
quit grass. Mr. Dubois agreed to do so. 

Mr. Kennedy moved that the seeds received 
by the Club from the Agricultural Department 
be turned over to the Committee on Experi- 
ments. Carried. 

Mr. Settle said, in regard to grasses, he 
thought Californians were better capable of 
judging what is best for this country than men 
who have had no experience with our dry sea- 

Mr. Kennedy said there could be no doubt 
about alfalfa growing in this country, that it 
would keep green and make good hay. 

Mr. Cottle said alfalfa hay in the market is 
worth $22 per ton when timothy or red top is 
worth $25, but the number of crops which can 
bo harvested makes alfalfa the most profitable. 
Mr. Dubois said his objection to the alfalfa 
was the fact that the gophers were extremely 
fond of the roots. 

Mr. Berglen said his neighbor had planted a 
field of alfalfa, and his slock would eat all 
round it but never touch it. He thought alfalfa 
a humbug. 

Mr. Cottle says wo have good enough hay, but 
what we want is green pasture, this is all the 
alfalfa is good for. 

Mr. Dubois said he disagreed with Mr, Cottle 
on the hay question. He did not behove our 
wheat or barley hay is near as good as timothy 

or red top. He thought we should have some- 
thing better. 

Mr. Cadwell said that in Illinois the farmers 
preferred wild hay to timothy, because the dust 
from the latter gives horses heaves. In regard 
to our wheat hay, he had Seen cattle turned out 
on the stubble audgetfat, eating it clear down to 
the ground. Cattle will not eat our wheat and 
barley hay well when cut too late, neither will 
they timothy. 

Air. Kennedy said that in Nevada county tim- 
othy and wheat hay como into competition, and 
one brings as good price as the other. 

Mr. Berglen said that to fatten stock he pre- 
ferred the dry hay or stubble; milch cows need 
green feed. 

Mr. Dubois said that heaves in horses were 
caused by the climate and not by feed. 

Mr. Hobson spoke of irrigation, giving the 
possibilities of flooding the valley and adding 
to the productions of the soil. 

Mr. Berglen thought that when there was 
water enough in the creeks to irrigate the land, 
there was water enough in the land, and it did 
not need irrigation. He believed in letting the 
land rest every few years. 

Mr. Hatch speaking of grasses, suggested 
the orchard grass, which has a largo tap-root, 
and which he thought might keep green 
throughout the year. 

Mr. Cottle said that he had read a statement 
In a responsible journal that proper irrigation 
would preserve the productiveness of land with- 
out any use of manure. — Daily Mercury. 

Sonoma County Farmers' Club. 

Club met Saturday, December 21st, 1872. 
The Committee on Library asked and ob- 
tained further time to report. 

Mr. Whittaker supposed, that as the Club 
would soon meet in its new hall, that an enter- 
tainment should be given, of soma character, 
by which f unds could be obtained to furnish 
the hall. 

Mr. Whittaker said it would cost $50 to pay 
for the benches alone. 

After further discussion the matter was post- 
poned until next meeting. 

Mr. Rector suggested that the President now 
appoint six trustees to report on the feasibility 
of incorporation — what steps to take, and upon 
the law which should govern. Mr. It. said that 
the trustees might be appointed, and if they 
thought the Club could incorporate they could 
perfect by the proper steps. 

Mr. Maslin opposed the suggestion, and said 
that if the Club desired to incorporate, let the 
trustees be elected as provided by law and 
close the matter up, but there is no advantage 
in electing trustees upon the contingency of 
incorporating. If the Club wished further 
information let a committee be appointed for 
that purpose, 

Mr. Coulter said he understood that the Club 
had set this for the day to elect trustees as an 
incorporation. If we are ready to incorporate 
let us do it, and the trustees can report consti- 
tution and by-laws as they think best, but if 
we were not ready to elect, he would move that 
the election of trustees be continued and that 
a committee of five be appointed, with power 
to enquire into the law of incorporation, the 
feasibility of incorporating, and report in 
writing to the Club, 

Motion carried, and the President appointed 
Messrs. Coulter, Maslin, Rector, De Turk and 
Forsyth as the committee. 

Mr. Thompson said he would like to hear 
from the farmers the prospects of the crops. 
Mr. De Turk said he had observed this season 
that generally wherever the ground was plowed 
it was in condition to be seeded. The ground 
appeared in better condition for plowing than 
it had been for many years. He estimated that 
more ground, especially adobe soil, had been 
seeded in the county at this season than had 
been in any previous year by the same time. 

Mr. Rector said he had ample opportunity to 
know. The farmers came to his mill and 
ol course talked wheat. One thing they are 
agreed upon, and that was that the land was in 
better condition than ever before. As the 
fanners expressed it, it pulverizes better. My 
own laud is in such fine tilth that you can sow 
small seed. 

Mr. Forsyth said his own land was mellow 
as an ash heap. 

A member said that a farmer in Bennett Val- 
ey informed him that his land was in better 
condition, not only for plowing, but for seeding, 
than it had been for fifteen years, and that tho 
same was generally true of Bennett Valley. 
Mr. Coulter said he found fanners generally 
1 in seeding. The sowing of crops is 
more advanced than I have known it before so 
early in the year. I have done sowing my 
small grain and am saving a small portion of 
my land for corn. The good weather operates 
to tho disadvantage of tne Club, and it calls 
the husbandmen to their labors, and the atten- 
dance at our meeting is small. Ho had also 
noticed that some farmers were preparing for 
other crops besides wheat and corn. We ought 
to experiment with other crops. 

Sugar Beets. 

Mr. Maslin said the remarks of the last 
him an opportunity to ventilate 
his hobby. He hoped th it a number of the 
farmers would experiment with sugar beets, and 
if the soil was found kindly to their culture we 
might see in time a sugarie established in 
Santa Rosa. Some time ago a farmer near by 

had presented to Mr. Thompson, the editor of 
the Democrat, a small box containing sacchar- 
ine matter from sugar beets raised by him, but 
the fact that saccharine matter could be ob- 
tained was of no value unless it could be proven 
that it was capable of crystallization. To 
secure the building of a sugarie in our midst 
we must show capitalists that we can raise the 
proper kinds of beets, that there is sufficient 
soil favorable to their culture in the vicinity of 
the factory from which an ample supply can be 
obtained, that the farmers will engage in the 
business of raising beets, and next, and most 
important, that the juice of the beets contain 
percentage enough of saccharine matter, and 
that it will crystallize into sugar. We must 
experiment so that the facts adduced will be 
certain enough to be of scientific value and 
leave nothing to be assumed. 

Professor Carr told the speaker that it was 
not necessary to have the beets taken to a fac- 
tory, but i( a small amount of the juice was 
sent to the University it could be tested amply 
and surely for all practical purposes. Now if 
each farmer will sow a small portion and keep 
a record of the kind of soil, depth of sowing, 
time of maturing, product to the acre, distance 
of farm from the county seat, cost of raising, 
and report the same to the Club, the several lots 
could be tested, and when the result is obtained, 
if favorable, capitalists could be approached 
with the certainty that they would build a 
factory. We might not have to go beyond our 
own county for tho capital. Ho hoped to see 
the day when this Club would be the means of 
building the factory and thus provide a home 

Mr. De Turk said he hoped some of the 
members would make the experiment. If he 
was sure he could get the true sugar beet he 
would sow some and keep a record as suggest- 

session several varieties of winter wheat sent 
to me by Senator Casserly. Whoever will take 
a package of the wheat and sow the same and 
report the yield and condition of culture to the 
Club may have one. It is important that the 
report shall be concsientiously made, as the 
result may be of infinite value to the farmers. 

This is one means' of usefulness possessed by 
the Club. It stimulates experiment and emula- 
tion, and makes the knowledge of each a com- 
mon fund. 

The following gentlemen applied for the 
wheat and promised to cultivate and report; 
Messrs. Peterson, Forsyth, Staley and Whit- 
taker. — Sonoma Democrat. 

Mr. Whittaker said that sugar beets could 
be raised was not a matter of doubt. He had 
raised them ; had grown common beets to weigh 
21 pounds. For one, if a factory was erected, 
ho promised to furnish it gratis the first year 
with the product of five acres. Whether the 
beets would produce sugar he does not kuow. 
Even if tho juice would not crystallize we could 
lose nothing, for the beets were excellent feed 
for stock, and one year's growing might induce 
farmeis to raise food for stock and devote less 
land to grain growing. 

Mr. Coulter said, sugar beets are a hobby of 
mine also. I have heard that some beets, or 
rather the sugar beets in some soils would not 
crystallize into sugar, and I believe in the 
necessity of proving beyond a doubt whether 
beets raised in this vicinity are capable of pro- 
ducing sugar. Let us try the experiment. I 
advocate the cultivation of the beet since, by it, 
a great deal of alkali will be eliminated from 
our soil. Some of it needs such a medicine. 
I understand that Mr. llixon produced his 
beets upon red land; there is a great deal of 
red land in the county, and if experiment will 
show it favorable to the beet, it would be a boon 
to the community. I hope that those who can 
will sow a Utile, and on every kind of soil on 
his farm. 

Mr. Staley said, I live near Mr. Hixon and 
know how he prepared the syrup shown to Mr. 
Thompson. The beets had gone to seed, and 
one of the hands was directed to gather tho 
seed from a number of beets. For trial he 
chopped the latter to a pulp, and obtained a 
wash-boiler full ; by slow boiling he obtained 
two common-sized milk-pans of syrup. After 
boiling the beets were too sweet even then to 
eat. The beets had s tood a year and had 
gone to seed. 

Mr. Davis said, I am a student at the Uni- 
versity in the department of Professor Carr, 
and if any one will furnish the juice or syrup 
for analysis, I will take pleasure in delivering 
it to Professor Carr. I return to the University 
in about two weeks. Several small bottles of 
the juice or syrup would be enough for all 
practical purposes. 

Mr. Staley said, I will furnish enough juice 
from Mr. Hixon's beets and perhaps I can get 
some of his beet seed for distribution. Mr. 
H, did sell the seed for $1 per pound, but no 
doubt would contribute enough for experiment- 
al purposes. 

Mr. De Turk said, if I devote time and labor 
to experiment I want to know that I have pure 
sugar beet, jnd the true Silesian variety. I 
kuow that we are frequently deceived in the 
purity and variety of seed purchased, and un- 
less tho seed is carefully grown and gathered, 
that is, the beet cultivated for seed and the 
latter grown to maturity and gathered clean, 
the experiment would have rrb value. I would 
like to know where we can get waranted genu- 
ine, clean sugar beet seed. 

Mr. Maslin — I will undertake to obtain the 
seed if they can be obtained. I will contrib- 
ute that much to the experiment, if the farm- 
ers will carry it oat. I do not think an analy- 
sis from Mr. Hixon's beets would be of any 
value. I am told that excessive growth is not 
favorable to a large percentage of saccharine 
matter. What we want is to ascertain the 
largest yielding capacity per acre of our soils, 
and next, the highest percentage of sugar in 
the beets. Experiments carefully and precisely 
conducted, taking nothing upon guess, can 
alone determine these facts, and these are the 
only facts capitalists require to know. I will 
say here that Professor Carr said that we need 
not be frightened by the large amount said 
to be required to start a sugarie, that the capi- 
tal said to be involved in sugar beet factories 
was largely in excess of the positive wants of 
the business. 
President Holmes said, I have in my pos- 

Reslstance of Building-Stone to Heat. 

The great fires at Chicago and New York 
have attracted much attention to the relative 
values of different kinds of building-stone in 
resisting the heat generated in great conflagra- 
tions. Mr. Wigh4, after the Chicago fire, care- 
fully collected such facts and evidence as seem- 
ed most pertinent to this question, and em- 
bodied the same in an address before the Ameri- 
can Institute of Architects, at Boston. 

It is stated that in the Chicago fire none of 
the limestones stood the test of heat; but some 
were worse than others. The Illinois lime- 
stone "was, in very many instances, entirely 
calcined." "With regard to this stone, " says 
Mr. Wight, "it was a common thing for it 'to 
explode when the heat came suddenly upon it 
and was very intense. It seemed to calcine 
with great rapidity, and I suppose the effect 
was very much like that seen in the manufac- 
ture of popcorn. 

The limestones used for building consist es- 
sentially of carbonates of lime, or of carbonate 
of lime and magnesia — the latter being known 
as dolomite. When limestone is exposed to a 
red heat, the carbonic acid is driven off and 
the stone crumbles into "burnt lime." Lime- 
stone free from magnesia, however, will stand 
a much higher heat than the dolomite — the 
latter crumbling at 600^ Fah., a temperature 
which leaves the former intact. Mr. Wight 
speaks of the so-called "petroleum stone," 
which was reported to be entirely consumed, 
but which, in fact, stood the heat very well. 
There was one church in Chicago built of this 
stone, in which the amount of oil was so great 
that the heat of the sun would draw it out soon 
after the stone was set up in a wall, and it 
would run down in black streaks. "The effect 
of the heat on the inside of the walls threw out 
upon the exterior all the oil it contained, which 
formed a thick, hard coating, about a quarter 
of an iuch iu thickness; and though the in- 
terior of the church was exposed to great heat, 
and every particle of wood in it was burned up 
so that there was not a scrap left in it, the in- 
terior sides of its walls were not greatly injured. 
In some places the stone had flaked off, and yet 
this stone stood the test better than any 
other natural stone used in the city." 

Sandstones stood the heat best at Chicago, 
and proved the excellence of that material 
for fire-proof structures. The only building in 
the burnt district of the south side at Chicago, 
which stood intact, was of Cleveland sand- 
stone. "In that building there was not a flaw, 
nothing cracked or broken." Sandstone is 
made up of from 80 to 90 per cent, of sdica, 
the balance consisting of alumina, lime, mag- 
nesia, iron, etc. The oxide of iron is usually 
the cementing material. 

Granite, quartz, slate, and most other rocks 
of that class used for building purposes, are lia- 
ble to crack, oftentimes in an explosive man- 
ner. This is due to the fact that they contain 
a considerable quantity of water, mechanically 
held within their interstices. Quarrymen and 
miners will often, on examining the walls of 
such rocks immediately after blasting, notice 
that they are more or less moist — the moisture 
being sometimes so great as to collect in drops 
and even run down the face of the recent frac- 
ture. This moisture is retained in building 
blocks, and when great heat is applied, being 
converted into steam, causes explosions, as 
above. Sandstone is quite free from moist- 
ure; hence, chiefly, its power to resist the ac- 
tion of heat. 

Artificial stones, composed of silicate of lime 
and alumina, with water chemically combined 
— not mechanically enclosed — are of the nature 
of sandstones, and are well-calculated to resist 
heat. It is said that large numbers of the Frear 
stone blocks which passed through the Chi- 
cago fire, and which do not contain any free 
water, are boing used the second time in the 
construction of other buildings. 

Bricks, if of good quality, resist the action of 
fire very well. If they contain material which 
vitrifies readily they lose their strength and 
succumb. True, they absorb water easily, but 
they part with it so readily that no danger en- 
sues from that cause. AV hen good bricks are 
built into a wall of proper thickness they form 
about as indestructible a material as can be 
used for resisting a great heat. 

We have not as yet seen any report upon the 
particular and comparative effect of heat upon 
the stone and brick material subjected to the 
heat of the recent Boston fire. Careful obser- 
vations have no doubt been made, the results 
of which will doubtless ere long find their way 
into print. Quite too little attention is paid 
by builders and architects to the heat resisting 
capacity of the stone they use. More attention 
is paid to the crushing strain which it will bear 
and the facility with which it may be worked. 
Mineralogy and chemistry are quite as essen- 
tial to the architect in determining the selec- 
tion of his building materials as is the hydraul- 
ic press. 

January 4, 1873.] 

Our Weekly Market Review. 

[By our own Reporter.] 

Tuesday, Dec. 31st, 1872. 
With the present number of the Roral Press the old 
year will have passed away; a year of which the past six 
months have been particularly eventful ones for the farm - 
ers of California. We close the year with good pros" 
pects for what remains unsold of last year's wheat crop, 
and owing to the bounteous rain, begin the new year 
with excellent prospects for the coming harvest. Wheat> 
which at the beginning of the wsek was weak on ac_ 
count of the rain is again firm on account of the ad- 
vance of three cents in the Liverpool market. 

RECEIPTS.— Receipts since last Tuesday have hardly 
averaged one half of those of the previous week, save 
only in the matters of Wheat, Wool, Buckwheat and 
Barley. And this is true not only of thoBe from the in- 
terior, but also of those from Coast ports whence wo 
have received no Wheat, Potatoes or Oats, and only 380 
bags of Barley. This is due partly to the rain, and 
partly to the holidays — in the matter of potatoes, being 
induced by the low prices lately obtainable in this city. 
We summarise receipts of Bay produce to date as 
0,113 quarter sacks of Flour, 241,795 centals of Wheat, 
2,850 do of Barley, 100 do of Oats, 455 do of Buckwheat, 
49 do of Corn, 317 do of Beans, 200 do of Corn, 25 do of 
Mustard Seed, 1,120 do of Bran, 445 do of Middlings, 
1,053 do of Potatoes, 319 do of Onions, 1,290 of Hides, 
352 bales Wool, 35 tons of Salt, 10,470 gallons of Wine, 
441 tons of Hay, 32 tons of Straw, 88 bbls and 153 half 
bbis of Beet Sugar, and 25 bales of Cotton. 

Wheat receipts at Oakland Wharf have aggregated 
291 car loads, or 58,200 centals. 

The following receipts have come from Coast ports: 
2,699 sacks of Corn, 660 do of Meal, 23 do of Castor 
Beans, 380 do of Barley, 25 do of Flax Seed, 751 Hides, 
80 bales of Wool, 2 kegs of Wine, and 22 sacks of Beans- 
The Corn came from Huenema and San Diego; the Meal, 
Beans and Wine from San Diego, the Hides from Colo- 
rado River, San Diego, San Luis Obispo and Santa Bar- 
bara; the Barley from San Luis Obispo, and the Wool 
from Santa Barbara and San Diego. 

From Valparaiso wo have received 30 sacks of Alfalfa 

BARLEY.— Barley has been weak for the last fort- 
night. It now, however, shows signs of improving 
somewhat and sales have been made of choice Bay at 
10c higher than were received last week. Other kinds 
however, remain the same. We note sales of 400 sacks 
of good Coast at $1.30, 850 do of Bay Feed and Coast at 
$1.32}$, and 350 do of Choice Bay at $1.50. 

FLOUR.— Flour has fallen 25c per barrel for Extra 
duriDg the week. There have been no exports during 
the week. We note sales of 500 bbls of Oregon Super- 
fine at $5.75; 300 do of Pioneer at $3.87M: 150 of do 
at $5 75; 5,000 bbls of Vallpjo Superfine for Liverpool, 
per "Janet Ferguson," at privato rates; 7,000 qr casks 
of Superfine, free on board, at $4.20, and 250 bbls of Pio- 
neer Extra, at $5.87%. 

HAY.— The supply of Hay is limited, and the best 
quality, particularly of wheat, is scarce. The demand 
is fair, and prices rule as last week. 

OATS. — Oats may be quoted at about the same figures 
as last week. Receipts have been very limited. We 
note the following sales : 300 sacks of Fair at $2.15, 
and 650 of Choice at $2.25. 

POTATOES.— Receipts of Potatoes have been un- 
usually limited, there being no arrivals from Coast 
ports. In consequence the tone of the market is much 
firmer than it has been for the last two or three weeks. 
We note sales of 650 sacks of Humboldt at $1.12 M; and 
500 do of Pigeon Point, private. The receipts of Sweet 
have been for this past year 50,000 sacks — about double 
the quantity received last year. 

WHEAT. — The rise of price in Liverpool has caused 
an unusual firmness in this market, the great rainfall 
and the hopes of an exceedingly abundant harvest to 
the contrary notwithstanding. Having receded a couple 
of cents during the week, it has again advanced and the 
highest Is quoted at $2.05 per cental. Wheat in the Liver- 
pool market is now 12s. 6d. to 12s. 8d. for average Cali- 
fornia. Freights have fallen during the week and do 
not now exceed $3 per ton to Liverpool. We note sales 
of 1,370 sacks of fair and mixed at $1.87 JjJ; 1,800 sacks 
of choice shipping at $1.90; 3,375 sacks of do. and choice 
milling at $1.97%, and 500 sacks good at $2. 

Exports have not equalled those of last week, though 
they have been moderately large. They have included 
to Liverpool per "St. Nicholas" 55,400 centals; per"Iron 
Duke," 43,150 centals, and per "Ericson" 44,291 centals; 
to Queenstown per "Lima" 26,848 centals; per "Monte 
Rosa" 40,183 centals; per "Arracan" 20,711 centals, and 
per "Ukraine" 21,559 centals; making a total of 261,202 
centals worth $474,190. 

WOOL.— Wool remains as last week. About 100,000 
lbs. were sold during the weekending Saturday 29th. 
The quantity sent overland by railroad during the year 
was 23,375,766 lbs., nearly a million pounds in excess of 
(hat sent during 1871. 

While retail business has been as last week, unusu- 
ally brisk, wholesale business has been very dull, and 
(here is little to report. We have received assorted car- 
goes from New York per "General Butler," "Malay" and 
"Anahuac," from Boston, per "Hazard," from New Zea- 
land, per "Nebraska," and cargoes of Coal, Drugs, Lime, 
Chemicals, etc., from Shields per "St. Lucie," and 
from Hamburg per"Johanna Maria." We have received 
cargo of Ores, etc., from Colorada river, per "Newbern." 
Exports have consisted principally of Wheat, particulars 
of wMsl are given elsewhere, and an assorted cargo for 
New York, Panama and Mexico per "Montana." Sales 
have included 1,300 casks of Cumberland Coal, principal- 
ly per "Tamerlane," 680 do of Egg and 270 Lehigh per 
•'John Bryant," 1,300 tons of Egg per "St. Lucie," 800 
tons of Australian per "Silas Fish," and 700 tons of 
Seattle at $14; 25 casks of Sal Soda, 80 pipes of Califor- 
nia pure Spirits at $1.05, and 100 boxes of Coke Tin at 

City P^k^t R^Epo^f. 


San Francisco, Tuesday, a. m., Dec. 31. 

@6 00 
&6 01) 
<a« 25 

fee 25 

@6 25 

©6 00 
(3)6 00 
MB 00 

§6 00 
6 W 
@6 00 
(gjO 00 


Alviso Mills bbl.4 25 

California 4 '25 

Ciiy Mills 4 50 

Coinme'l Mills.. 4 50 

Golden Gate 4 50 

Golden Age. 4 25 

National Mills.. 4 25 

SantaClaiaMills 4 25 

Genest e Mills... 4 25 

Oregon 4 25 

Vallejo Star 4 25 

Venus, Oakland. .4 25 _ 

Stockton City. ..4 25 %6 Oo 

Lombard. S»c. .4 25 ® — 

Beans sm'l w"iU3 !4 ® — 

do, butter A%® — 

do, large, do... 5 W) — 

do, bayo 3^@ — 

uo, pink 334© — 


Per ton *60@100 


WheatCal. coastl fcS @1 95 
do, Bhtptiing . .1 90 @ 2— 

do, milling 1 95 @2 00 

do, Oregon... .1 85 ©2 00 

Barley, DarkC'stl 25 @ — 

do, Light 1 3iy,(gl 40 

do. Brewing... 1 45 (5)1 50 

Oats, Coast 2 10 (a,2 15 

do, Bay 2 15 @2 25 

Corn, White 1 40 <a — 

do, Yellow 1 50 @1 35 

Buckwheat 2 00 @2 25 

Rye 2 20 (Z<2 50, 


Butter.C'al. fre^h 60 (at — 
do, ordinay roll 50 @ — 

do, choice 60 @ — 

do, new firkin. 35 (a) — 

do. packed 37%@ — 

do, New York. il'/i® — 

Cheese. Cal. new 15 (5) — 
do, Eastern ... 

Eggs, Cal. fresli 

do. Oregon 

do. Eastern. . . . 

Bran ner ton 26 @ — 

Middlings 30 @ 35 

Hay 16 <«> 24 

St. aw 10 (a> 

Oilcake meal... 35 ^ — 

Beef, fr quality.. 10&S 11 
do, second do.. 8 to) 9 
do, third do.... 6 © 7 

Veal 8 © — 

Mutton 7 © — 



If. = 
15 © 



45 @ 


Pork, undressed. S'^g 

do, dressed.... 7%© 


California,1871,lti — (g 

do 1872... 37M© 


Beeswax. per lb.. 31% (a 

Honey lit (m 

Onions 2M@ 2% 

Flaxseed 3 © — 

anary do 4 © 5 

Mustard do. vita l.'/|© 2 

do, brown 2 © a 

Peas 3 50 © — 

Peanuts per lb... 4 

Pecan nuts 18 

Hickory do 10 

Brazil do 16 

Prince Almonds. 16 
Cocanuts.V 100. 12 00 
Alm'dsh'rd shell 12 

do, soft 23 


Sweet, per lb \!4i 

Humboldt \y a <i 

Monterey 1 @ IW 

Tomales 1 @ 1>? 

Live Turkeys lb. 18 © 20 

Hens, per dz 7 50 ©8 50 

Roosters 7 00 ©8 00 

Chickens 4 00 ©6 00 

Ducks, tame.dozlO 00 ®12 00 

do, Mallard. ...3 00 ©4 5u 
Gee«e, per doz. 2 50 ©3 ( 
Quail, per doz. .."2 00 
Hare, per doz...3 50 
Rabbit", per dozl 00 
Larki, per doz .. 50 
Dove3, per doz.. 50 
Plover, per doz.. 50 
Curlew, per doz. 50 

Teal, per doz 1 50 

Snipe, EnL'., doz2 50 (&;) 00 

do, small, doz.. 1 00 © — 
Venison, per lb.. 8 © 10 

Cal. Bacon, per lb 12 @ 13 
Ea-tern do 17!^© 12 

do sugared 12;$@ — 

Cal. Hatns 14 © — 

Eastern do 16 © — 

Cal. Smoked Heef 10 © 11 

Nat've, per lb... 12 @ 20 

California 29 © 28 

Oregon 25 @ 28 

Hides, dry in ® 20 

do, green salt'd 9 © 10 
Tallow 8 @ iH 


Plenty of the season fruit*'. We are just beginning to 
get Los'Angeles oranges and lemon*, the latter from the 
Malaga seed. We will have large shipments .-owl. Oranges 
will. turn out well this year, and will be cheaper than 
ever before, Grapes are out of the market. Ttiere are 
plentv of dried fruits in ihe market. Los Angeles lemons, 
per lOO. $1.00. of California raisins we will so.m have 
plenty. One man this year put up 2,000 boxes, and they arJ 
now selling from 8 cents to 10 cents per lb. 

Mex, Or.per 1000 45 00<a«0 00 

Limes, %( M 15 0U©2» Oil 

Au'lnLemons.oxS 0J ©16 00 

Malagado., bx...l5 Oil © — 

Bananas, %* bncb'2 50 ©3 50 

Pineapples, ^ dz 6 ©'g, bx.l 25 fe'2 00 

" Cooking,.... 75 ©125 

PearB, Eating ... 1 50 ©2 50 

Cooking.. 60 ©1 00 

Pomegran B.fUOO — none 

Grapes, Mis-ion. — none 

Rose of Peru.. — (a) — 

Blk Hamburg. 1 50 @2 00 

Black Prince . — @ — 

Muscat of Al'rl 50 (g)2 00 

Flame Tokay...l 50 @2 00 

Black Morocco — % — 

Wine Grapes.. V4& 1>S 


Apples. <# IB 7 @ 8 

Pears, %■, if, 

Peaches, W tt>.... 
Apricots, fy lb.... 

Plums, % m 

Pitted, do sp lb... 

Raisin". $ lb 

Black Figs, $ lb.. 
White, do ... 


© 9 
®1 2'A 


Cabbage, ^ lb H®— 

Uarlic, $ lb 5 © 6 

Green Peas — © 8 

Green Corn f, doz. . — @— 
Marrowlat Squash 

per ton 10 00015 00 

Artichokes, f, lb.... 4© — 
Tomatoes river"^bx. — @2 00 
String Beans,$tb ... 8 @— 

Lima Beans (rtilO 

PepperB —(^25 

Okra 6 © 7 



Rough, H M $20 00 

Roiuh refuse, ^ M 16 00 

Rough clear,* M 32 50 

Rough clear refuse, M.. 22 60 

Rustic* M 3500 

Ru-uic. reluse, f, M 21 00 

Surfaced,* M 32 .50 

Surfaced refuse,* M... 22 50 

Flooring, * M 30 00 

Flooring refuse, $M.. 20 00 
Beaoed flooring, * M... 31 50 
Beaded floor, refuse, M. '22 50 

Haii-inch Siding. M 22 50 

Half-inch siding, ref. M. 16 00 
Hilf inch, Surlacd.M. 25 00 
Half inch Surf. ret.. M. 18 (10 
Half inch Battens, M... 22 50 
Pickets, rough,* M.... 14 00 
Pickets, rouiih, p'ntd... 16 00 
Piokeis. fancy, p'ntd... . 22 50 
Shingles, *M 13 00 

tail Price. 

Rough, *M $25 00 

Flooring and Step, * M 37 50 
Flooring, narrow. ^ v.. 411 (ill 
Flooring. 2d quality M..30 00 

Laihs, * M 3 50 

Furring. * lineal ft lc 

Rough,* M $25 00 

Rough reluse, * ,M 20 00 

REOWOOD-R°tail Price. 
Rough Pickets. * M.... 18 00 
Rough Pickets, p'ri, M.. 20 00 

Fancy Pi-kets, * M 30 00 

Siding, *M 27 50 

Tongueu and Grooved, 

surfaced, * M 40 00 

Do do refuse, * M 27 50 

Hal'-inch surfaced, M.. 40 00 

Rustic,* M 42 50 

Battens, i3 liueai tuot... lc 
Shingles, *M 3 50 




Eng, stand. Wh't 15 ® 
Flour Sacks >£s.. 16'4@ 

" >3s. 

Stand. Gunnies.. 

" Wool Sacks. oO 

" Barlev do... 17 

Hessian 40-ln eds — 


CostiRica per lb 18 

Guatemala 18 

Java i2 

Manilla 16 

Rio — 

Ground in cs — 25 

Chicory 10 


bundles. * lb . . — 

Salmon in bbls . .8 60 

do % bbls5 — 

do 2"4tb cans4 10 

do 21b cans. .2 50 

do lib cans. .2 25 

Pick. Cod. bbls.. 8 50 

do % b-ls. — 

Pug. Sd. Smok'd — 

Herr'g.bx-*lh — 

Mack'l.No.l.'ibla — 

Extra — 

" in kits.... 2 25 

" mess — 

14 ex. meBs.. — 

Assorted size — 



Chslk — , 10 

Paris White — © 

Ochre — <«1 

Venetian Red... — © 

Red Lead — © 

Litharge — (s 

China No. 1,* lb 6ii@ 
do 2, do, 5>£© 

Japan 6 © 

Patna VA@ 

Hawaiian 9 © 


@ 70 
@ — 
© 12 


© - 
© - 
(A 60 

i,. II 111) 
(„I2 110 

r.7'2 ;>n 

,„:i tin 
©5 00 

- ® 


Castile,* lb Viii® 13 

Local brands.... 6 '© 7 


Allspice, per lb.. 17 © — 

Cloves 23 © — 

C'Ssia..... 30 © — 

Nutmeg 97>S@ — 

Whole Pepper... 18 ~ua 19 

Ground Allspice — © 22 

Ca-sia.. 35 © 40 

Cloves.. 2l\i{a) 25 

Mustard 25 © 30 

Gnger.. 2i)4im — 

Pepper.. 204® — 

Mace....l 15 (cu — 


Cal. Cube per lb. — © 12 

Circle Acrushed 

do granulated 

Golden O 

do Extra.. . 


Cal. Syrup in bis. 
do in l 2 bis. 
do in kegs.. 

Cal. Bav.per ton. 6 50 ©15 00 

Carmen Island.. 14 00 ©15 GO 

Liverpool fine... 24 © — 

do coarsolO 00 ln.20 00 


Oolong, Canton.. 19 @ 25 

do Amoy... 2S © 50 

do Formosa 40 © 90 

Imperial Canton 25 („) 35 

do Pngsuey 45 © 90 

do Moyune . 60 ©1 00 

Gunpo'rtor.Cant. 30 © fii4 

do Pingsuey 60 © 90 

do Moyune. 65 ©1 25 

Y'ng Hy. Canton 28 © 40 

do PinKsuey 40 © 70 

do Moyune.. 65 ©1 00 

Japan, ><. chests, 

bulk SO @ 75 

Japan, lacquered 

bxs,4>£and5tbs 45 © 67 



© 12 

- © 11X 

- © 10 !i 

- © wa 

20 © 22)^ 

32'^© 3i 

35 © 37.^ 

40 © 45 

San Francisco Metal Market. 


fobbinf) prices rule from, ten lo fifteen per cent, higher than the 
foUoncing quotation*. 

Tuesday, Dec. 31, 1872. 


Scotch Pig Iron, * ton $50 00 

White Pig, * ton 50 00 

Refined Bar, bad assortment, * lb 

Refined Bar, good assortment, * lb 

Boiler, No. 1 to 4 — OSVSlt 

Plate, No. 5 to 9 — 06}« 

Sheet, No. 10 to 13 — 07'4($ 

Sheet, No. 14 to 20 — 07k@ 

Sheet, No. 24 to 27 — 08 <§ 

Horse Shoes 9 00 © 

Nail Rod 10>i@ 

Norway Iron 9 

Rolled Iron — 

Other Irons for Blacksmiths, Miners, etc 5^2) 6% 


Sheathing, * lb 

Sheathing, Yellow — 38 

Sheathing, Old Yellow 

Composition Nails — 28 

Composition Bolts — 28 

Tin Plates.— 

Plates, Charcoal, IX * box 18 00 

Plates, I C Charcoal 14 00 

Roofing Platea 18 50 

BancaTin, Slabs,* ft — 50 

Steel— English Cast, * ft — 20 

Drill 20 

FlatBar 20 

Plough Points 16 

Russia (for mould boards) 12>f 

@- 45 
@ — 40 

— 30 

— 30 


— 22 

Leather Market Report 

[Reported for the Press by Dolliver & Co.] 

San Francisoo, Tuesday, Dec. 31, 1872. 
Shipments of Sole Leather to the East are quite 
heavy, and prices are firm, though there has been no ad- 
vance. Domestic Calf Skin has advanced 10 per cent., 
in consequence of the large amount destroyed, aud 
French Skins are firm with an upward tendency. 

City Tanned Leather,* ft 26(»29 

Santa Cruz Leather, * lb 2<i,>3 

Country Leather, * ft 25',. 28 

Stockton Leather,* lb 26W-29 

Jodot,8 Kil.^erdoz *60 00© 

Jodot, 11 to 19 Kil. per doz 66 00© 85 00 

Jodot, second choice, 11 to 16 Kil.* doz 55 00© 711 00 

Lemoine, 16 to 18 Kil ,* doz 75 00«a 77 50 

Levin, 12and 13 Kil per doz 68 0(1© 70 00 

Cornellian, 16 to 19 Kil., per doz 63 0ll«i) 65 HO 

Cornellian, 12 to 14 Kil., per doz 56 00(a) so on 

Cornelban Females, 14 to 16 Kil 65 i 0© 70 00 

Ogerau Calf, * doz 54 OOwj 

Simon, 18 Kil.,* doz 60 00 

Simon, 20 Kil. * doz.- 6.5 00 

Simon. 24 Kil. * doz 72 00 

Robert Calf, 7 and 8 Kil 35 00® 40 00 

B'rench Kips, * ft 1 l 0® 130 

California Kip, * doz 55 00 to 70 00 

French Sheep, all colore, * doz 8 00© 15 00 

Eastern Calf for Backs, * ft © 125 

Sheep Roans for Topping, all colors, * doz 9 00© 13 00 

Sheep Roans for Linings,* doz 5 50® 10 50 

California Russett Sheep Linings 175© 5 50 

Best Jodot Cal f Boot Legs, * pair 5 25 

Good French Calf Boot Legs. * pair 4.50® 5 00 

French Calf Boot Legs,* pair 4 00 

Harness Leather. * ft 30® 37V£ 

F'air Bridlu Leather, * doz 48 00ej) 72 00 

Skirting Leather, * ft 34© 37'^ 

Welt Leather,* doz SO OOiiJ 50 00 

Buff Leather, * foot 18© 23 

Wax Side Leather. » foot '. 20© 22 

Eastern Wax Leather 26 

San Francisco Retail Market Rate3. 

Tuesday Noon, Dec. 31, 1872. 
Plenty of the season fruits. We are just beginning to 
get Los Angeles Oranges and Lemons— tho latter from 
Malaga seed. They look well. We will have large ship- 
ments soon. Oranges will turn out well this year; will 
be cheaper than ever before. Grapes are out of Ihe 
market. There are plenty of Dried Fruits in the mar- 
ket. Los Angeles Lemons, per 100, ? 1.00. Of California 
Raisins we will soon have plenty. During 1872 one man 
put up 2,000 boxes, and they are now selling from eight 
cents to ten cents per pound 

Apples, pr lb 5 @ 8 

Pears, per lb 6 © 12 

Grapes 6 © 25 

Apricots, ft — ® — 

PineApples.each 75 (ad 00 

Bananas, * doz.. 75 @ — 

Canteleups — (ol — 

Watermelons... — © — 

Cal. Walnnts, ft. 15 ® 20 

Cranberries, * g — © 75 

Strawberries, lb — ® — 

Raspberries, ft.. — r<* — 

Gooseberries*... — © — 

Cherries, * ft,.. — © — 

Oranges,* doz.. 75 ©1 00 

Limes, per doz . . 35 © 40 

Figs, fresh Cal. * 15 © 20 

Ftgs, Smyrna, ft 25 

Asparagus, wh.* tiO 

Artichokes, doz. 50 
Brussel's sprts, * 

Beets,* ft 20 

Potatoes.New * 10 

Potatoes, sweet,* 2 

Broccoli, * doz..I 60 

Cauliflower, t .. 15 @ 25 

Cabbage,* doz.. 75 ©1 00 


Carrots,* doz... 20 @ 

Celery,* doz 75 (u> 

Cucumbers,!-. . .. — ® 
Tomatoes, *ft.. 8 % 

Green Peas — ® 

String Beans... 15 la) 
Cress, * doz bun 
Dried Herbs, ft.. 

Garlic 8 

Green Corn, doz. 
Lettuce, *doz.. 
Mushrooms,* ft 
Horseradish,* ft 
Okra, dried,* ft 

do fresh, * lb. 
Pumpkins. * ft. 
Parsnips, doz. ... 


Pickles,* gal... 
Radishes, doz.. 
Summer Squash 

Marrowfat, do. 

Hubbard, do.. 
Dry Lima, shl... 
Spinage, * bskt. 
Salsify, * bunch 
Turnips,* doz 

Poultry is still in full supply and prices tend downward 
Tnere are plenty of turkeys to be obtained below our quo- 
tation, say from 10 to 15 cents per lb. Fish are still dear 
and very scarce. There are no fresh water pereh, mackerel 
or pickled silmon tn market. Prawms and small smelt are 
scarce. Chesapeake oyters are plenty, as also are oysters 
from ^ew York. The former are raised from plants near 
Saucileto, in Richaru son's Bay. 

Chickens, apiece 75 ©100 | Whittaker's.. — @ 2.5 
| Johnson's Or.. 25 © 25 
[Flounder,* ft... % 3T4 

Salmon, * 

Turkeys, * ft.. 20 @ 2.5 
Mai d&Canv'sBkl 10 © — 

Tame, do 1 00 ©1 60 

Teal, * doz.... 2 5J<ui3 (Hi 
Geese, wild, pair 75 ©1 25 

Tame, * pair. .2 00 ©2 50 
Snipe, *doz... 3 00 © — 
Quails, * doz ...2 60 ® — 
Pigeons, dom. do 3 00© — 

Wild, do — ®2 00 

Hares, each ... — © 50 
Rabbits, tamet. 

Beef, tend, * ft. 

Corned, * lb.. 

Smoked,* ft . 
Pork, rib, etc., ft 

Chops, do, * ft 15 ffl 
Veal,* ft — @ 

Cutlet, do ® 

Mutton chops, 

Leg,* lb 

Lamb,* ft 

Tongues, beef, ea - 

75 ©1 00 
— [« 2 III) 
20 © - 
12^® - 
15 © 

- @ 

Tongues, pig, ea 
Bacon, Cal.. * lb 

Oregon, do . .. 
Hams, Cal, * ft. 
Hams, Cross' s c 

Choice D'tlield 


_ 20 
@1 00 
5 ©I 00 
16 @ 18 
18 © — 
18 @ 20 
— ® 25 


— @ 

- 6 1 

— © 


Smoked, new,* 

Pickled,* ft.. 
Rock Cod, * lb.. 
Cod Fish, dry, lb 
Perch, s water, lb 

F>esh water, ft 
Lake Big. Trout* 
Mm ii -, lai ge * ft 

Small do 

Silver Smelts... 

Soles, * ft 

Herring, fresh * 

Sm'kd.per 100 
Tomcod, * ft.... 
Terrapin, * doz.5 00 @8 00 
Mackerel, p'k, ea 15 © 

F'resh, do lb ... — (<u 
Sea Bass, * ft. . . — @ 

Halibut 621*® 

Sturgeon,* lb.. 4 @ 5 
Oysters, * 100... 1 00 @ — 

Chesp. * doz.. 75 ®1 25 

Turbot 50 ® — 

Crabs * doz....l 00 @ 

Soft Shell 37M@ — 

Shrimps 10 © 12 

Prawns — ©1 (0 

Sardines 10 % — 

12' 2 (</l 15 

- © - 
40 © — 

4 © 5 

— @1 00 
"" 20 


D.\s,1/i una J iu» ta tu/ 

Japan do, 3 lb bxs 45 © 

do pl'nbx,4>4ft 35 © 

doi^Al ft paper 30 m 

Corrected weekly by B. Srarboro & Brio., Grocers, No. 531 

Washington sti eet, San Francisco. 
Butter, Cal. pr ft 60 ® 65 Syrup.S.F.Gol'n. 4.5 @ 50 

Cheese. 'al.. lb.. 17 @ 23 
Lard. Cal., ft.... 12>6© 15 

F'lour, ex.fom.bl6 00 ©6 29 

Corn Meal. lb.... 3 © 3.'4 

SiH'ar, wii.cish'd 12 («i 13 

tin 9 © Wit 

family gr'nd, lb 27^ 
Oiiffce, green. lb.. 18 fu .2 
Tea. tine blk, 50, 65, 75 ©1 00 
Tea.finstJap.55.75. 00 mil 00 
Candles, Admant'eU © 25 
Soap, Cal., ft.... © 10 
Can 50 ©3 75 
"Per lb. t Per dozen. 1 Per gallon 

Dried Apples. . .. 7!£a/> 10 

Did Cir. Prunes 9 © 10 

Dr'd Figs, Cal... 9 © 10 

Dr'd Peaches.... 8 Ml 10 

Oils, Kerosene .. © 50 

Eggs — la* 70 

Wines. Old Port 3 50 ©5 00 

do Fr. claret..l 00 ©1 25 

do Cal .dz.botS 00 dul 00 

Whisky.O.H, gal.3 50 ©5 mi 

Fr. Brandy 4 00 (5 III (n) 

Rice, lb 10 © I2)i 

Yeast Powders, dz.l 50©2 00 

Plant Flowers. 

The following sermon from the Farmers' Ad- 
vocate, by "Theodore," will commend itself to 
our readers for its good sense and beauty: 

Farmers' wives and daughters, here is a sub- 
ject in which you all feel an interest. Taste 
leaps with joy at its discussion; pride approves 
the choice, judgment confirms it, health rejoices 
at the prospect, and the angels of the house- 
hold will furnish willing hands for the accom- 
plishment of the object. The object is for the 
queen of the household to surround it with 
shrubbery and flowerst, make it attractive, 
healthy, cool, comfortable and refreshing. 

Would you be surrounded with flowers, 
Spring, Summer, and Autumn ? Would you 
live in a home of roses ? Would you inhale 
sweetness and perfume ? Would you gaze up- 
on beauty until it is reflected permanently in 
your cheeks, and your breath becomes one with 
their fragrance? Then plant about you the 
choicest shrubbery and flowers which bloom, 
each succeeding the other, and make your home 
a charmed spot, and the envy of all around 
you. This is not man's work, but woman's 
work. It is one of her rights; guard it vigilant- 
ly and see that no trespassing hand deprives 
you of your inalienable rights. 

Would you excite the envy of your friends, 
the noblest emulation of your neighbors, the ad- 
miration of your visitors and the passer-by, the 
love of your husband, the spirit of refinement 
and the love of beautyinyourcbildren, the grati- 
tude of all, and the approbation of your own 
conscience ? then — plant flowers. 

Instated Press, 



tiuns Choice Literature, Art and Refined Amu^eniehta. 
fciuld by subscription, J$1.50 a year. Samples, 15 cents. , 

Contents for Jan. 1873. 

LLl'STRATIOSiS-The Polar Bear. Pioneer»' First 
View of the Sierras, The Late Col. A. S. Evans Will it 
be "Yes" or "No," Horace B. Claflin. The Attack on Place 
Vendome, A Chrisimas Carol, "A Merry Christmas,' ' "A 
Hapuv New Year," St. Nicholas on His Travels, An Itish 
Country Dance, Cape Horn — On the Columbia River, How 
to viake Wax Flowers, Old Dog Tray. 

F.I>ITOKIJLL,S-Here We Are— Introductory, Califor- 
nia Pioneers, Letter t'rom President Oilman, Toe Litera- 
ry Journal of the Day, Now and Then, "Turned Out to 
Die," Art Etchings, i^udin Notes, Music, Ihe Drama, List 
of vierobers of S. F. Art Association, Our Young Foias' 
Corner, Old Fashioned Games, Umbrellas. 

POETRY- Colima. The Lark, A Dream of Home, 
Christinas .on the Street Cars, Alphabet of Short Rules, 
The Rabbit on the Wall, Sir Bumbie-eebeedontyousee. 

MlSCKl.l.ANJEOUS— A Candidate for the Rope, The 
First Aieei ican Shin. Conversation in Society, A Legend 
of the Mohawk Valley, Saved in Mid Air, Miss Pert, I 
Thought it My Duly, The Science of Laughing, A Beauti- 
ful F'ount 'in. What is Insanitv, What is Dirt, Too Late, 
Iron and Coal in the U. S.. The Origin of Alphabets, Ihe 
Bells, Getting Married, Ahout Dogs, The Hands, Christ- 
mas Amusements, Wiitici&mn, The Housekeeper, Gems 
of Thought. 

.lust issued. Canvassers wanted. Address MURRAY, 
DEWEY A CO., Publishers. 414 Clay St., S. F. 
DtWEY & Co.. (Patent Agent-,.) W. H. MoimAY. 


Will be paid for copies of No. 2 of the Rural Press, 
of January 15, 1871, at this office. 

Our Agents. 

Our Friends can do mnch in aid of our paper and the 
cause of practical knowledge and science, by assisting 
Agents in their labors of canvassing, by lending their 
influence and encouraging favors. We intend to send 
none but worthy men. 

Jesse A. Pierce — Nevada and Placer Counties, Cal. 

Frank S. Chapin— California and Oregon. 

I. N. Hoao— Sacramento. General Agent. 

F. M. Shaw— Southern California. 

L. P. MoCarty — General Agent. 

A. C. Knox, City Soliciting and Collecting Agent. 

IMfclXC Cflf? We will send on receipt of stamp for 
Fllll IO riin pos tage, FREE, oar 52-page Circular, 
containingll2 Illustrated Mechani- I Ml/C MTfJDC 

cal Movements; a digest of PATENT "•'"■»" ' *"■"' 
LAWS; information how to obtain patents, and about the 
rights and privileges of inventors and patentees; list of 
Goverment fees, practical hints, etc., etc. AddressDEWEY 
A CO., Publishers and Patent Agents, San Francisco. 

For the very Best Photographs go to BRAD- 
LEY & RULOFSON'S GALLERY, with an " Elevator," 
•429 Montgomery street, San Francisco. 2Gvl-3m-eowbp 

Notica to Farmers and Others.— Skilled 
plowmen, general farmers, teamsters, laborers, me- 
chanics, servant girls, etc., can be obtained by applying 
by letter or personally, at California Labor and Em- Exchange, (i;S7 Clay street, extending to 631) 
Commercial street, San Francisco. 20v4-3m 

Extra Choice Early Rose Potatoes— For Seed.— 
Acknowledged by all to be the best Early Potato. Se- 
lected and put up in new, double-sewed gunnies, in fine 
order for shipping. For sale in lots to suit. Address 
orders or apply to H. DUTARD, 217 Clay Btreet, San 
Francisco. de21-lm 

Agents Wanted.— The new Revolver Traf winds up 
like a clock. Kills Rats, Gophers, Squirrels, etc. 
Throws them away and sets itself. One Trap, by Ex- 
press, for $1; or postpaid, by mail, $1.50. Combina- 
tion Tool Co., 124 Nassau street, New York. de!4-8t 

There is nothing like leather Shoes with a SILVER 
TIP for children. Try them. They never wear through 
at the Toe, 

For Sale by all Dealers. * 

The world moves, but not so fast as the reputation of 
tho CABLE SCREW WIRE Boots and Shoes. AH pro- 
nounco them superior to any other kind— try them. * 

Groceries and Provisions.— Wines and Liquors are 
shipped to country orders with dispatch, carefully 
marked and packed, free of extra charge, by B. Sbak- 
boro & Bro., 5;U Washington street, 8. F. This long 
established firm now import their goods from the four 
parts of the world, and consequently undersell all other 
grocers In San Francisco. All orders from the State 
and coast are promptly attended to. Address B. Sbar- 
boro & Bro., Lock Box 1126, San Francisco. d!4-3m 

Farmers, everywhere, write for your paper. 


mloivig &v&&& 

[January 4, 1873. 


Have become 

The Standard Wagons of the Pacific Coast. 

Fob Quality, 


Light Running, 

Good Proportion, 

and Excellent Style, 

They Have no rocr. 
Ibon Axle, 

Thimble Skein, 

Header and 

Spring Wagons, 
Of all sizes, with heavy tires rivlted on, always on 
hand and sold for $100 to $165. 

Having established a Manufactory to build Wagons, 
Beds. Brakes and Seats, I am better prepared than 
ever to furnish 

Just the Kinds of Wagons Needed, 

I make a specialty of the wagon trade. 

The attention of Deaiebs is especially requested. 

Send for Cuicular and Price List. 

16v.l-3m E. E. AMES, General Agent. 

Factory and Depot, 217 and 21tf K street, Sacramento. 

FIRST PREMIUM AWARDED at the State Fair of 
1870; also First Premium at Mechanics' Fair, San Fran- 
cisco, 1871; and Silver Medal and First Premium lor 
best Farm Wagon, and First Premium for the best im- 
proved Thimble Skein at State Fair, 1871. Also State 
Fair GOLD MEDAL for 1871. 



San Quentin, Cal. 

Hill's Patent Eureka Gang Plow. 

The following are some of the reasons why these 
Plows, are entitled to preference over any other Plow 
in use. They are made of the best material, and every 
Plow warranted. They are of light draught, easily 
adapted to any depth, and are very easily handled. 

They will plow any kind of soil, and leave the ground 
in perfect order. 


These Plows have taken First Premiums at the State 
Fair, at the Northern Distrii t Fair, at the Upper Sacra- 
mento Valley Fair, and the State Agricultural Society 
Premium of $40 for the best Gang Plow, after a fair test 
and competition with the leading Plows of the State. 

Champion Deep-Tilling Stnbble Plow, 

Took the First Premium over all competitors at the 
State Fair, 1871. It furrows 14 in. deep and 24 wide. 
This Gang Plow combines durability with cheapness, 

being made entirely of iron by experienced workmen, of 

the best material. Over three hundred are now in use, 

and all have given entire satisfaction. 
Manufactured and for Bale by the 


At SAN LEANDRO, CAL., under the personal superlu- 
tendance of the Patentee, F. A. Hill, 

And also by most leading Agricultural Dealers in the 
State. Send at once for Circulars, prices, etc. 21v3 


Took the Premium over all at the great Plowing 
Match in Stockton, in 1870. 

This Plow is thoro»ghly made by practical men who 
have been long in the business and know what is re- 
quired in the construction of Gang Plows. It is quickly 
adj usted. Sufficient play is given so that the tongue will 
pass over cradle knolls without changing the working 
position of the shares. It Is so constructed that the 
wheels themselves govern the action of the Plow cor- 
rectly. It has various points of superiority, and can be 
relied upon as the Beat and Most Desirable Gang Plow 
in the world. Send for circular to 


14v2-3m Stockton, Cal. 


Although about two hundred different ttyles of fences have been invented and patented in the United States 
within the past ten years, yet this Fence, for GENERAL FARM USE, stands at the head of the list. This is a 
Virginia invention, and the actual cost Of the Fence complete in that State is less than fifty cents per rod. Three 
men can put up six hundred yards per day. Price of territory, and circular with full description of fence, sent 
on application. . W 1 Bf*T 11 1 1 <*; CO., 

No. 17 New Montgomery street (under Grand Hotel) , San Francisco. 


Nos. 3 and 5 Front Street SAN FRANCISCO. 




Wostenholme's Pocket Cutlery, 

Blacksmith and Mining Tools, 

Rope, Iron, Steel, Ammunition, 

Powder and Fuse, 


Sole Agents for 


aWThese Plows are Deep Tillers, and are Just what the farmers need. They can be run by a small boy, as the 
lifting out of the ground is done by horse instead of hand power. Farmers should examine these Plows before 




Orders respectfully solicited. Catalogues and prices furnished on application. 18v4-6m 




Southwest corner of Second and Jessie streets, S. F. 
















a _ 



K « 





- B 

r 1 


















Blood Will Tell." 

with universal ankle motion. (The accompanying cut 
is its illustration) . 
These Legs, besides being made of the best material, 
in the most artistic manner, are properly fitted to the 
wearer; and for this a practical guaranty is given. A 
trial, and satisfaction before pay is required. 

For full price list, and descriptive circular of legs and 
arms, etc., call on or address 

101 Jessie street, San Francisco, Cal. 


Those in want of 
do well to call at the 
old stand. 118 Com- 
mercial street, San 
Francisco, between 
Davis and Drumin, 
and examine our im- m 
pri'Yeinents before' 
purchasing e 1 s e - 

The undersigned is the pioneer in this line, having 
manufactured them for the last ten years in this city. 

Mr Patent applied for. 

Iiv22-3m H. G. PRATT. 

W&~ " In breeding grade animals on either side, you 
breed backwards! Willi fcll-blood and ZBOBOOOB 
bred on either side you breed forwards." — Atooandv 
"You gel no KIOS from THISTLES "—Old Prortrb. 

I have 20 head of full-blood, thoroughbred, "Short- 
Horn" Durham Cattle— Weanlings, one, two and three 
years old— embracing thkei: of the best and most fash- 
ionable Btrains (including the milking) from several of 
the finest herds in Kentucky. Also 300 head of pure- 
bred Spanish Merinos from Vermont and New York, 
and Cotswolds from Kentucky. All my cattle are 
"American Herd Book," registered, and all my sheep 
aro perfectly certified. Adiress 

Mission St. Stables, cor. 2.'d and Mission Sts., San Francisco, Cal. 

Office and Rooms, in Webb's Building, 37 Second St., 
opposite the Grand Hotel. 


Breeders and Importers of the 

Cotswold, Lincoln, Leicester, Texel and 

South Down 

— ALSO — 


Now offer for sale the Pure Bred and High Grades. 
We have a good lot of Bucks of crosses between the 
Cotswold and South Down, between the Lincoln and 
[', and the Lincoln and Merino. 

19y».tf Hollister. Monterey County, Cal. 


A large assortment of FORCE and LIFT PUMPS; 

Celebrated Ranges — Union, Improved Richmond, and 
Eureka. A fine assortment constantly on hand. 

No. 519 Market btrvct, near First, San Francisco, 




625 Sansome street, corner Jackson, SAN FRANCISCO. 

Receive Consignments of Wool, Sheep 
1 Skins, Hides, etc. Liberal advances made to 
consignors. Keep on hand the best quality of 
Wool Sacks, Twines, and other Bupplies. 

40 Thoroughbred Angrora Goats for Sale I 
Imported by a native of Angora, direct from Asia Minor. 
For specimens see the fiock of Thomas k Shirland, 
Sacrammto, Cal. Address A. EUTYCHIDES. Spool 
Spring, Appomattox County, Va. 10v4-ly 

Los Angeles County Lands. 

Farming Lands in Los Angeles County for sale, in 
sections and quarter sections, at reasonable prices and 
on accommodating terms — say, one-fourth cash and 
balance in one, two and three years, with interest at lu 
per cent., payable annually. Apply at the office of the 
Company, No. 542, corner Market and Montgomery 
streets, over the Hibernia Bank, San Francisco, or tc 
the agent, W. R. OLDEN, Anaheim. 12v3tf 





And also a superior Iron Axle Wagon. 



John Deer M!oliiio Plow. 

Also COLLINS' PLOW (Smith's Patent). 

EXCELSIOR \I<>\\ 1 It AXD mti'ilt. 

tO~ Please call and examine. lTvi-ly 

Ready's Patent Gang Plow. 

This Plow was awarded the First Premium and Gold 
Medal at the great Plowing Match at the State Fair, 1K7J. 
I anga entered, including the Eureka, American 
Chief, Sweepstake, and others of notoriety. It has 
Wrought Iron Beams, Iron Wheels, Cast Steel Moulds 
and Shears. It is neat, simple, strong and durable, and 
warranted to run light, and lifts out of the ground 
easier than any other Gang known to the trade. Extras 
furnished and warranted to fit. 


301 J street, 8ACRAMENTO, Cal.. 
lTvl-Gm Sole Maker and Patentee. 


The attention of Teamsters, Contractors and , 

is called to the very superior AXLE GREASE manufac- 
tured by 


The experience of over twenty teaks, specially de- 
voted to the preparation of this article, has enabled the 
proprietors to effect a combination of lubricants calcu- 
lated to reduce the friction on axles, and thus 

Relieve the Draft of the Team, 

Far beyond the reach of any who have but recently 
gone into the business; and as the H k L AXLE 
GREASE can be obtained by consumers at as 


As any of the Inferior compounds now being forced 
upon the market by unprincipled imitators, who deceive 
and defraud the consumer. 

Invite all who desires First-class and Entirely Reliable 
Article, and which for Over 18 Years in this country has 
given such general satisfaction, to ask for the H ft 
L AXLE GREASE. See that the trade mark H & L 
is on the red cover of the package, and take no other. 

Slerchnnts and Farmers, 

Examine onr 

Horse Collars. 

Adopted by 

All Grades* 
No complaints. 

No repairing. 

Don't believe 



J. <J. Jon 


CorrEB Riveted 

Pat. Nov., 1861. 

U. S. Army. 

18,000 SOLD. 

Heavy A Liout. 

No ripping. 

Examine fo 

prejud'd partie 


only by 
As CO., 


Dealers 111 Harness, s A I)I>1. I'll V, i A ■■•■,,. etc. 

Liberal discount to the Trade. lyv* -."> 


Descended from stock weighing 6] lbs. to the pair- 
Premium Birds of N. Y. State Poultry Societv. 
Address W. CUFT, Mystic Bridge, Connecticut. 

January 4, 1873.] 



If you want clean grain, we invite you to call and 
before buying any other machinery. The improved 
machine is the most compact, Bimple and perfect Grain 
Cleaner now in use. It separates the Chess, Mustard, 
Barley, Oats, etc., from Wheat, and does its work rap- 
Idly. We keep constant'y on hand the different sizes, 
and are prepared to show by actual test that it is the 

Best Machine now before the Public. 

It has never failed to take the First Premium at every 
State and County Fair where it has been exhibited at the 
East or on this Coast, for which we have the Diplomas 
and Medals to show. 



For Farm use and Custom work. The only Practica 
Farm Feed Mill ever invented. Can be used with from oue 
to eight-horse power, and grinds from 250 lbs. to one ton of 
barley per hour. Price of Mills from $7.1 to $100, according 
to size. Adapted to Wind, Water, Steam, or Horse Power. 
The grinding surface is adjustable, and can be replaced in 
fifteen minutes at an expense of one dollar to one dollar and 
a quarter. Over 3,000 now in use. Every Mill warranted to 
give satisfaction. For sale by all leading agricultural firms 
on the coast. For further particulars send for circular. 
M. S. BOWDISH, General Agent, 
With Hawley & Co., cor. California ami Battery sts., 

16v4-3m San Francisco. 



Manufacturers of and Dealers in 

Monuments, Headstones, Tombs, 


421 Pine street, between Montgomery and i 

Kearny, San Fbancisco. 





Wholesale Fruit and Produce Commission 


415 and 417 Davis street, cor. of Oregon, San Francisco. 

Our business being exclusively Commission, we have 

Jo interests that will conflict with those of the producer. 


A Beautiful Parlor Amusement. Fifty Chromo Scenes 
on the Overlaid R. K. "Across the Continent." Splen- 
did gift for the Holidays; suitable for old or young. 
Sent to any address on receipt of $2. Thistleton, 9 
Post street. A new Comical Game, "A Wolf in the 
Fold," sent for $1. Agents wanted. de21-lm 

Five Cents Paid Out For a 


FOR A PAIR OF SHOES, ui° IC their value than one dollar expended in 
^____ any other way. 

TO T *V^ n tee'iHNi} CLASS, male or female, $60 a 
ec .nine. no 'W^ctable employment at home, day 

of e \ e ? 

f " »\» nacKaK" f requirea ; lull instructions unci 
»\u*o» !£ith ft cefcds to start with sent free bv mail. 
A uar f, 8 *Adt street, \ ra stamp, M. YOUNU A CO., 1 
Courl»» na * \ rk . de21-4t 

Wholesale or Itciuil. 

Vegetable, Field and Flower Seeds, 

California and Australian Evergreen Seeds, 

Etc., Etc. 

Pure Kentucky Bute Grass, Red Top, Rye Grasses, 

Orchard Grass, Timothy, Alfalfa, White, 

and Red Clover Seed, 

3Vx"es*q\iit Grass Seed.. 

Hyacinths, Tulips, Crocus, Lilies, fine clumps of Lily 
of the Valley, new Gladiolus, Etc. 
Ramie Seed and Plants. 


Greenhouse Plants, Evergreens, Etc. 

Rustic and Wire Baskets, Flower Stands, Fruit and 

Ornamental Trees, Etc., 

at Tax: ox.o stand. 

Send for Catalogues. 



425 Washington street, 
San Francisco, Cal. 



No. 007 Sansome street San Francisco. 

Garden (80 Acres) at San Leandro. 

Have the pleasure of announc- 
ing to the public, that having 
raised such immense quantities 
of Seeds this year, they are en- 
abled to make a reduction of at least 30 
or 40 per cent, on last year's prices. They have on hand 
a large assortment of CABBAGE PLANTS, BULBS, 
CLOVER, CANARY, HEMP, and all kinds of VEGETA- 
BLE and FLOWER SEEDS. 23v4-0t 


1,500 to 2,000 lbs. for sale in chaff at 

Orders by mail promptly filled by 

14v4-3m 'Sebastapol, Sonoma County. 


— AT THE — 


I offer at moderate prices a general 
assortment of 

Deciduous Flowering- Shrubs, Roses, Etc. 
Green House and Bedding Plants in great variety. 
Send for Descriptive Catalogue and Price List. 

15v4 6m 



Petaluma, Sonoma County, Cal. 




I now offer a large and select stock of Semi-Tropical 
and Northern Fruits at GREATLY REDUCED PRICES. 

Grafted Orange Trees a Specialty. 


Fruits when only three feet high. Very ornamental. 
Fruit of excellent quality. 

Priced Catalogue sent free on application. Address 

Box 265. 


Los Angeles City, Cal. 


Pacific Oil and Lead Works, 

Are prepared to 

Furnish Seed and Contract for Next 

Year's Crop of Flax Seed and Castor Beans at rates 

that, with proper cultivation on suitable 

land, will make them among the most 

profitable Crops grown. 

For further particulars address 


3 and 5 Front Street SAN FRANCISCO. 



Maple Leaf Nursery. 

Has constant- 
varieties of 
GREEN and 
SHRUBS; also 
ment of Choice 
merous to 
Green House 
ers and Bulbs, 
and Flower Seeds 

ly on hand all 
a large assort- 
m e u t i on. 
Plants, Flow- 
Garden, Grass 
of all kinds, are for sale by 
M. NEWSOM, Proprietor, 
Washington street, Brooklyn, Cal. 


hould be ordered now. W. F. HEIKES , Dayton, Ohio. 

Los Angeles Nursery and Fruit 


O. W. CHILDS, Proprietor. 

Desires to call attention to his large and desirable 
assortment of 

Orange, Lemon, Lime and 
Citron Trees, 


Including a limited quantity of ORANGE, Grafted and 
Budded on Lemon Stock. 


50,000 Choice English Walnut Trees, 

From 2 to 10 feet high. Price, $10 per hundred. And 
a very superior lot of 

Italian and Spanish Chestnut Trees, 
1 to 6 feet high, at very low rates. 

23v25-4m Main street, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Trees and Plants for Sale 

— AT THE — 


I now offer for sale a large and 
well selected stock of 

Fruit and Ornamental Trees, 

Hardy Evergreen Shrubbery 

and Greenhouse Plants. 
Send for Catalogue and List of Prices. 

Address WM. SEXTON, 

23v4-3m Petaluma, Sonoma County, Cal. 






Dealers and Nurserymen Supplied at Dow 

Catalogues furnished on application 



San Jose, Cal. 

Twenty Years in the Nursery Business in 

a. r>. Ipryajl, 
Nurseryman and Florist, 

Near Temascal Creek. 

Offers for sale a good assortment of Forest 
Trees suitable for windbreck or ornamental belts; 
50,000 Monterey Cypress and Monterey Pine, from 
six inches to six feet in hight; 100,000 Blue Gums, mall, 
fit for forest culture: Oak Seedling, Orange and Lemon 
Trees. English Gooseberry, Blackberry and Currant.- 
A beautiful assortment of Roses and Lilacs; also Aspar- 
agus Roots. 
All orders will receive prompt attention. Address 

2Gv4tf Oakland, Alameda County, Cal. 

Mulberry Trees for Sale 

I. N. HOAG, Sacramento. 


For the Yard, for the Sidewalk, or the Roadside. 

— ALSO — 

Fruiting Mulberry, 

Of all varieties, and for Silk Culture. 


Of every kind— grown in the best Nurseries 

in the State— for sale at tho 

Lowest Prices. 


All orders promptly attended to. 26v4-3m 

Grape Vines and Cuttings for Sale 

— AT THE — 

Yineland Vineyards, 

The undersigned can furnish Grape Cuttings of the 
Choicest Varieties of Wine and Table Grapes. 

Many of the Choicest Wine Grapes can be furnished 
in large quantities, at from $5 to $7 per thousand. 

Rooted Vines, $2 per hundred or $15 per thousand, 
delivered at the Railroad Station. 

Send all orders in early to 


St. Helena, Napa County, Cal. 

60,000 Evergreen and Flowering Shrubs 

Those intending to embellish, their gTounds will find 
it to their advantage to -wxaiuiue my stock and ascertain 


Golden Gate Nursery, corner of Folsom and Twentieth 

Streets, San Francisco. 



Fruit, Shade and Ornamental 

Plants for Sale, 

At the old stand, corner Oregon and Battery streets, 
Directly opposite Post Office, San Fbancisco. 


The Largest and Best Collection of Fruit, 
Shade and Evergreen Trees and Plants 

Ever offered in this market, and at Reduced Prices. 

Persons laying out new grounds would do well to call 
and examine our stock before purchasing elsewhere. 


Promptly attended to and packed with care. 
Send for Price Catalogue. 


516 Battery Street, 

San Fbancisco. 
P. O. Box 722. 25v4-2m 


Shade and Ornamental 
Trees, Plants, Etc. 


Having a very large Nursery t^) 
Stock, I can furnish Trees and ^Jgj 
Plants of all kinds cheap. Fruits 
guaranteed true to name. Send stamp ' 
for printed Price List, Catalogue, and in- ' 
structions for hedge-growing. A large stock of Osags 
Orange Hedge Plants for sale. Letters of enquiry 
promptly responded to. Office and Main Tree Depot, 
U street, between Fifteenth and Sixteenth, Sacramento. 
Branch Yards, Sayles & Williamson, J 6treet, Sacra- 
mento; Burney & Williamson, Modesto; and W, T. 
Wright, Agent at Colusa. 

25v4-3m Proprietor. 


Presidio Road, near U. S. Reservation Con the line of 
the Sutter street Cars) , SAN FRANCISCO. 

A Large and Well Selected Stock of New and 
Rare Plants for the 

Greenhouse and Open Air. 

Evergreen Trees, Geraniums, Pelargoniums, 
Roses, Fuschias, Pinks, Gladiolas, Lilies, 
Coleus, Pausies, Primroses, in great va- 
riety. Also, Tuberroses, Verbenas, Cac- 
tus, Heliotropes, etc. 
Orders from the c untry carefully attended to. 
Address, through P. O., 
25v4-3m F. LTJDEMAN & CO., 

1,000,000 FRUIT TREES, 

And an immense stock of 


EVERGREENS, Etc.— 200 Acres. 

Send us your address and get our Descriptive Cata 

logues and Price Lists. Address 


Star Nurseries, 

26v4-3m Illinois. 


Australian Gum Trees, 

Including all the desirable varieties, at from $5 to $10 
per 100, in the best condition for transplanting and 
transportation. For sale at the Gum Tree Nurseries, 
Haywards, Alameda Co., Cal. 

Address JAS. T. STRATTON, 

23v4-5m Brooklyn, Cal. 



First-Class $9.06 per thousand 

Second-Class $6.00 per thousand 

Third-ClaBS $4.00 per thousand 

Ten per cent, discount made for any thing over 5,000 . 

Orders promptly filled. Address 


23v25-3m Vaca Station, Solano County, Cal. 


Eddy street, corner Powell and Market, San Francisco . 

Bouquets and Ornamented Flower Baskets. Plant B 
in great variety. 

di-21-lm A. VIVIE5T, Florist Gardener. 

Ranch for Sale 


260 Acres, situated about four miles northeast of 
the City Hall, Oakland, and just above Fruit Vale, iu 
Brooklyn Township. One hundred acres or more have 
been tilled. The whole is favorably located and well 
suited for a milkman's dairy. The dwelliug house con- 
tains eight rooms, hard finished. Barn, 40x100 feet. It 
is bountiiully supplied with sweet spring water, be- 
sides being watered by several creeks. There is alBo a 
fine sulphur spring, with a large and constant flow of 
mineral water. 


Of well proved quality will be sold with the balance of 
the place if desired. It possesses special natural ad- 
vantages superior to any oth«r tract of land within the 
same distance from San Francisco and Oakland. The 
title is perfect, and the place has been in the possession 
of its present occupant for 12 years. Will be sold at a 
low price. Part of the purchase money can remain on 
security. The properly should be seen to be appreci- 
ated. Apply to A. T. Dewei. 338 Montgomery St., S. F„ 
or to Geo. W. Thompson, on the premises. 



[January 4, 1873. 


A Call tjtos the Pacific Rural Tress.— While at 
8»n Francisco we availed ourselves of the privilege of 
dropping in upon our friends of the Paomo Rvrai. 
Press, one of our most welcomed weekly exchanges. 
The firm cf Dewey & Co. has become a household word 
throughout the State, from the dignified and valuable 
character of their publications. These publications 
aim to meet the varied Interests of California, and we 
are glad to know that they are all being sustained gen- 
erously. During our trip through the state we mat at 
nearly every point MM or other of their lames. 

Besides the Rcr\l 1'nrss. tin y publish the S( 
Piucss, which ably serves the mining and ether Indus- 
trial interests ,.f the district. 

Recently they have added a monthly sixteen-page 
newsparer of special interest to wholesale mid retail 

tradesmen, called tile I'AOEIC L'OASl MtlH 'ANTILK Dl- 

1 11 all these enterprises we wish our friends abundant 
siicciss, and we shall long remember their cardial 
greeting extended a stray editor sojourning a day or two 
In their beautiful rrtty. ffMlnrfnfjilWa Journal a/ At farm. 

X N° '*30 * 



A work of 224 pages on the 

Breeds, Breeding', Rearm;; and General 

Management of Poultry. 

By WK, M. LEWIS, Now York. 1S71 ; with ov, r One 
Hundred Engraving. Sold by Dim ft Co.. Rural 
Press office, for $l.7.">. or suit postage paid lor (2.00. 


Improve the Breed nndincraaae the Stan of your 


Try the Cross of the Bronze Turkey 


I am breeding from Pawls V/etehing fd pounds to the 
pair, and have for sale ■ few Gobblers and 1 

Orders for Kggs received now. 

Que Bronze Gobbler running with ordinary 
liens will make a difference of weight in a brood 
of 12 young Turkeys, eight months old, of Rve 
pounds each — that is, oo pounds or -5 per cent. — 
making 15 in increased weight. 

This hr 1 of Bronze Turkey is rcmarkah.. 

hardluess as well as great - 

Give them a Trial. Perfect Satisfaction 

•y Send for a Circular to 

Importer and Breeder of Choice Fowls, 
jai.'Jt BOX MB San Fran 


■ Iitwntf the Akcik-v for the s«l<* of M1N6 Wnffonit. matU* 
it Kondu loi 1 , wU.. by Fftrunronb Bros,, Kntpp 
arvprepauvd to furnish th.-ni. r-ingit or in »nj number, Ilgtit 
medium or ho ivy S-hnrrc nnd .-horse | Tblmbte-sbein^ ami 
iKivt'H . arul warrant them to st in 1 WrelL and to hi* equal 111 
all rtMrpMt* 10 the boat Ka^tern-matle Wl|i Hi «oid here. 

Orders from the Count ri will rei/eivu i rwupt titan li n. 
and 1'rioe LUtfl sent (in application. 


r, California and P:i\ is BtroetS, San Tn 
Addnn r. Baa 8M, only. lv.viiu 



Devoted to the Interests of Southern 

J. A. JOHNSON, Editor and Prop:-'. 

As the charming character of Southern California, and 
more especially that most favored section called Santa 
Barbara, beoomes known to the world, it is not surpris. 
log that a widespread and growing Interest In tins iv. 
■rloD should be awakened. It is the constant aim of the 
Press to luruish perfectly reliable infonnation on all 
points of Interest to tourists, Invalids and home-seekers, 
wh ch we are now able to do with greatly ma 
cllities. While the Press aaakl to promote tlie pros- 
perity Of all Southern California by all legitimate and 
honorable methods, it Is more directly Interested In the 
growth and coming greatness of Santa Barbara. The 
unequalled loveliness of the climate, its almost incred- 
ible healtbfulness, the beauty of the Bcenery. the won- 
drous variety and fertility of the soil, the almoat un- 
limited range of products which flourish there without 
irrigation, will be made known by tacts which cannot 
be controverted. In the columns of the Puts*, from tune 
to time. Any intelligent person can become familiar with 
this part of the State by reading the Press for a year. 

Terms of the Dally, per annum t*> DO 

T'-rms of the Weekly, par annum $j r»o 

Currency and Post Office Money Ord. rs taken at par. 
W. K. I„s>iuie, L. P. Fisher and 'ilios. li,. 
Francisco, are authorized to receive BUbscri] 
the Press. 

A Word to AnvEK-nsKBs.— As a simple matter of fact, 
without a word of brag, it is claimed that the Buna 
Blllft Press has a nnn-li larger circulation than any 
other newspaper in Southern California, and is mainly 
read by the more thrifty families or that part of the 
State, and its advantages to advertisers are obvious. 
Our rates are moderate, and within the reach of every 
man who has a business worth advertising. L. P. 
Fishes and Taos. Boyce are our advertising agents for 
San rrancisco, though we always prefer to deal directly 
with advertisers. Address simply Press, Santa Bar- 
bara, California, bplt 

This machine is built on runners, BO as to be easily drawn brain place to place. It is so constructed that it is readily ad apte d to hilly or level ground. A man and boy. 
with one horse, can drive one hundred and ftftj posts p. i day. The machine is very simple; can be built at any blacksmith shop. We have circulars printed giving the 
exact size of each piece, from which any one can build the machine, It is meeting with great success at the East, and we have no doubt It will be appreciated by the 
farmers of this coast. We shall be phased to confer with any one Interested, it conventi at, call at our omoe ami witness the machine in operation. 


^ 17 New Moutgi'iiii ry street (Oram! Hotel Hiiildingl, Ban Francisco. 






rhange, having ample opportunities to disp. se of farms 
or business places bo toe many immigrants who dally 

»rrive in California, and whoat lirst steps are it; 
directed toward this institution, has opened a Land De- 
partment in connection with its Labor and Employment 

Parties having farms or business places for sale will 
do well to send the tallest particulars to 

California Labor & Employment Exchange. 

637 CLAY STltEET, 

San Francisco. 

..Male and Female Labor sent to all parts of the 
country." 17vl-2inn:ini 





change, having ample opportunities K dlspOSS Of farms 
or business places to the many immigrants who ,lai Iv 
arrivf in California, and whose first steps are invariably 
directed toward this institution, hns opened u Land De- 
partment in connection wiih its Labor and Empl 


Parties having farms or business places for sale will 
do well to send the fullest particulars to 

California Labor & Employmeni Exchange. 


San Francisco. 

•' Male and Female Labor sent to all parts of the 
country." 17vt-Jam3m 


A small lot Of PEERLESS POTATOES for sale at $1 .00 
per pound, which the undersigned will forward to any 
address, by mail or . (press, prepaid. 



E. H. FB.ICK, 

1'leasanton. Alameda Oounty, Oal. 

Price List of Thf.f. Si i 

Sent to any address on reoelpl ol 

stamps. Neat. Parma, Complete. 

Contains briet directions for treating 

Em-it. Bvmoni 

itetail Nursery Price List tree, u hols 

Bale to Trad» only. Send $1.80 for 

Bryants "Forest Trass,'' isst hoot 
on Tree Culture. Address A. Bryant. 

Jr., Bryant's Nurseries, lTinceton.Ill. 


Wine and Brandy Manufacturers' 


Will meet in Masonic Hall, corner K and sixth streets. 

Sacraunnto, Wednesday, January 16th, 1S73, 

at - o'clock r. m. 

Duplicates of Wines and Brandies exhibited at last 
Pair will i>o examined, the Premiums then awarded an- 
nounced and paid, the Premium List t'er next year 
agreed on, provision made for exhibition of our grape 
products at Vienna, steps taken to secure proper re. 
duetion of National Taxes, Essays read on various sub- 
it. rest toth. industry, and such other business 
as mny come U tore the meeting transacted. The mc» t- 
iiii: will be continued from day today so long as ueces- 
sary. By order. I. N. HOAQ, Secretary. 

Kelsey's Nurseries, 


Alameda County Cal. 


San Francisco. 

[established lit 1862. ] 

Containing the Largest and Best Assorted 

Stock of 

Trees mill Plants 

On the Pacific Coast. 

Knibraclng— FRUIT TREES AND PLANTS of all and 





HI I. US. Etc. Etc. 

Send for Catalogues and Price Lists— I'nv on Ipptt- 
cation. u .'. on 

Bay Nursery, 

[Established 1852. ] OAKLAND, CAL. 

Offtcaand Depot Broadway and Thirteenth 

Nursery and Greenhouses, Telegraph Avenue, East Side. 


Evergreen Trees. Ornamental Shrubs and 
Flowering Plants 

on tins Coast. Comprising In part Cape Jasai nines, 
Camellias, Ageless, Magnolias. Araucarius, 

Weeping Cedars, Oo den Arbor etc 

My collection of Fuschias. Carnations and Roaes are 
unrivalled. Many new and rare Plants recently intro- 
duced of rare merit. Tube Rosas, Dalllias and bulbs in 
great variety. Choice Flower Seeds, Harden and Lawn 
Seeds, trcsh and genuine. 

THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS has the largest circula- 
tion of any weekly Journal published west of the 
Rocky Mountains, Independent of a daily Issue. Its 
readers are prominent among the most intelligent, in- 
dustrious and thrifty classes throughout the Pacific 
States and Territories. 



Grass &nd Clover Seeds 


Trees, Plants, Roots, Etc., 

For Bale at Wholesale or Retail by 

CilOO F. 8ILVE«TE«, 

No. 317 Washington Street, 
•y Bend for a Catalogue. 


100 Barrels Guano for Sale, 

In quantities to suit purchasers. 
«vJ-ly.l8p GEO. F. SILVESTER. 


Impor'er and Breeder of 

Angora or Cashmere 

— or — 


— AM) — 
A I.I. «.lt.VIH>. 

For sale In lots to suit purchasers. Location, fou 
miles from Railroad Station, connecting with all part 
of the State. For particulars address 



Purchasers please say advertised in Paeiflo Rural Press. 


XI Dorado, El Dorado county, 

100 YEAR ALMANAC. eTerv*v CK - VT 3 ». 
send, post-paid, an Almanac girio . pl_i e,r > Monti 
Week and Day of the Oenturigen, , ***« Cale nd .; 
for 1873. Extra Inducement* CO n "dreee 

OEOROE A. HE't - °«ston, Utst. 

Volume V.] 


[Number 2. 

of his teachings. 
Chemical manures 
do not mean strange 
and unknown sub- 
stances, new to the 
farmer; they simply 
include phosphorus, 
lime, potossa and 
nitrogen, that is to 
say, the useful sub- 
stances found in any 
serviceable manure, 
compost, etc., from 
time immemorial. 

Mineral Manure Without Nitrogenized Matter. 

Chemical Manures. 

The immensity of the wheat crop of Califor- 
nia will be continued as long as the seasons 
are propitious and the soil can be main- 
tained to the proper standard of fertility; but 
repeated croppings with no return of fertilizers 
will eventually work the same injury to the 
soil and the product that the same manage- 
ment has produced in all ages and countries. 

It is important in a country like California 
where the vastness of the area devoted to wheat 
precludes the possibility of keeping up the fer- 
tility of the same by animal manures that re- 
sort be had to 
those of a chemi- 
cal nature, in 
which a man can 
almost carry the 
necessary annual 
fertilizers for an 
acre of land in a 

In France this 
condition of 
things has been 
r eached, and 
chemical ma- 
nures are now as 
common and as 
necessary, and 
quite as servica- 
ble, as barn yard 
manure to the 
soils of New York 
or New England. 

In a valuable 
work entitled, 
" The School of 
Chemical Ma- 
nures," by A. A. 
Fesquet, from the 
French of M. G. 
Ville a complete 
history of these 
manures, their 
i n g r edients, 
mode of applica- 
tion and effects 
produced are given in detail, and are exceed- 
ingly interesting to those who entertain regard 
for the future of our wheat product. 

We have not the room to give the constitu- 
ents and the proportions required to make up 
a complete or perfect manure, but we intend 
to bring the subject to the attention of wheat 
growers, that when the time shall arrive that 
something must bo done, they may not de- 
spair of manuring their vast fields success- 

After the long controversies of the opposite 
schools of nitrogenized manures versus mineral 
ones, and conversely, it is refreshing to find 
that they may be agreed upon the common 
platform — that every plan t needs nitrogen as 
well as mineral substances for its food. This 
important result, as well as the rational man- 
ner of determining the natural fertility of the 
soil and the dominant substances for the food 
of plants, has been demonstrated by Professor 
Geo. Ville after thirty years of comparative 
experiments conducted in the field and in the 
laboratory, and checking each other. More- 
over, at the present time, several hundred 
fanners in Europe follow the advice of the 
learned professor of vegotable physiology, and 
by tneir correspondence confirm the truth 

Ground Without Manure. 

usefulness as plant 
food will be in the 
ratio of the phospho- 
rus, lime, potassa 
and nitrogen which 
they contain in the 
soluble or available 

When once the 
farmer has arrived 
at a knowledge of 
the natural fertility 
of his farm by th e 




They are in a con- 
densed form, nearly 
constant in compo- 
sition, and may be 
readily mixed in 
various proportions 
to suit the nature of 
the desired crop, or 
the degree of the 
natural fertility of 
the soil. Moreover, 
with them, the farm- 
er will be less ex- 
posed to frauds than 
when he buys ma- 
nures already mixed, 
which, too often, are 
but nondescript com- 

Manuring with 
chemicals alone has 
been proved by Prof. 
Ville and his fol- 
lowers to be profita- 
ble ; nevertheless, 
other manures and 
compounds may be 
used in connection 
with them, but their 

tive effects of differently constituted mineral 
ond nitrogenized manures upon the growth of 
wheat, in soils in all other respects precisely 
alike. Now if there is any object in raising 
four times the quantity of wheat on the same 
ground, with the same labor, and with only the 
addition of certain manures at reasonable cost, 
then will it pay to give attention to facts con- 
nected with the use of chemical manures as 
given in the little work to which we have al- 
luded, and which is published by Henry Carey 
Baird, Industrial Publisher, 406 Walnut street, 
Philadelphia; price, $1.25, free of postage. 

A special ad- 
vantage pertain- 
ining to the use 
of chemical ma- 
nures is, that 
they can be ap- 
plied at anytime 
most convenient 
to the farmer, at 
seeding time, or 
any time during 
the winter or 
spring, previous 
to the last rains 
of the season and 
always with 
marked benefit; 
indeed, the effect 
of top dressing 
with chemical 
manures is most 
With ordinary 
barn yard ma- 
nures such top 
dressing would 
be simply impos- 
sible, or if ap- 
plied would often 
prove of little or 
no benefit, except 
to a succeeding 
crop; whilst the 
action of chemi- 
cal manures is 
Farmers, whose 
aid of experimental I lands are deteriorating under a too constant 
fields, he will be able cropping with wheat, should give this subject a 
to compound his ma- | serious consideration, 
nures for each de- 
sired crop, without 
expending money 
for what is already 
in the soil, or omit- 
ting what is wanting. 
How much more de- 
sirable to do so, and 
to work with oertain- 
ty, than to buy al- 
ready mixed ma- 
nures from the man- 
ufacturer, who, sup- 
posing that he is 
honest, can certainly 
know little, if any- 
thing, about the 
natural fertility of 
the soil, the previ- 
ous manuring, or 
the rotation of crops 
on the farm of the 

In the engravings 
which we present 
are shown the rela- 


Look out for spurious sorts at the hands of 
itinerant sellers. There is a demand for raisin 
grapes, and the cuttings from such vines are 
the only ones for which there will be likely 
any great demand. There are many large 
vineyardists that have any quantity of the very 
common Mission grape, a passable one for the 
table and for wine but wholly unsuitable for 

Many have already contracted to furnish to 
the extent they are able of the more coveted 
varieties; and to supply the additional demand 
unscrupulous venders will hardly hesitate to 
palm off inferior varieties for the better sort; 
so that the proper and only sure way is to pro- 
cure your cuttings from reliable men, adver- 
tising in the Bcbal Press, or others possessing 
entire responsibility. 

Nothing can be more provoking than to give 
great care and attention for years to the culture 
of what you suppose to be a good variety of 
fruit, and then find on its first bearing, that 
you have been cheated out of your time, labor 
and fruit. One can hardly keep from feeling 
like expressing himself very emphatically to- 
wards the vender who has thus imposed upon 
him ; nor could we blame him much if he did. 


[January n, 1873. 


Logging on Puget Sound 

Is a trade by itself, and a few of its tricks may 
be interesting to those readers of the Phess 
who do a little log-rolling now and then. 

Almost everywhere along the shores of the 
Sound you will find a boom of logs ' lying in a 
little cove, and not far away you will hear the 
sound of the chopper. Thus far they have 
been able to supply the mills with logs from 
points not far from tide water, and perhaps we 
should not convey an impression far from the 
truth in saying that for the twenty years 
they have been sawing there, they have only 
taken the ! timber half a mile back from the 
water. The Puget Sound Mill Co. has up- 
wards of 200,000 acres of the best timber land 
which they have reserved, preferring for the 
present to buy logs. 

Choosing a Claim 
Is a matter of great importance, for one must 
consider not only the quality and amount of 
the timber, but must have the eye of an engi- 
neer to form an idea of the grades and the 
work necessary for road making, the safety 
and ease of the road as well as the quality 
and amount of the timber, are elements that 
enter into the calculation of profits. A logger 
can better afford to pay a stunipage of two dol- 
lars per thousand on some claims than to have 
others given him. Some conclude because 
others have made money at logging, that tho-.e 
who engage in that business are bound to win, 
but the record of such failures will show that 
minute knowledge and careful calculation are 
aa important hero as elsewhere. 

The Crew 
Consists of from 12 to 20 men and four or five 
yoke of cattle. With such a force of hands 
there has been as high as six million feet of 
logs taken out in a single season. Three million 
feet is a fair season's .work for a crew of 15 

The Swampers 
Generally come first after the line of the road 
is chosen, to clear away the brush both for the 
main road and as the trees are chopped to clear 
away from each log to the main road. These 
are equipped with axes and bush hooks. Then 
comes the 

Who grade the road, aiming to have a light 
down grade all the way to the water and to 
avoid any up grades or any steep places where 
logs will be apt to slide upon the cattle. When 
the road is graded they lay in the 

Which are laid like railroad ties, half buried in 
the ground, but are twice as long, three times 
as far apart and are all made of hard wood and 
left round. In the summer time one hand 
goes ahead of the team each trip to sweep 
these sticks clean and oil them. 

The jChopper 
Must be a master of his business, for he is ex- 
pected to fall as much timber as the team can 
draw out, and it is not uncommon for them to 
fall 15 or 16 hard wood trees in a day, that are 
from three to five feet throueh. They go above 
the large roots and cross grained wood to be 
found near the butt of the tree, and sometimes 
cut the stumps as high as 10 or 15 feet from 
the ground. They do all their chopping upon 
chopping boards, which are kept in place by 
notches rat 5 or 6 inches into the body of the 
tree. They use very light axes with short bits 
and long helves. They have one for the bark 
and another for the wood. 

The Sawyer, 
Like the chopper, is depended upon to keep 
the team busy. He carries his beetle, his 
wedges, axes and saw. It is his part to cut 
the trees into such logs as the team can handle. 
None should scale more than 3,000 feet and 
not as much unless there is a very good chance 
to get it to the road. The sawyer must use a 
great deal of care and judgement to avoid get- 
ting his saw pinched or his logs split where the 
tree lies upon rough ground. They often do 
not touch in more than two or three places. 
But the saw is the great perfection of cross- 
cuts. He generally uses the Tuttle saw for fir 
logs, with teeth so coarse that the four which 
complete a set, occupy four inches on the 
blade. When the saw is filed the rakers are 
left nearly as long as the cutting teeth and then 
the point of the raker is swedged with a light 
hammer, so instead of presenting a square 
face to push out the chip, it cuts it out like a 
plane. The handle for the right hand is like 
the handles used on shovels and spades, and is 
set a little below the cutting edge of the saw, 
while that for the left hand extends up in the 
ordinary way. With these saws one man cuts 
as much timber as we have seen two cut in the 
east, and it is the experience of loggers that 
four men with one saw will cut as much as six 
men with two at each saw. One man uses a 
saw seven feet long, or more if the timber re- 
quires it. 

The Barker 

Has to chop the bark from one side of the 
log so that it will slip easily upon the skids 

and to chop off the end in the fashion of a 
sled-runner so that it will not catch upon 

The Teamster 
Must be the first one up in the morning and 
the last one out at night and upon him rests 
the chief responsibility for the amouut.of work 
done as well as for the condition of the teams. 
He has four or five yoke of the largest cattle 
that can be had and plenty of barley hay 
from San Francisco to feed them on. They 
generally have a rough stable open at the sides. 
Each teamster has his assistant to fasten 
chains, help roll logs, and drive a part of the, 
team when drawing small logs. To hitch to 
the logs, they have two chains, each six feet 
long, fastened to a ring in the main chain at 
one end and with a hook to drive into the log 
at the other. These were formerly made with 
a right angle but now are made with an acute 
angle, as that shape drives in easier and is not 
as liable to pull out. By fastening to a log in 
tins way they are able to keep the smooth 
side always next the skids. 

A late improvement in logging is the use of a 
tongue to prevent the logs sliding upon the 
cattle when moving upon down grades. This 
is attached by a spike driven into the end of 
the log and is only used for holding back. By 
this means some claims have been worked to a 
profit that were too rough to work without. 
Without the tongue logs have been known to 
slide and kill four cattle at once. In anticipa- 
tion of such accidents, logeers generally aim 
to keep their cattle in condition for beef. Cat- 
tle h.ivt- been sold the past season as high as 
$350 per yoke. 

The Homes of the Loggers 
Generally consist of two shanties hurriedly 
built; the one for cook house and dining hall 
and the other for sleeping apartments. Each 
man has his own blankets, (which he takes 
with him when he goes from one job to an- 
other) and his little bunk to put them in along 
the tide of the room. They are arranged like 
"Standee bunks" in a ship. In the cook- 
house they generally get plenty of substantial 
food, but don't " go much on high-toned " 
displays of crockery and fancy dishes. 

Wages v 
Have been fair for the past season. In this re- 
spect teamsters rank first, for as an old logger 
said to us, "You can't pay a good teamster too 
much nor a poor one to little." Seventy-five 
dollars per month is a fair price, but rather 
than let a first-rate teamster leave, they will 
sometimes pay ninety dollars. Next comes the 
choppers and sawyers who each get $60 to $75 
per month. The rest get about $50 per month. 
The cook and teamster are employed the year 
around, but the others have to lose their time 
and pay board for the bad weather. They can 
just about make expenses during the winter 
months, they tell us. 

The Amount of Timber per Acre 
Is so great on some few claims as to astonish 
us, reaching away up beyond 300,000 feet upon 
some single acres. But it is a very fair timber 
claim that will average 40,000 feet per acre of 
such logs as they now think it worth while to 
cut. There is much left that is of a variety not 
in demand in market or that is hollow or injur- 
ed by burning, or too large or too small. We 
think the main body of timber land in West 
Washington will be left to grow up to timber 
again as fast as one crop is taken off. 

Prices of logs have been considered good 
the past season, ranging from $5 to $9 per M, 
according to average quality of timber and 
length. They are bought of the loggers gener- 
ally by contract to be delivered at their camps 
and are towed away in booms by the steam 
tugs belonging to the milling companies that 
purchase them. The booms are made by en- 
closing an area of a quarter of an acre or 
thereabouts with logs fastened together at the 
ends and sliding logs in from the bank above 
until the boom is full. No trouble about raft- 
ing and in good weather no trouble to tow 
these booms fifty or a hundred miles to a mill 
anywhere on the sound. 

Logging on Government Land 
Has been somewhat hindered the past season 
by the many seizures that have taken place on 
account of Uncle Sam. It is a general under- 
standing between loggers and mill companies 
that there shall be no competition at the gov- 
ernment sales, and that the man who cuts the 
logs shall have a chance to bid them in at what 
is considered a fair stumpage and jso get pay for 
his labor. This accounts for the acts of public 
sales, which we often see noticed at 50c.@90c. 
per thousand when logs are worth ten times as 
much. Loggers cut them when they feel sure 
that they will be seized and sold. 

How Long will the Timber Last ? 
Is a question easier asked than answered. In 
a few years they will begin, to run cars back into 
the timber to draw the logs to the water. They 
will probably use narrow-gauge railways with 
mules for locomotives. It is supposed that one 
team of mules will be able to draw as much tim- 
ber as a logging team can get to the railway, 
where the distance by rail is not more than a 
mile or so. When this becomes necessary the 
price of logs must rise to pay the cost of haul- 
ing the extra distance by rail. 

If they have gone back from the water half a 
mile in twenty years you can take the map and 
reckon for yourself how many years it will take 
to use up all the timber. Bemember that the 
timber is said to be better a distance back from 
the water, and that the land already cut over 
is left to grow up again. On the other hand an 
iucreasing population is extending the demand 

for lumber, and other countries are depending 
more and more upon our supply. Would it be 
too much for us to reckon upon a timber-crop 
from Puget Sound once in a hundred years ? 

From Our Traveling Correspondent. 

Ashland is a town on the stage line between 
Jacksonville and Yreka, and is a model place 
in more respects than one. Shut off by its 
mountain ranges to the north and the south 
from communication with the outside world, 
it is a place of home manufactures. There is 
to be found the woolen mill, the grist mill and 
the sawmill, and as if to be prepared for death 
as well as life, she has her tombstones of home 
manufacture and of native marble. 
The Ashland Academy 
Is the ODly institution of learning above a 
common school within a radius of a hundred 
and five miles. The building was started in 
the usual method, by contributions, under di- 
rection of aboard of trustees, but was finally 
transferred to Mr. J. H. Skidmore as a private 
enterprise. He is an experienced and efficient 
teacher, and employs three assistants. Music 
and drawing are taught, and their school fur- 
niture and pianos will compare well with in- 
stitutions of like grade anywhere. 

The institution finished its first term with 
150 pupils. The pupils seem disposed to 
make the most of their advantages, and we are 
informed that there has been no occasion for 
any discipline yet. It would almost be worth 
while to build mountains around every school 
house if that would secure such results. How- 
ever, we shall not recommend such an experi- 
ment until thoroughly satisfied that this pleas- 
ant state of things is to continue. Ashland has 
a model post office, and appears to be the ban- 
ner town of all that we have visited in regard 
to liquor drinking. We don't think they have 
enough whiskey to wash down their war sto- 
ries wth. 

Percheron Horses 
Are to be found nowhere else on the Coast. 
We have often heard in the columns of the 
Press of the famous horses of 
Wm. C. Meyers, 
And a few notes of his career as a : breeder may 
not come amiss. He has been a horseman all 
his life, and since '62 has been breeding for 
large sized horses of good action, and hardy 
constitution. He brought a stallion from Ohio 
weighing 1,440 pounds that trotted a mile in 
2.42 . His colts were a fair type of the sire. 
In '64 Mr. Myers took 7 premiums at the Ore- 
gon State Fair, and in '65 he took 14. Next 
year he went to the State Fair in California, 
and took the 1st premium for the best six colts 
and for the best draft colt. Soon after this he 
thought he would take the 200 horses he had 
on hand and go east. They would sell for 
enough to give him a good start and he would 
find a better location. The horses suffered 
from change of climate, and he was obliged to 
hurry them off at a public sale. In advertis- 
ing this he paid $200 for printers' ink, and 
found it an excellent investment. While look- 
ing for a new location, he found the very kind 
of horses he had been trying to breed, but af- 
ter spending a great deal of time in looking for 
a better situation, both in the Western and Pa- 
cific States, be returned and bought the farm 
adjoining the one he left. 

In Dec, 1870, he imported White Prince, Doll 
and Maggie, from Union County, Ohio. The 
first-named are thoroughbred Percherons and 
the last :, 4 -grade. The reception that these 
horses met with satisfied him that he was not 
supplied, and in Feb., 1872, he imported the 
beautiful dapple-gray, Napoleon, from Hon. 
N. J. Parrott, of Leavenworth, Kansas. These 
horses are all looking well, but Mr. Myers thinks, 
with the majority of good breeders, that it is 
a mistake to keep breeding animals in a starved 
condition. The appearance of the horses jus- 
tifies the remarkable stories that we have heard 
of their speed and endurance under heavy 
loads in France. 

We should judge that the average weight of 
this breed of horses in working condition was 
about 1,600 lbs. for the horses and 1,400 ft>s. for 
the mares. 

Breaking the Cofts, 
During the first summer, is one of Mr. Myers' 
peculiarities. He has a nice sulky with a pole 
to drive a span, and its very appearance is 
enough to bewitch a horse-loving boy. By 
making the acquaintance of his colts early and 
constantly handling them, they become noted 
for their mild dispositions. Some of the colts 
are worthy of special mention. 

Tempest.— Foaled in March, 1872, is a full 
Percheron, from White Prince and Doll. He 
will weigh 800 lbs., and is a colt of promise. 

Matt. — Foaltd in May, 1872, is %-Percheron, 
and weighs 600 lbs. 

Louisa. — Foaled in April, 1871, from full- 
blood Percheron mare and imported English 
draft horse; girts 6 ft. 8 in., is 5 ft. 6 in. long, 
and weighs 1,300 lbs. 

Reliance. — A black stallion, foaled in May, 
1871,isfrom a ^-Percheron mare and imported 
English draft horse; weight, 1,200 lbs. 

There is a poor-looking "kuss" of a mare 
running about the yard, which, if sold in her 
prime for forty dollars, would have been well 
sold; she has a half-breed Percheron colt 

which bids fair to make a horse weighing 1,300 
lbs. to 1,400 lbs,, and worth at leaBt $200. 

The fact that the Percherons have been so long 
bred in France as a distinct breed for business 
purposes, gives them great value for producing 
grade animals. This is the real basis upon 
which the high value of any thoroughbred 
stock must finally rest. 

Mr. Myers has a herd of five Jersey cattle, 
that will be recorded in the next Herd Book. 

The Ashlanders of Long Ago 
Were a mighty race, judging from the geolog- 
ical remains exhumed from the gravel mines. 
Mr. H. E. Rockfellow has a piece of a mam- 
moth's tusk which is five feet long and ten 
inches in diameter. It does not appear to have 
been more than half of the original tusk. He 
has three teeth of various lengths and each of 
them four inches wide on the grinding face. 
These remains were found in hydraulic mining 
in a gulch wash of gravel four feet from the 

Ventura County. 

Ens. Press: — Leaving the old mission of San 
Buena Ventura on the 21st, our course is north- 
east up the stream of the same name. The 
first mile or more is a staight road through the 
outskirts of the village with one-quarter of a 
mile of bottom land on the south side of the 
stream — for it is a verritable water course, this 
San Buena Ventura — with good water running 
all the way to the ocean all the year around, in 
this respect almost an exceptional case in 
Southern California. 

Seven miles from town, in a sequestered 
nook and almost hidden in the embowering 
foliage of the live oak, sycamore and willow, 
is the residence of Thos. B. Bard. The sur- 
roundings and choice of location indicate that 
the owner is a person of taste and culture; and 
of course a reader of the Bubal. 

Adjoining Mr. Bard's, on the north side of 
the stream, is the estate of Don Jose de Arnaz, 
some 6,000 acres of hill, valley and woodland, 
2,500 acres of which is cultivated land. The 
Don lives in primitive style and speaks no 
English — subsisting off the product of his 
flocks. Surrounded on all sides by the en- 
croaching Anglo Saxon, it is not strange that he 
is dissatisfied and wants to sell — demands $16,- 
000. So pass away the old "patrones;" the 
$16,000 is probably only enough to cover the 
mortgage and leave a modicum to go to less 
ample quarters with. 

As long as any of the simple original pos- 
sessors have a foot of soil, the traders w 11 sell 
them goods, and when the bill is getting too 
large take a mortgage. That is the River Styx 
to them financially, and is never recrossed. 
The mortgage is seldom redeemed, and the 
broad acres go to Shylock. 

Seven miles above Mr. Bard's the valley 
widens out to a mile or more in width and four 
or five in length, and is called the Ojai (pro- 
nounced "Ohi'V Bancho, a beautiful and pic- 
turesque locality surrounded on all sides by 
hills and lofty mountains that tower above the 
clouds. This morning, after a most refreshiag 
rain in the night ( y % inch of water fell) the tops 
of the peaks to the north and east appeared 
above a stratem of clouds that seemed to be 
half a mile in thickness, though it may 
not be over a thousand feet. The valley is far 
enough from the ocean to be free from the 
coast fogs, and of sufficient altitude (900 feet,) 
for the atmosphere to be comparatively pure. 

There is sufficient land in this and adjacent 
valleys to make comfortable homes for thou- 
sands, and no doubt will in time be densely 
populated, for water is abundant and good 
timber plenty, the soil productive and climate 
just bracing and frosty enough to prevent lassi- 
tude. All the hardier fruits, such as apples, 
peaches, grapes, etc., thrive. All that is lacking 
is people, good people, with money to buy the 
land at $15 per acre without any improvement 
— fifteen dollars cash and no grumbling, or will 
take a mortage and let a part go unpaid. But 
at the risk of offending the speculator we nd\ise 
no one to buy land on time, with the expecta- 
tion of making it off the land. 

There are four families in the upper or main 
valley of the Ojai and eight in the upper ur 
Rancho Viego. The importance of altitude 
has no better exemplification in its effect upon 
diseases of the lungs and throat than is to be 
found in passing from the sea coast to this 
upper valley; altitude, 13,000 feet, or 400 feet 
higher than the lower valley. The cases that 
have been immediately and permanently reliev- 
ed by coming from the town to the first or 900 
foot elevation are quite marked, but still more 
decidedly so in the 13,000 foot altitude. 

But the wretched money grabbers about the 
towns endeavor to persuade invalids to daw- 
dle about the vicinity of the petty marts of 
commerce, and waste their small remaining 
fund of vitality as well as their cash, many 
times until it is too late to go anywhere but to 
the cemetery — while the commonest dictates 
of humanity, it would seem, should suggest 
the immediate burning them away to the 
mountains. The superior dryness and purity 
of the atmosphere in these upper valleys must 
bring them into requisition soon as homes for 
invalids from all parts of the world. There is 
no doubt of the superiority of the climate of 
Southern California over any other known 
locality upon earth. F M. Shaw. 

Ojai, Ventura county, Dec. 21th, 1872. 

January xi, 1873.] 

SjQCk Bf\EEQIf[q. 

Value of Merino Sheep. 

Editors Rural Press : — One hundred young 
thoroughbred merino ewes at a cost of $75 per 
head, properly cared for will yield a net profit 
of $3,390 per year. 

10O sheep at $75 per head, cost $7,500 

Interest on $7,500 at 10 per cent 750 

Natural loss 150 

Cost of shearing SO 

Cost of herding 60 

10 acres alfalfa land will easily keep them, say It 

is worth $50 per acre, will cost 500 

Interest on same, 10 per cent 50 

Expenses of keeping up fences and taxes 20 

Total $1,050 


Increase 90 per cent, would naturally be 45 ewe lambs, 
and 45 buck lambs. 

45 ewe lambs at $40 per head $1 ,800 

45 buck lambs, at $50 per head 2,250 

Wool from 100 sheep 1,300 lbs. 30 cents per pound 390 

Total $4,440 

Less total expenses 1,050 

Net profit $3,390 

This estimate is based upon the market value 
of choice young ewes as sold and offered for 
sale by Severance & Peet, and what makes it 
more fair the increase is marked 50 per cent, 
below the market value of the same stock to- 
day, and the average price here and in the 
East for the past 10 years has been 20 per cent, 
above the foregoing estimate, and it is safe to 
say that the future prospects for extra fine 
stock of all kinds, and especially sheep is quite 
as flattering to-day as it ever has been. 

It is a demonstrated fact that by crossing a 
first-class Spanish merino buck, with grade 
ewes, say an average of most large bands in 
this State, the weight of fleece may be increas- 
ed 50 per cent, and even 100 per cent, in five 
years, and this fact explains how $100 and $200 
can be paid for rams, and principal and inter- 
est returned to their owners so soon. Take 
300 grade ewes, shearing an average of five 
pounds per head, would give a yield of 1,500 
pounds, worth say 30 cents per pound, gives the 
owner a gross income of $450. 

The first cross with a choice ram will yield 7 
pounds per head, or 600 pounds extra wool 
which costs nothing except what is paid extra 
for the ram ; 600 pounds at 30 cents gives their 
owner $180, actual profit which pays for the 
ram. Besides this the increase are worth 60 
cents per head more to keep for wool which 
will give the owner $180 profit per year. The 
next cross will not of course be so marked, but 
will in ordinary cases amount to 50 per cent, of 
the first in ratio of increase, which would in a 
few years bring the flock up to an average 
weight of 10 pounds per head. 

The thoroughbred Spanish Merino grow a 
greater a number of fibres to the square inch, 
of the same quality and length of staple, than 
any sheep in the known world, and shear more 
pounds of wool same weight of carcass and 
same feed than any other breed: we instance 
Young Eureka's sire and grand sire, that shear- 
ed 25 pounds per year each. S. & P. 

We give place to the foregoing for the infor- 
mation it contains, quite apart from any merit 
it may possess as an advertisement for S. & P. 

Stock Breeding; in California. 

The Sacramento Union of a late date said : 
"It cannot fail to attract the attention that, 
while our State Fair this year shows very little 
if auy improvement over last in thoroughbred 
horses, there is a most marked improvement in 
the show of fine cattle, and more of them on ex- 
hibition than ever before. It is also note- 
worthy that the people who come here to see 
the Fair were much more enthusiastic over the 
cattle show than usual. The crowds who rush- 
ed to the morning parade of stock were nearly 
as large as those attending the races. The fact 
is, more of our good farmers are giving close 
attention to breeding of neat cattle than of 
horses, and the climate is as good for the one 
as the other. Besides, the cattle business is the 
most profitable. 

A thoroughbred horse at three years old is 
well sold at $400 to $500, unless his racing rec- 
ord stands high. The cost of such an animal 
is at least half his market value. A first-rate 
Durham heifer or bull calf at one year old is 
worth from $400 to $1,000, and the cost of rais- 
ing it to that age is comparatively nothing. A 
whole herd of cattle can be kept for not much 
more than it costs to keep one ortworace-hors- 
ses. The profits of the horse are uncertain; of 
the herd of cattle they can be as surely reckon- 
ed beforehand as the value of the wheat or 
grape crop. 

We do not disparage the business of cultivat- 
ing thoroughbred horses for the turf. They 
have their excellent uses, and it is an honorable 
business, indicative of a high-toned and enter- 
prising people. But no one need be put to the 
trouble of argument to prove that the cultiva- 
tion of superior breeds of cattle is more profita- 
ble and advantageous to the State, and more 
assuring as to the true progress of our farming 
interests. We have been cultivating running 
stock with much care ever since 1859, but we 
are yet a good many steps behind the Eastern 
States. We have only of late years paid any 
considerable attention to the breeding of fine 
cattle, and pur show in that line this year is 
robably the very best in the United States." 

Raising Horses. 

The severe work to which young horses are 
often subjected is the chief cause of thepresent 
great liability to disease. If they were well 
fed, and allowed to mature their constitution 
before being trained, they would, in all proba- 
bility, remain sound for a considerable time. 
Horses should roam at large till they reach 
their fourth year or until such time as human- 
ity, and a due regard to the soundness of the 
animals, would point out as the proper period 
for putting them to work. 

The system of crossing which has been 
adopted since the introduction of thoroughbred 
stallions, appears to be a further cause of the 
degeneration of stock. Let his shape 
and qualities be good, bad or indifferent, the 
horse which possesses a sprinkling of blood is 
sure to be the animal which will be selected as 
a sire. His light action, showy appeararce and 
high-sounding pedigree will be a sufficient rec- 
ommendation to those who are ignorant of the 
various points and qualities which are con- 
nected with the strength, substance, durability, 
and disposition of the horse. Besides the 
same horse is certain to be put to a great 
number of mares of all sorts, shapes and 
sizes, without the slightest regard to adapta- 
tion of form and size of dam. which is abso- 
lutely necessary in order to procure a satisfac- 
tory result. Breeding from blood-stallions is 
highly commendable, provided it is done with 
judgment and discretion; but the practice of 
violent crossing is directly objectionable, and 
cannot be too strongly condemned. Extremes 
in crossing are very rarely successful; and it is 
really astonishing to see farmers constantly 
putting their complete cart mares to thor- 
oughbred horses, expecting to have foals of a 
class fit for fast work, whereas nine times out 
of ten they are fit neither for slow nor fast 

By the practice here referred to, breeders 
expect to produce a horse combining both 
strength and action; but they are frequently 
treated to an animal of such a nondescript 
form that he is fit " neither for the land nor 
the sea." In place of being a fair medium 
between sire and dam, he will take chiefly 
after the one in some parts, while in other 
places he will lean entirely to the opposite 
side, and he is consequently so badly balanced 
and proportioned that he is comparatively use- 
less. His temper, moreover, is frequently 
characterized by a want of conformity to the 
purposes for which his owner might think him 
in other respects bestadapted. — Prairie Farmer. 

Rule of Law as to Unsoundness of the 

There has-been much discussion upon this 
subject and many rules laid down as to what 
constitutes unsoundness in horses. Mr. You- 
att, in his work on "The Horse," givos the fol- 
lowing rule: — "The horse is unsound that la- 
bors under disease or has some alteration of 
structure which does interfere or is likely to in- 
tere with his natural usefulness, The term 
' natural usefulness ' must be borne in mind. 
One horse may possess great speed, but is soon 
knocked up; another will work all day; but can 
not be got beyond a snail's pace; a third, with a 
heavy forehead, is liable to stumble, and is 
continually putting to hazard the neck of his 
rider; another, with an irritable constitution, 
and a loose, washy form, loses his appetite and 
begins to scour if a littld extra work is exacted 
from him. The term unsoundness must not be 
applied to either of these; it would be opening 
far too wide a door to disputation and endless 
wrangling. The buyer can discern, or ought 
to know, whether the form of the horse is that 
which will render him likely to suit his pur- 
pose, and he should try him sufficiently to as- 
certain his natural strength, endurance, and 
manner of going." 

The above definition of Mr. Youatt is not 
broad enough. It will be observed that any al- 
teration of structure from accident is not com- 
prehended in it as it should be. In the leading 
English case upon this subject, it was distinct- 
ly held that the disqualification for work which 
renders a horse unsound, may arise either from 
disease or accident. 

The late Professor Coleman says that "any 
deviation from nature is an unsoundness in a 

Mr. Chitty, in his work on contracts, lays 
down the following rule: — "The rule as to an 
unsoundness of a horse is, that if at the time of 
sale the horse has any disease which either ac- 
tually does diminish the natural usefulness of 
the animal, so as to make him less capable of 
work of any description, or which in its ordi- 
nary progress will diminish the natural useful- 
ness of the animal ; or if the horse has, either 
from disease or accident, undergone any altera- 
tion of structure that either actually does at the 
time, or in its ordinary effects will, diminish 
the natural usefulness of the horse, such a 
horse is unsound." 

Look to Your Journals. — A block of grain 
warehouses, including a large elevator, were 
recently destroyed by fire in Brooklyn, N. Y. 
The fire is supposed to have been caused by 
the over-heating of a journal box from friction. 
Loss, half a million of dollars. 



We are seemingly but little nearer a true so- 
lution of the nature of electricity now, than 
Franklin was a hundred years ago. Modern 
physicists have pretty generally concluded 
that it is only another form of motion, but this 
is only shifting the difficulty one step farther 
back; for who can define motion, or rather 
force, of which motion is the visible manifes- 
tation ? Although we cannot define its nature, 
we are able to understand it far more fully, and 
to measure its effects and control its manifes- 
tations more successfully, than was thought to 
be possible at that earlier day. So many new 
terms have been introduced into this depart- 
ment of scientific research within a few years, 
that we think it may be of interest to our read- 
ers to define a few of these. The non-profes- 
sional reader is sorely puzzled when he meets 
with such uncouth words as volt, ohm, and 
farad, or sees mention of primary and second 
ary currents. 

The primary current is the current flowing 
directly from one element of a galvanic battery 
to the other. 

The secondary, or induced current, is the cur- 
rent of electricity that is induced in a coil of 
insulated wire, when a magnet is suddenly in- 
troduced into its interior. It is also produced 
by revolving the armatures of electro-magnetic 
machines, by the Ruhmkorff coil, aud in many 
other wpys. Faraday was the first to study it. 

Dynamic electricity is that produced by the 
galvanic battery,, as manifested by the primary 
currrent. Static electricity is that produced by 
friction, and by the induced curient in the 
Ruhmkorff coil. The two differ mainly in ten- 
sion. By tension is understood the power of 
overcoming obstacles. Thus, static electricity 
will pass through the air for considerable dis- 
tances, as is seen in the discharge of a Leyden 
jar, or a stroke of lightning. But dynamic 
electricity is rarely produced of sufficiently 
high tension to pass through greater thickness 
of air than a fraction of an inch. The quantity 
of electricity th it is concentrated into a single 
instantaneous flash in lightning is spread out 
ovor hours in the battery, and is consequently 
weakened in intensity, though the quantity re- 
mains the same. 

A simple illustration may serve to make the 
difference more readily understood. If a ball 
of lead weighing ten pounds were dropped up- 
on a man's head from a hight of sixteen feet, 
it would most likely injure him seriously. If, 
however, the ball of lead were converted into 
shot of a grain weight each, and these were al- 
lowed to fall in a continuous stream until the 
whole ten pounds had fallen, they would be 
scarcely noticed. 

The standard of the resistance of bodies to 
the passage of electricity is called an ohm, from 
the name of the iran who investigated the in- 
fluence of resistances on electric currents. 
One ohm is equal to the resistance of 48.61 me- 
tres of pure copper or silver wire one millime- 
tre in diameter, at the temperature of 65° F. 
When, therefore, a resistance of a thousand 
ohms is spoken of, we understand that a cer- 
tain circuit opposes a resistance a thousand 
times as great as this to the flow of the current 

The volt is the unit of tension, and is so call- 
ed from Volta. It is about equal to the electro- 
motive force produced by one Daniell's cell. 
Thus, two Daniell's cells coupled for intensity 
would have an electro-motive force equal to 
two volts. A Bunsen cell has an electro-motive 
force equal to about 1.8 volts. 

A farad, so named from Faraday, who inves- 
tigated the relations of electrical quntity, is the 
unit of current. 

The question is often asked, How can a tel- 
egraph operator, sitting in his office, tell with- 
in a few feet where a break in the wire is, or 
rather where it makes a connection with the 
ground ? The operator knows the resisanee of 
his wire per mile. Suppose, for instance, that 
it is fifty ohms. Now in the first place, he con- 
nects his battery with the wire, and also puts 
into the circuit a rheostat and a galvanometer. 
A rheostat is an instrument so consrvcted that 
a greater or smaller amount of wire or resist- 
ance can be readily introduced into or removed 
from the circuit. Having adjusted the rheos- 
tat so that the needle of the galvanometer 
points to a certain division, the wire is removed 
from the circuit, connection being made direct- 
ly with the rheostat and galvanometer, instead 
of through the line and the earth. Suppose it 
is now found that more resistance must be in- 
troduced into the rheostat, in order to bring the 
needle to the same place; for instance, we have 
to introduce 500 ohms. The break must then 
be ten miles away; for the resistance of the 
earth is zero, and the additional resistance intro- 
duced must just equal that of the wire removed. 
In practice, the apparatns employed is a little 
more complicated than this, but the principle 
is the same. — Boston Journal of Chemistry. 

Red Lead Glass Unfit for Insulation. — 
Prof. Henry Morton; in a recent lecture before 
the N. Y. Polytechnic Institute said that red lead, 
although one of the best of non-conductors, 
will render glass a very good conductor, if it 
enters into its composition. Such glass, which 
is usually of high refracting power, and there- 
fore brilliant in appearance, is utterly unfit for 
purposese of insulation. This fact is of much 
importance to such as have to do with the 
construction of electrical apparatus. 

Metal Paper-Hangings. 

Paper-hangings of tin-foil, a recent inven- 
tion to which we have already alluded, seem to 
be gaining favor in Europe, and bid fair to se- 
cure a much more general use and wider appli- 
cation than was at first anticipated. Cum- 
ber's Journal, in alluding to this improvement, 

The sheets are from 30 to 40 inches wide 
and about 16 inches long. They are painted 
and dried at a high temperature, and are then 
decorated with many different patterns, such 
as foliage, flowers, geometrical figures, imita- 
tion of wood, or landscapes. When decorated 
the sheets are varnished, and again dried, end 
are then ready for sale. Tin-foil is in itself 
naturally tough, and the coats laid upon it in 
preparing it for the market increase the tough- 
ness. The hanging of these metallic sheets" is 
similar to paper-hangings, except that the wall 
is varnished with a weak kind of varnish, and 
the sheet applied theieto. Thus, in this way, 
a room or house may be newly painted, with- 
out any smell of paint to annoy or harm the 
inmates. Moreover, tin-foil keeps out damp, 
and as the varnish is a damp resister, the pio- 
tection to the room is two-fold. 

Experience has shown also that cornices, 
moldings and irregular surfaces may be cov- 
ered with the tin-loil as readily as the flat sur- 
face; hence, there is no part of a dwelling 
house or public building which may not be 
decorated with these new sheets; and, as re- 
gards style and finish, all who saw the speci- 
mens exhibited at the reading of the paper 
were made aware that the highest artistic ef- 
fects could be achieved at pleasure. The dec- 
oration of small tin plates for ornamental pur- 
poses has, we hear, been introduced into Corn- 
wall — the county of tin. In this case, the 
color and pattern are printed on the plates by 
means of lithographic stones and rollers; but, 
to insure excellence and permanence, the 
plates must be heated. Difficulty w?s first 
experienced in keeping the pletes at the re- 
quired temperature, the upper part of the oven 
being always hotter than the lower; but it was 
overcome by fitting into the oven a vertical 
roundabout, which carried the plates from top 
to bottom of the oven during the whole process 
of heating. We think there are many pur- 
poses to which the plates could be applied be- 
yond that of mere ornament. 

The Spectroscope. — A correspondent of the 
Scientific American says that notwithstanding 
the spectroscope is regarded by scientists as the 
most wonderful instrument ot the age, and is 
doing more than all other instrumentalities to- 
day for the advancement of astronomicul sci- 
ence, it does not tell the same story to all ob- 
servers. The same light does not prove to be 
composed of the same substances when differ- 
ent men and instruments are employed, For 
example, to Prof. Young the corona seen dur- 
ing the eclipse of the sun is a permanent au- 
rora, and deemed by him electrical in charac- 
ter; to Prof. Harkness the instrument suggests 
that the appearance is not in the nature of an 
electrical discharge, and its light not polarized, 
but that this mystical aureola of the source of 
lisrhl is incandescent hydrogen gas with vapor 
of iron. 

Raindrops and Rainbows. — According to 
Kolbe, the size of the drops in a rainstorm es- 
sentially modify the character of the rainbow 
that may be formed. He shows this by a squirt- 
ing apparatus, which produces three kinds of 
drops simultaneously: the first, large and easily 
recognized as drops; the second, small, and 
whirling at first among each other, then falling 
in parallel directions to the ground; the third, 
very fine, and forming thin clouds of spray, 
which rise in the air. In the last no trace of a 
rainbow can be observed, even in a darkened 
chamber into which a ray is admitted; the sec- 
ond kind gives a bow (blue and orange), dis- 
tinctly visible, at a distance of three feet, but 
more distinct where the drops fall parallel 
than where they whirl together; the large drops 
give a bow with much livelier hues. 

Self-Purification of Flowing Water. — 
Concerning the rapidity with which contamina- 
tions are got rid of by flowing water, Dr. Leth- 
eby asserts that sewage impurities will entirely 
disappear in a flow of a dozen miles. If, he 
says, ordinary sewage, containing say one hun- 
dred grains of solid matter to the gallon, of 
which solid matter probably something like 
fourteen or fifieen grains will be organic, be 
mixed with twenty times its bulk of ordinary 
river water, it will not contain, after a flow of 
ten or twelve miles, a particle of that sewage 
discoverable by any chemical process. Dr. 
Parkes also believe3 that flowing water thus 
purifies itsell, but he does not undertake to say 
how far it must run to make the process of pu- 
rification complete. 

Organisms in Crystalline Rocks. — Dr. 
Jenzsch, of Gotha, who has devoted himself for 
some years to microscopic lithology, announces 
than in various kinds of crystalline and volcan- 
ic rocks he has discovered minute animal 
forms in prodigious numbers in a fossil con- 
dition. Among them he finds infusoria and 
rotiferse intermingled with algse, and he infers 
their formation in a large expanse of stagnant 

Spectrum of the Aurora. — Vogel has de- 
termined that the spectrum of the aurora may 
with great probability be regarded as a modifi- 
cation of the air spectrum, the variability of the 
spectra of gases under different circumstances 
of temperature and pressure being well estab- 


[January n, 1873. 

p^R[4EE\S Ifl CodfJClL. 

Important Meeting of the Board of 
Directors of the California Farmers' 

The Board of Directors of the California 
Farmers' Union held a special meeting Janu- 
ary 3d, in the Committee room of the 
Mechanics' Institute. Those present were 
General John Bidwell of Butte, President; J. 
R. Snyder of Sonoma, W. H. Ware of Santa 
Santa Clara, T. Hart Hyatt of Solano, Vice 
Presidents; A. T. Dewey, Treasurer; and I. N. 
Hoag of Yolo, Secretary. 

Address by General Bidwell. 

The President, in calling the meeting to- 
gether, said the meeting had for its object the 
devising of means by which the cost of moving 
and marketing the crops of the approaching 
season might be reduced, thus enabling the 
farmer to realize a larger percentage of profit. 
The charges for sacks and freight to a market 
at home or abroad were at the present time so 
great that the farmer was scarcely remunerated 
for his labor of production; and this state of 
things did not so much arise from natural 
causes as from the exorbitant exactions of 
those by whom the material for sacking, the 
money to move produce, and the means of 
transportation were provided. It was the in- 
terest and the duty of the farmers, by combined 
action, by organization, by financial or political 
power and influence, to endeavor to protect 
themselves; to demand, exact and enforce jus- 
tice and common honesty from those with 
whom they deal. "In my opinion," he con- 
tinued, ' ; there is but one way for the farmers 
to succeed in the accomplishment of these ob- 
jects, and that is 

The Organization of Local Clubs, 
And the steady support of the State Club in its 
efforts in their behalf. If the farmers in all 
portions of the State will come together and 
torm local clubs, and put themselves in cor- 
respondence and business relations with the 
State Farmers' Union, in such a manner as to 
authorize the officers of this association to act 
for and bind them under necessary moral and 
financial obligations, in my opinion, the relief 
which they seek can be obtained, to a great 
degree at least, and industrial prosperity may 
become general throughout the State. 

But while the farmer remains aloof from his 
neighbors — while he continues to act on the 
selfish individual policy — other classes, such 
as importers and manufacturers of agricultural 
tools and implements, importers and manufac- 
turers of sacks, common carriers, grain dealers, 
commission merchants and money loaners, 
will unite for the advancement of their own 
interests and ends, and will take undue and 
unjust advantages of the farmer; will oppress, 
prey upon him, and eat out his substance, and 
continue to keep him poor and dependent. 
Farmers now, unorganized, are weak and iu u 
great degree helpless, and they have but little 
courage to make an effort to free themselves or 
better their condition ; but 

Let 100,000 Farmers of this State Unite Together, 
And act as one man, through an honest and 
reliable organization, demanding only com- 
mon justice, but exacting this to the last de- 
gree, and with a firm and united front, and 
there is no power in the land that can prevent 
the attainment of their just demands. The 
farming interests of the country need some 
wholesome legislation to place them on an equal 
footing with other occupations, and to relieve 
them from the exactions of heartless monopo- 
lies; and if farmers will but unite to send the 
proper men to represent them in our legislative 
halls, both State and National, will see to it that 
our judicial and executive offices are filled with 
honest, efficient and reliable men, it will then 
be but an easy matter to secure such legislation 
and such constitution and execution of the 
laws as their interests and the best interests of 
the State demand. For the purpose of em- 
phasizing the idea, I repeat, and I wish I could 
sound it in the ears of every farmer in the 
State, the only salvation of the agricultural 
interests, the only safety to the individual in- 
terests of the farmer, is in union of interest 
and union of action. 

Discussion by the Members. 

Major J. R. Snyder, of Sonoma, delivered an 
address, in which he advocated greater care to 
be exercised, in the selection of County Super- 
visors, improvement in the public roads, the 
building of warehouses at shipping pointsinthe 
various counties, and the adoption of a coop- 
erative system of farmers' warehouses. 

A communication from Mr. W. A. Fisher, 
President of the Napa County Club, was read 
by the Secretary. The writer expressed confi- 
dence in the Board of Directors, and suggested 
subjects for consideration. One of these was 
the taxing of growing crops. This subject was 
also offered for consideration in a resolution of 
the Santa Clara Club, presented by Mr. W. H. 
Ware. Both communications were placed on 
file, and a committee was appointed, consisting 
of T. H. Hyatt, A. T. Dewey, and W. H. Ware, 
with instructions to report on the matter at the 
evening session. 

The Board adjourned to meet at half-past 

Evening Proceedings. 
Mr. T. H. Hyatt, reported the following reso- 

lutions as the result of the committee's delib- 

Resolved, That it is the sense of this Board that the 
taxing of growing crops is unjust and oppressive, un- 
fair in the extreme, and if legal, the law upon which 
such tax is based should be repealed; and we call upon 
the local clubs throughout the State to have this law 
abolished at the next session of the Legislature. 
The resolution was unanimously adopted. 
Secretary Hoag on the Farmers' Position. 
Mr. Hoag said that as Secretary of the Union 
he had corresponded with the several Clubs of 
the State, and had asked suggestions as to the 
matters which they desired the Union to act up- 
on; but he found a general feeling that the 
State Club should lead the way and suggest 
modes of relief and the plans by which such re- 
lief should be secured. They expected practi- 
cal and tangible results, and until the Union, 
through its officers, showed itself competent to 
bring about such results for the benefit of the 
farmers, so that they could see and feel them 
in a financial way in their pockets, it was hard- 
ly to be expected that they would came forward 
with much alacrity to organize local Clubs or 
sustain the State organization. 

He for one believed that with a little good 
business management immense benefit might 
be secured to the farmers, and that very soon. 
The first thing to secure was the certainty that 
the grain-growers of the State shall be furnish- 
ed with the necessary sacks in which to move 
the crops of grain at the lowest possible figure. 

The next was that the money necessary to 
harvest and market that crop to good advantage 
should be guaranteed to all the members of the 
Club at reasonable rates of interest, upon their 
giving good security; and the third was cheap 
transportation both within and outside the 
State, to whatever point it might become neces- 
sary to ship the grain. He would therefore 
offer the following resolutions, which, he be- 
lieved, expressed the sentiments of the Board, 
and which would show that they were in earn- 

Jiesolved, That to promote their best interests, 
as well as the general good, the farmers through- 
out the State should at once organize local Far- 
mers' Clubs. 

Second — That all clubs be Requested to send 
to the Secretary of this Board at Sacramento a 
list of their officers and members, and their 
post office addresses, and that new clubs do so 
as soon as they may be organized. 

Third— That, to secure sacks and the money 
necessary to market, and move the coming har- 
vest, as well as transportation, at the lowest 
possible figure, there Bhould be on the part of 
the farmers early, general and earnest organi- 
zation and cooperation. 

Fourth— That the President and two other 
members of the Board, to be named by him, 
constitute a Committee on Finance, whose bus- 
iness it shall be to ascertain the best terms upon 
which sacks and necessary accommodations 
can be obtained, and to act in reference to the 
matter as their judgment may dictate. 

These resolutions were adopted unanimously, 
and Mr. Dewey and Mr. Hoag were appointed 
on the Committee. 

The meeting was then adjourned until Satur- 
day evening. 

The Committee reported good progress, and 
said that definite answers would be obtained on 

Authority was given the Secretary to issue a 
circular to the Clubs and farmers of the State, 
setting forth the advantages to be secured by 
immediate organization, and perfecting business 
arrangements. It was resolved to call a special 
meeting of the Union, to meet in San Francis- 
co, on Wednesday, the 9th of April next, at 2 
o'clock, P. M. 

A vote of thanks was passed to the Mechan- 
ics' Institute, for the use of the rooms, and the 
Board adjourned, to meet again on the call of 
the President. 

Stanislaus Farmers' Club. 

Eds. Rubal Pbess. — Having the sack ques- 
tion up for consideration in our Club, we would 
like on some points information, which our in- 
land situation makes it difficult to get at: 

What is the manufacturing capacity of the 
mills in the State for the supply of sacks, and 
what percentage did they supply ? What is the 
tariff on imported sacks, or protection to the 
manufacturers ? How much can the tariff be 
reduced for the benefit of the farmers, and still 
let the manufactories run and live ? At what 
price can the various Clubs subscribe for sacks 
to be furnished next harvest season ? 

Will the Oakland Club or the State Club— 
(if we have such an institution) make arrange- 
ments to receive sack orders from the inland 
Clubs, and order for us on good security, or 
receive lists for sacks and negotiate through 
some dealer to forward our demands and fur- 
nish at the lowest per cent.; would not this be 
the best plan for the next season, as it is late 
now to effect and mature other plans ? 

How many sacks have been imported the 
past year ? Has the experiment been tried to 
ship wheat in bulk as they do East, and with 
what success ? this is the great consideration 
for the farmer. Respectfully, 

Wm. Gallat, Secretary. 

Dec. 28th, 1872. 

The foregoing contains several very interest- 
ing and important queries, to which, it will re- 
quire some little time to perfect answers. In 
the meantime we shall be pleased to hear from 
any who may be informed upon the subjects 
touched upon. 

Santa Cruz Farmers' Club. 

The Club met on Saturday afternoon, De- 
cember 21st. 

Mr. Locke, from the Committee on Unequal 
Assessments, made a majority report. Mr. 
Cahoon not being prepared to report, the whole 
subject was laid over to the next meeting. 

Dr. Anderson, from the Committee on the 
"Horse Disease, " presented the following re- 

Report of the Committee on the Epizootic, 
affecting horses on the atlantic side of 
otTE Continent. Read before the Santa 
Cbuz Farmer:;' Club, Dec. 21st, 1872. 

From time to time we hear of some great 
disease traveling over the country with great 
rapidity. We are less fortunate if we happen 
to be in the track of that disease. We call such 
things epidemics, which means literally "upon 
the people." When affecting domestic animals 
it is called epizootic — "upon animals." 

The disease so widespread in the States, east 
of the Rocky Mountains, among horses, is one 
of the epizootic kind. It is undoubtedly me- 
teoric in its origin. By meteoric we mean 
something that exists in space, perhaps inde- 
pendent of the earth's influence. This horse 
disease commenced in the northeastern part of 
the United States, and has pursued a regular 
course toward the southwest. Such is the 
character of epidemics in all ages — they have 
traveled in certain directions* pursuing a regu- 
lar course without regard to oceans, mountains, 
earth-surface, climates, or seasons. 

What the nature of this meteor may be, has 
been a question for many ages. Hitherto 
no analysis of the air, no chemical test, could 
discover anything characteristic. 

Lately, in a course of experiments, Professor 
Tyndall has demonstrated that the air which 
constantly surrounds us, which we are contin- 
ually breathing, is loaded with living organisms 
which are of necessity constantly passing into 
our lungs— that the dust of the air of London is 
organic and not as he had supposed of the same 
nature as the sand of the desert, inorganic and 

He was led to these experiments in testing 
the effects of light on different vapors. Dust 
was exceedingly troublesome, but when he suc- 
ceeded in eliminating all dust from the air by 
means of heat — burning it out — he found 
that light passing through the experimental 
tube was invisible, owing to the absence of il- 
luminated particles. In other words, without 
these organic particles, light would pass 
through our air without being seen ; they ren- 
der that force visible. This seems to be the 
reasonable conclusion of Prof. Tyndall. 

The air being lull of organism which do not 
affect human existence unfavorably, or may 
even be essential to life, some sudden change 
of these germs, some new development, some 
new organisms appearing, may affect animal 

This horse disease first shows itself in (he air 
passages, affecting first the nose, then the throat 
and lungs. Some call it a species of influenza. 
From all we can gather, it is identical in its 
pathology with pleuro-pneumonia, rinderpest, 
and other diseases of a like character. Not 
that its first effects is the same, that may be 
quite different. But the disease originates — 
sets in motion — other pathological disturbances, 
secondary effects, which become serious. 

We learn that this epizootic is by no means 
alarming at the onset, and that with simple 
hygienic remedies — freedom from hard work, 
quiet exercise, proper food and grooming, the 
horses are soon well. Bad treatment or bad 
constitutions are followed with serious effects. 

Now, it is held by naturalists that each organ 
of the body has its proper life, and that it con- 
sists of minute centers of action which have 
been called cells, globules, organic units, germs 
granules, and other names. 

The particles constantly floating in the air 
only become deleterious, at times to certain 
of these organs. The epidemic that produces 
influenza may be the same that at another time 
would produce cholera. It is a fact that an ep- 
idemic influenza prevailed very extensively in 
the United States in 1831. It started in Europe 
and passed rapidly from the northeast, crossing 
New England into the Middle States, affecting 
more than half the human population, laying 
the foundation for many fatal cases of pulmon- 
ary disease. The next year appeared the 
Asiatic cholera, following nearly the same 

At one time horses and cattle and other do- 
mestic animals are subject to this influence. 
At other times particular organs suffer. 

These organisms are so exceedingly minute 
that only the brightest ray of light will reveal 
them. The particles which we call "dust," 
seen in a ray of light entering a darkened room 
are of the same character. They live and 
grow in the air and that is as much their home 
and soil, so to speak, as the organisms that 
grow from the surface of the earth. 

These facts suggest to us several important 
points. We cannot avoid the coming of these 
epidemics any more than we can avoid the 
earthquake or the hurricane. It is not likely 
that this horse disease will reach us except by 
a change of course. Its direction is south- 
west, and would pass to the south of Califor- 
nia. But we know not how broad its track 

may be. It is possible for it also to be pro- 
pagated by the transfer of diseased animals to 
unaffected districts. The mountains offer no 
barrier. As to remedies wo have no certain 

We may be sure, however, that these organ- 
isms are subject to pretty much the same laws 
as other organic matter— growth and decay, 
and that something may be done to prevent 
their entering the animal system, or to destroy 
or neutralize them after they have entered. It 
is quite evident that they fix themselves first 
upon the mucous membrane of the air-pas- 
sages and there propagate and pass into the 
circulation, or, perhaps, pass directly into the 

Professor Tyndall found that the air could be 
cleared of these particles in several wnys. 
First, by burning them; second, by filtering 
the air through cotton. It is also probable that 
some vapors and gases would prove destruc- 
tive, and thus clear the air of their presence. 

The use of medicinal agents as sulphur, 
quinine, iron, chlorine, the products of tar, 
etc., may be found of great value. Breathing 
the air through a cotton or silk filter might be 
found practicable, at least for a few days dur- 
ing the prevalence of one of these epidemics. 
Temperature might have a favorable effect on 
this disease. There should be warmth enough 
to prevent any chill being felt. Then, aguin, 
if a room could be so arranged as only to ad- 
mit air through a heated medium, as a furnace, 
or tube, these dangerous organisms would be 
entirely destroyed. 

There are numerous remedies that might be 
suggested, and means of mitigation, possibly 
of prevention. We should particularly bear in 
mind the fact that this is a disease of great de- 
bility at the onset. There is a depressed con- 
dition of the animal — drooping head, watery 
eyes and disinclination to exertion. 

Themost tender treatment shouldbe adopted; 
no harsh remedies should be administered ; 
no bleeding or violent purgatives. The strength 
of the animal should be husbanded. By these 
means the animal force will soon rally and 
overcome the invasion. 

Vapor from heated or burning tar has been 
mentioned and we should have much confidence 
in this remedy. Allowing the smoke to pene- 
trate in pretty thick vapors throughout the 
building, and even making the horses breathe 
at intervals the air heavily charged with tar 
vapors would act favorably in destroying the 
growth of these organisms. Tar as we know, 
contains many products such as creosote, car- 
bolic acid, etc., destructive to the lower forms 
of life. Hence its excellent disinfectant prop- 

Over exercise, drastic remedies, badly ven- 
tilated stables, exposure to cold or wet, will in- 
duce a disintegration of the blood, and the 
horse will die of rapidly developed dropsy, 
glanders, or some analogous disease, apparent- 
ly after all primary symptoms of the disease 
have subsided. 

Thus we have merely hinted at the nature of 
this disease, its cause, and its remedies. The 
subject is one of interest and of vast import- 
tance. We cannot afford to omit any effort 
that might be useful in saving so faithful an 
animal as the horse. Our country has lost mil- 
lions of dollars already by this epidemic, be- 
sides the valuble services, for a time, of this 
domestic animal. A knowledge of the cause 
and a correct system of treatment would save 
our State from an immense loss in case the epi- 
demic should reach us. 

Respectfully submitted, 
C. L. Anderson, j 
V. Humphrey, V Committee. 
C. M. West, ) 

San Jose Farmers' Club and Protective 

[Reported for the Pacific Rubal Pbess. 1 

Meeting of Jan. '1th, 1873. The President 
gave notice that in one month he would offer 
an amendent to the Constitution, making the 
election of officers occur in May, to agree with 
the recommendations contained in the circular 
issued by the Department of Agriculture. Mr. 
O. Cottle said he had received a copy of the 
proceedings of the Agricultural Congress held 
in St. Louis last May, together with some 
other papers which he supposed were intended 
for the Club; they contained some suggestions 
and recommendations, and were referred to a 
Committee consisting of Messrs. Cadwell, 
Brown and Erkson. 

A communication from the State Union was 
read, inviting the Club to suggest any topic 
which it desired to have considered, at a meet- 
ing of the managers to be held in San Fran- 
cisco on Jan. 3d. 

The question of commencing suit to make 
the citizens of incorporate cities and towns pay 
County Road tax was adopted for discussion 
next Saturday — and the reports of the Com- 
mittee on the same. 


Mr. Brown said that irrigation greatly in- 
creased the conditions favorable for animal 
and vegetable life, there is no question about 
that, but the point to decide is the best means 
of obtaining the desired end. He thought for- 
est trees affect the electrical conditions of the 
air and make it favorable for rain; he thought 
it wise therefore to recommend the plantiug of 

January it, 1873.] 


forests especially, as they would be valuable 
for the timber produced. He objected to the 
present mode of farming, asitrobbid the land; 
we continually are taking off without putting 
anything back — irrigating would remedy that, 
as the water used would carry on fertilizing 

Instead of depending on the rains of treach- 
erous seasons, he would have reservoirs built 
on all the mountain streams, and accumulate 
the waste water that runs off to irrigate and 
make our valley fertile in dry seasons. It 
*ould be a good investment. They are trying 
it in the Sacramento and San Joaquin valleys. 
It will enable our farmers to" have green feed 
for their dairies, and they could wet their straw 
stacks and make them into suitable and valua- 
ble manure to enrich the cultivated fields. 

Mr. Buryland thought the amount of water 
that could be collected from the various streams 
in our valley, would not be sufficient to make 
the plan suggested by Mr. Brown at all practi- 
cal, and even if we could get plenty of water, 
he does not Consider it advisable to irrigate; it 
spoils the soil. The best thing we can do is to 
take the cream from our virgin soils and rush 
ahead and spread civilization. There is ample 
room on the vast plains of South America and 

Mr. Holloway thinks it will not pay till we 
get the valley divided up into small farms. 
He believes in the economy of irrigation; it 
Would make good schools and good roads, and 
give us all the other advantages they have in 
cities. He thinks the system of land monopo- 
lies must be broken up. He loves to see an 
independent spirit. He don't believe that 
forest trees bring rain, but thinks we have 
plenty of water, if we only save it, and believes 
it will be done sometime. 

Mr. Hobson believes in irrigation; it will 
kill off the squirrels that have been such a 
nuisance. Much of our valley is now irrigated 
by means of wells, and look at the profits of 
our strawberries and other productions raised 
by means of irrigation. He thinks that farmers 
ought to progress and that the area irrigated 
should be increased as fast as possible, till our 
valley becomes a wonder to the world. 

Mr. Dubeis thinks there is a good deal of 
humbug in the irrigation question, and would 
like to know who would take stock in such a 
wild scheme as building dams and laying pipes 
in our hills. It will do to talk about irrigating 
from here to the bay where there is water, but 
there is no water to be had from other places, 
and he would not uso it if there was. 

Mr. Haskell don't want to have such an idea 
go out as the sense of the Club, for we would 
like to appear intelligent. It is nonsense to 
say that irrigation is not desirable in our dry 

Mr. Fowler believes in winter irrigation, has 
seen it tried to a limited extent with success. 

Mr. Hatch is inclined to think that if the 
ground was thoroughly pulverized to a great 
depth it would the more readily admit of what 
rain fell sinking into the soil, and would also 
retain the moisture better; that perhaps in 
this may be found the true secret of properly 
cultivating our dry soils. 


Farmers' Club of Sacramento. 

The Sacramento Farmers' Club met Satur- 
day, January 4th. President, W. S. Manlove. 
In the absence of the Secretary, G. T. Kich 
was appointed Secretary. 

Our Carrying Trade. 

The subject of the "carrying trade" being 
under discussion, Judge J. H. McCune ad- 
dressed the Club. Following is his address, 
with the exception of a few introductory and in- 
direct remarks : 

It is in the hope that I may in some small 
degree contribute to the direction cf public 
opinion that I enter upon the discussion of this 
subject of the tax on our industry resulting 
from the condition of the carrying trade, par- 
ticularly in reference to our railway system. 
It is a new element in political economy not 
yet thoroughly understood by any one. The 
first locomotive ever used was driven by steam 
from Manchester to Liverpool, October 6th, 
1829. A little over forty years have elapsed 
and there are probably 130,000 miles of rail- 
road in operation. The railroad has become 
an active agent in civilization and develop- 
ment. We cannot ignore the fact that rail- 
roads are a necessity to our welfare, and under 
proper guidance and control may be made 
wholly beneficent 

The power must exist, and enlightened rea- 
son dictates that we must direct it so that its 
results shall be good and that continually. 
What we as farmers have particularly to do 
now is to examine the system with reference 
to freights and fares. All the railroads of our 
country are at present controlled by corpora- 
tions existing under the lawsof different States, 
and these companies have an overshadowing 
influence in our Government, as well as in di- 
recting the affairs of each locality through 
which a road passes. In the meantime this 
power is wielded by a few men; and these men 
not wholly patriotic aud unselfish. In theory 
these railroad companies are public, in practice 
private. They take land by condemnation for 
public use, and levy their tax in the way of 
freights and fares at pleasure. It may be that 
the word tax is too strong This cost of trans- 
portation is distributed between the consum- 
er and producer. It is evident that if the cost 
of transportation is wholly in the discretion of 

the common carrier he will raise the price till 
his profit satisfies his cupidity, limited only by 
a sum which would prevent the producer and 
consumer from using his line. The carrier 
would not desire to kill the goose which laid 
the golden egg, but he would appropriate all 
the eggs. The actual cost of transportation 
would be a legitimate charge on the producer 
and consumer. All that part of the fare and 
freights above that legitimate charge would be 
an arbitrary tax. 

How to rid ourselves of this tax levied at pleas- 
ure is a very difficult question, though not of im- 
possible solution. At present, this tax is levied 
by men practically beyond, over and above con- 
trol. The fact that the tax is indirect; that its 
advocates can plausibly urge that it is by con- 
tract only it is paid, are no reasons why we 
should not scan the question closely. Cotton- 
growers, tobacco dealers, sugar manufactures 
and ironmasters scan the tariff -bill closely be- 
cause it reaches their prosperity and turns it 
into adversity if not properly adjusted. Why 
should we not be as diligent? 

The fluctation of prices, caused by changes 
in a tariff, of itself is a curse, because it de- 
ranges the steady flow of trade. Why shall not 
we examine the varying tariffs of charges for 
transportation, and if '. possible protect our- 
selves from injury, if not ruin, from fluctation 
in prices of transporation and discriminations 
in favor of certain men or places? 

We cannot leave this matter to the compan- 
ies themselves, or trust to competition 
as it shall spring up. Competition is only 
possible for limited times. Self-preservation 
will demand that competition be not pressed to 
a ruinous exteftt, and no companies can long 
keep up such a contest. Combination will re- 
sult, and then the public must keep up two 
roads, and enable each to realize a dividend. 
In that case the last state of the people is worse 
than the first. 

A Farmers' Railroad. 

We may build narrow-gauge roads in self-de- 
fense. But a full-fed, powerful, exulting com- 
petitor can compel you to run it at a loss, and 
how long can it be kept up? If the farmers 
themselves could and would own such compet- 
ing road, and only run it to earry their own 
freight, they would in many districts save 
money. Let your farmers' clubs obtain sta- 
tistics, and they would probably show that you 
have paid annually, above legitimate charges, 
enough to pay the interest on the cost of such 
a competing road. But if you build your nar- 
row gauge, what assurance have you that the 
stockholders will not, in course of time, sell 
out a majority of 6tock to men who will com- 
bine with competing roads. Inducements will 
be very strong in that direction. 

It may be that some plan may yet be devised 
to make the stock unassignable, or to annex it 
to your several farms, passing title only by a 
sale of the farm, and thus place the stock out 
of the control of any moneyed power. In that 
case you might possibly get a road permanently 
competing, and under the control of a class 
who are directly interested in keeping freights 
and fares at a low figure. 

No legislation has hitherto been devised which 
will cure the evils alluded to. Atttempts have 
been made in England and in the United States 
in the direction of allowing corporations to 
make only a certain per cent, on their capital 
stock. Forthwith the corporations invented a 
plan to water their stock to any required state 
of dilution, and the law failed to take effect. 
Besides, practically, in England as well as here, 
the railroad companies are too strong for "visi- 
tation" and an inside view of the transaction of 
the companies cannot be had. Can a law be 
framed establishing a scale of fares and freights 
which will cure the evil we complain of? This 
is a difficult question to answer in the present 
state of our information. We must look at it 
like men. We cannot shut our eyes against 
the light we have. We cannot without danger 
go wrong. We feel and know that discrimina- 
tions are .made against certain localities, and that 
freights and fares are kept at rates ruinous to 
the producers. 

Freights and Fares. 

In fixing the freights by law these things 
should be considered: 1 — the distance the 
freight is sent; 2 — the quantity sent; 3 — is bulk 
to be broken; 4 — is a car devoted to one termi- 
nation; 5 — considerations of space; 6 — a dis- 
count to a heavy dealer; 7— the difficulty of 
moving bulky articles; 8 — does the freight or 
travel extend beyond the State. 

In the matter of fares attention must be paid: 
1 — the speed of transportation; 2— comfort; 3 — 
the distance; 4: — the frequency of individual 
travel (commutation.) Keeping these things 
in view an act might be framed to operate as a 
temporary expedient. It would be a mere ano- 
dyne. A thorough diagnosis of the disease will 
show that none of these expedients will be found 
a specific. We need more thorough reform and 
the measures must be radical. These things if 
accomplished would still leave the companies 
with all their power for harm as well as good, 
and the power is immense. Political schemers 
are allowed to use this power in your elections 
and in their turn your officers reciprocate and 
in matters of interest to the corporation be- 
come subservient. The Erie Railroad makes a 
Tweed, a Connolly, a Barnard or a Cardoza 
possible, and official action enriches both par- 
ties at the expense of the people. Particularly 
is this combination felt in matters of legislation; 
not in the United States alone but in England 
and among most nations in Europe. Pennsyl- 
vania, New York, New Jersey and most East- 
ern States come so near being governed by the 
corporations that they may be said to rule in all 

matters they seek to control, and in the West 
there is a struggle going on the result of which 
is yet doubtful. 

That these corporations seek to control is 
severely denied by their apologists. In a daily 
paper published in this city {Record, July 27th, 
1872) the matter is put thus thus: "We are 
hot, recollect, defending corporations or claim- 
ing that they do not manipulate politics in 
their own interests. Neither are we prepared 
to say that there is no choice but between the 
downright subsidy and the subscription plan. 
But we are convinced that the real issue in re- 
gard to those two schemes involves nothing less 
than a selection between government by a plu- 
tocracy and government by a mob. The great 
corporations represent the plutocracy. * * But 
being representatives of capital, which is al- 
ways cautious and prudent, they may be trusted 
to guard the interests they control from such 
depreciation as will affect their value and credit. 
On the other hand the mob rule which must 
follow the subscription scheme is guided and 
governed by no sense of responsibility and 
checked by no commercial or business consid- 

Plutocrats and Mobocrats. 

Exactly what classes are included in the word 
mob, is not clearly seen, but the question is 
thus fairly put as understood by those who 
seek to control the entire carrying trade. The 
whole people is divided into two classes, pluto- 
crats and mobocrats, and government by the 
former is advocated as the safer. I do not now 
stop to analyze this theory. It is suggestive, 
and I leave it with you with the remark that 
we, as farmers in such a contest, are interested 
with the mob. Freights are never cheapened 
by putting the whole business in the hands of 
one man, or a combination of men, and giving 
them power to establish their own rates of fare. 
And in this struggle which is already inaugur- 
ated and which must go lorward, we cannot be 
silent, disinterested spectators. We must as- 
sist, and our assistance ought to be well direct- 
ed. This discussion will, I. trust, have the ef- 
fect to unite us in a common cause and place 
us side by side with men moving in the same 
direction in other parts of this and sister States. 
The Democracy aroused are fierce, and when 
united and their force well directed opposition 
must go to the wall. In this matter of govern- 
ment we can't afford to surrender. 

We may not agree about remedies.and to-day 
I have not time to discuss that. Above all, 
in anything we propose, we must be just. 
Nothing should be done which would lessen 
the number of miles of railroad in use, or that 
will prevent the construction of more, unless 
in the single instance that we may object to the 
use of our private funds in the construction of 
roads owned by private corporations. 

Improved Cast Iron Wheel. 

H. Still came before the Club and exhibited a 
Bergeon improved gang-plow or agricultural 
cast iron wheel, the improvement of which be- 
ing that the journal or hub boxing is movable, 
so that when one box is worn out a new one 
can be keyed in at an expense of fifty cents, 
thus saving a great deal, as the principal wear 
in a wheel is in the hub. An ordinary cast iron 
wheel lasts for two seasons, but this wheel 
will run till the rim wears off and that would 
be many years. On motion of Greenlaw, the 
improvement was regarded by the Club as a 
valuable one. 

The revision of the Constitution was post- 
poned until the next meeting. 

James T. Day, of Brighton, was elected a 

Greenlaw moved that the subjectof our "Car- 
rying Trade" be continued till next meeting, 
and the motion prevailed. Judge McKune will 
lead off in the discussion. — Sacramento Union. 

Santa Claha Valley Agbicultural Society. 
San Jose January 2. — The Santa Clara Valley 
Agricultural Society held its annual election of 
officers to-day, with the following result: Presi 
dent, W. C. Wilson; Vice-Presidents, S 
Peebles, J. P. Sargent; Directors, Wm.O'Don 
nel, S. B. Emerson; Treasurer, C T. Ryland; 
Secretary, D. J. Porter; all re-elected with the 
exception of the Secretary. The Treasurer's 
report shows a balance of $3,083 in the Treas 
nry. The next county fair will commence on 
Monday, September 22. 

Tulare County. 

Editobs Rural Pbess : — I wrote you a letter 
Dec. 15th, telling how all the leaves were still 
on the trees and vines, and tomatoes untouched 
by frost, but keeping it a few days to find cer 
tain authority on the grain question other 
things prevented its being finished, and since 
then we have had one week that made ice on 
some of the tubs every night from one-eighth to 
three-eighths of an inch thick, which, though it 
stripped the trees and vines, did not kill all 
the volunteer potatoes or do any damage to 
the peas. Now we count our winter over, 
though there will probably be some frost yet, 
and the rains have began in good earnest, one- 
fourth of an inch on Sunday nigbt, three- 
quarters more in the 'gauge Wednesday morn- 
ing and one this morning brings the total up 
to two inches, enough to bring up the grain 
and grass aud keep it growing some time. 
This year farmers who sowed in the dust will 
have a decided advantage, as by the time those 
who have not sowed can get theirs in, ours will 
be up and well rooted. I have in a little of 
three varieties of wheat, and two of oats to see 
how they will each do here, ball am particularly 

interested now in the question of feeding g, 
to hogs. 

Which Will Pay Most, 
To cut and thrash barley at an expense of 30c. 
per 100, and cook at an expense of 5c. per 100, 
or to let the hogs harvest for themselves ? 
Who will try the experiment ? Say enclose one 
acre or less, weigh your hogs and when they 
have finished the grain, weigh again to see the 
difference, having the grain fairly estimated, or 
let it be an average of the field you harvest; 
next, feed to a, similar lot of hogs the same 
quantity of grain, cooked well, fpr there is 
probably much difference whether the grain 
be well or only half cooked. That would be 
the kind of experiment for a state experimental 
farm to try with each kind of grain. 

Isaac B. Rumford. 
Piano, Tulare Co., Dec. 26th, 1872. 

Sacramento Beet Sugar Factory. 

In the Sacramento Daily Record Supplement, 
of Jan. 1st 1873, is the following: 

This factory is located nearly three miles 
from the city, in a locality peculiarly conve- 
nient for its operations. The full working ca- 
pacity of the mill was brought into action last 
year, but the beet crop failing, the pro- 
duction of sugar fell short. Some 1,450 acres 
of ground, in all, are in use for the factory. 
The buildings are large and well arranged, the 
machinery is of the most approved pattern, 
and the fitting up and arrangement of the works 
is admirable. The main building is 150 feet 
in length, rising at it its highest point 63 feet. 
Outbuildings for boarding and lodging work- 
men, care of animals in use, tool shops, cooper 
shops, etc., are numerous. The cost of the factory 
thus far, for its erection and outfit, has exceed- 
ed $250,000. The beets sown and raised by 
the factory proprietors, yield about 12 per 
cent., on the average, of saccharine matter. 
The quality of sugar turned out is superior to 
that produced from beets grown in any other 
section of the State. 

The destruction of the beet by the army 
worm has been a serious drawback, but such a 
misfortune is not again anticipated for some 
years to come, as the worm seldom makes suc- 
cessive attacks. On the grounds of the factory 
houses are erected for feeding the refuse of the 
beet, mixed with usual feed, to a large number 
of cattle. It proves most excellent feeding for 
beeves, hogs and sheep. Several thousand 
head of stock have been fatted already at the 
works. The motive power for the factory con- 
sists of five engines, aggregating 500-horse 
power. The reduction of the beets in the boil- 
ing process consumes about eleven cords of 
wood daily as fuel. Some 160 men are usually 
employed at the factory. The yield of beets 
from the factory grounds is estimated at 7,000 
tons for the year. 

It is not the purpose of this sketch to des- 
cribe the process of working, but its observation 
will doubly repay a visit to the factory. The 
Superintendent is Captain S. Ehrenstein, a 
German gentleman, with a large experience in 
the manufacture of sugar. 

Beet Sugar at Sacramento. 

We are informed that the Sacramento Val- 
ley Beet Sugar Company will enlarge their 
operations the present year. It will be remem- 
bered that the company put under cultivation 
to beets last year, on their own land and that 
of others in their immediate vicinity, nearly 
1,200 acres. 

It is now proposed, indeed the company 
have determined to increase their area of beet 
lands the coming season, by planting an addi- 
tional 400 acres at Davisville, some ten miles 
distant from the sugarie, on the line of the 
Sacramento and Vallejo railroad. In this con- 
nection we remark that the sugar from the 
Sacramento works, now in use in San Francisco, 
has not its equal in the best cane sugar from 
the refineries. 

Black Hawk Beet Sugar Factory. — We 
learn from the Sauk Co., Wis., Pioneer, that 
work at the beet sugar factory at Black Hawk, 
in that county, is progressing in a satisfactory 
manner. The percentage of sugar produced 
has increased three-quarters of one per cent, 
over last year's yield. The sugar made — white 
coffee, and loaf sugar, can compete with any 
other sample. The only trouble complained of 
is a lack of care in the cultivation of beets 
during the season of growth. 

. Opium Culture. — Some time ago we printed 
a statistical article showing the wonderful 
profits accruing from the cultivation of the pop- 
py and the production of opium. It is proba- 
bly ten-fold more profitable than any other 
branch of agricultural industry. The climate 
and soil of the great San Joaquin valley are ex- 
actly similar, it is stated by those who know, 
to those of the valley of the Ganges, the greatest 
opium producing district in the world. There 
is no doubt that this valley is suited to the pro- 
duction of opium. We hope that the culture 
of the poppy will be tried and that the experi- 
ment of producing opium, so easily made but 
so important in its nature, will receive the at- 
tention and efforts it deserves. If we can produce 
opium we have a mine of wealth richer than 
Golconda or the fabled Land of the Golden 
Fleece. Try the experiment. — Tulare Time*, 


[January n, 1873. 

|-|QplE \$D f^R^. 

The Tiller of the Soil. 

As I have given the description of our various 
soils and climate within the radius of ten miles 
of the city, I will refer to the earliest settlers, 
improvements, adaptation of the soil, market, 
and other points pertaining to the subject on 
hand. Perhaps in all the annals of history of 
our country — the intense excitemeut, the dream 
of wealth, glittering of gold dazzling the im- 
agination — California never had no equal. 
Thousands left their old homes, sacrificing prop- 
erty to gain the promise land to better their 
circumstance in life, both financially and physi- 
cally, adopting our land as their homes, making 
up a part and parcel of society, engaging in the 
duties that each are capableof filling, fostering 
our institutions of learning, tilling her virgin 
soil, developing her mines; thereby placing her 
as one of the bright stars in the galaxy of hu- 
man progress, enlightenment and predominant 
will and energy of any race on the face of the 

As nil are endowed with facilities of lenrning, 
art and manufacture, each and every one helped 
to build up a new and undeveloped country. 
Prominent among the whole class stands the 
thrifty, self- energetic tille- of the soil. Gold 
was once king, as cotton was kingof the south, 
but foremost now stands the production of her 
soil. Grain, her staple wealth, reigns king of 
the West, shipping abroad her thousands of 
tons and building up her commercial interest 
to one of strength and power; her fruit, the 
finest of the world, her mammoth vegetables, all 
completely placing her foremost in agricultural 
products, as well as her mines of wealth. While 
the mechanic, merchant and tradesman follow 
their legitimate business, the farmer chose the 
open plains where a broader field lay open for 
cultivation, to sow, reap, plant and gather the 
fruits of his own labor. 

Government and Grant Lands. 

For the success of a new country, it requires 
population and public domain, emigrants with 
energetic spirit to develop her resources, and 
push ahead in every new enterprise that opens 
before them. California has been a child of 
sorrow; being kept back in growing to that 
state of maturity, especially in agricultural pur- 
suits as she should, and to-day she feels the 
curse of the grant system that covered her land 
— like network, previous to the entry as a State 
in the Union. Keeping her as if chained from 
rising in the position which she should occupy 
in the eyes of her sister States, depriving the 
actual 'settler from retaining her land, and 
thereby seeking a home where his rights are 
more respected. Such has been the disadvan- 
tages that our city hud to contend for years, and 
kept many from making their homes with us, 
but after years of litigation and expense the 
rights of possession and title the Courts of law 
have regulated to some extent, placing the oc- 
cupant on a firmer basis than before. 

But without the limits lay land subject to en- 
try laying along the river southward, and pas- 
sing up through the highland to the foothills. 

Occupation and Improvement. 
Land was first occupied along the rivers near 
the borders of the city being near access to 
market, but in 1853-4, population increased. 
The extent of opening and improvement kept 
pushing back to the highlands, when in 1855-6 
a reaction took place, one after another entered 
their lands, influencing others to follow till now 
every quarter Rection is occupied, fenced and 
many beautiful knolls of rising ground dotted 
on the plains may be seen with neat cottages, 
while those whose taste is cultivated for beauty 
and adornments laid out their grounds in neat 
form, and arranging flowers and ornamental 
shrubbery in forms of artistic skill to the be- 
holder. Mother Earth first felt the workman's 
plow turning up her virgin soil, and receiving 
the seed to germinate and spring forth from 
its hiding place to light. Orchards and vine- 
yards set out, converting the once desolate 
plains to one of thrift and life. 

Thi Ob;ect of Getting Near a Market. 

Those who know anything of the situation of 
Sacramento from the earliest period to the 
present time, can see the fact is fully demon- 
strated that ber centre of trade throughout the 
principal points of the State, Oregon and 
Nevada, with her railroad branching from 
every available place, traversingthrough moun- 
tains, vales and sandy desert, to the Eastern 
terminus, all centering to our city, the point 
where she first broke ground ; which a man of any 
business capacity can see at a glance the advan- 
tage gainedby locating near the centre of trade, 
bringing in their produce in exchange for trade 
and traffic, and shipping toother markets thou- 
sands of miles distant her wool, wines etc. ; 
and so thought many that located within an 
hour's ride, and had an eye to the future great- 
ness that laid in store for them, as they pro- 
duced from her soil grain, hay, fruits and 
vegetables; mannfacturies of wine and brandy, 
with a continued ontlet and demand for same, 
losing no time with saving of expense com- 
pensated well, and in the mean time their land 
was yearly growing in value, which now with- 
in five to ten miles cannot be had less than 
thirty dollars to ninety per acre, and improved 
farms from $5,000 to $15,000, showing 
within fifteen years the value derived by loca- 
ting near a good market. G. it. 

Sacramento Co., Deo. 30. 1872. 


Japan is a wonderful country. What we 
call civilization was introduced, to a limited 
extent in Japan, some two hundred years ago 
by the Dutch, who were permitted to send two 
ships a year thero and trade with the natives. 
They were obliged to submit to many restric- 
tions, and to forfeit their self respect in doing 

The Catholic priests made many converts, 
until in an evil moment they were led to take 
sides in a civil war, and the party with whom 
they allied themselves being defeated, the 
Catholic priests were banished from the coun- 
try and their religion suppressed. Hence arose 
the custom which prevailed for a long time of 
trampling the cross under foot. Civilization 
then retrograded until a treaty of commercial 
alliance between the United States and Japan 
was signed in March, 1854. In 1856, Nagas- 
ki and Hakodadi were opened to foreign com- 
merce, but it was not until after nine years' 
intercourse with foreigners that Japan gave 
iudications of adopting many of the elements 
of Western civilization. Since then the Japan- 
ese have introduced into their country the 
steam engine, the telegraph, and a national 
system of education— all important steps 
toward freedom. 

The antiquated feudal system of the Japan- 
esa under which so much power was held by 
the hereditary nobles, and the country contin- 
ually threatened with civil war and anarchy, 
has been abolished, and all governmental au- 
thority has been vested in the Mikado and his 
ministers. The sale of young women for the 
purposes of prostitution has been prohibit- 
ed under severe penalties, and other great social 
and political reforms have been accomplished. 

But the most remarkable news is that 
brought by mail a short time since, that next 
month an elective parliament is to be establish- 
ed. This is to consist of 600 members, and 
there are to be two Houses, but whether both 
will be elective, similar to those of the United 
States, was, at the time of the departure of the 
mail, not clearly underbtood. 

The Japan Gazette says: <' It is an experi- 
ment of the deepest interest; and nothing that 
has yet been done by the Government is so 
big with mighty consequences as this. Surely 
all praise is due to the Government which has 
led the people step by step to freedom, and 
which now places so large an amount of power 
in their hands." We are in the habit of think- 
ing that this truly wonderful people are semi- 

This is a grave mistake. In the manufactur- 
ing of many wares and other ingenious con- 
trivances, they are our superiors, but we have 
not the time or space to enumerate, and will 
therefore only allude to one thing in which 
they excel. They understand most thoroughly 
the art of dwarfing plants and trees. They 
have peach and other trees which are only one 
foot in height, and still bear fruit. While we 
can teach them much we can also learn much 
from them. — Gold Hill News. 

Practical Hints to Housekeepers. 


Every woman, at some period of her life, 
may need the instructions of this article. Many 
a widowed mother in our new settlements has 
had to train her young sons to do every thing 
on which life and comfort depends, and our 
wide prairies and forests will witness thousands 
of similar instances in days to come. For such 
especially this is prepared. 

This article was first written at Cincinnati, 
by aid of business men experienced in such 
matters. It has been rewritten at Hartford, 
Connecticut, with aid and counsel from intelli- 
gent butchers and grocers. 

Fio. 1.— Beef. 

The animal, when slaughtered, should be 
bled thoroughly. The care taken by the Jews 
in this and other points draws custom from 
other sects to their markets. The skin is 
tanned for leather, and the fat is used for can- 
dles and other purposes. The tail is used for 
soups, and the liver, heart, and tripe are also 
used fur cooking- The body is split into two 
parts through the backbone, and each half is 
divided as marked in the drawing. 

1. The head ; sometimes used for mince-pies ; some- 
times it is tried up for oil, and then the bones a re used 
for fertilizers. The horns are used to make buttons 
and combs, and various other things.— 2. The neck ; 
used for soups and stews.— 3. The chuck-rib or «AouJ- 
der, having four ribs. It is nsed for corning, stews, 
and soup, and some say the best steaks are from this 
piece. — 4. The front of the shoulder, or the shoulder- 
clod, which is sometimes called the brisket or rattleran. 
used for soup and corning. — 5. The back of the shoul- 
der ; used for corning, soups, and stews.— 6. The fore 
shin or leg ; used for soups.— 7, 7. The plate pieces ; 
the front one is called the brisket (as is also 4) , and is 
used for corning, soups, and stews. The back plate 
piece is called the flank, and is divided into the thick 
flank, or upper sirloin, and the lower flank. These are 
for roasting and corning.— 8. The standing ribs, divid- 
ed into first, second, and third cuts ; used for roasting. 
The second cut is the best of the three.— 9. The »ir- 
loin, and is the best roasting piece.— 10. The sirloin 
steak and the porter-house steak ; used for broiling. — 
11. The rump, or aich-bone ; nsed for soup or corning, 
or to cook a la mode.— 12. The round, or buttock ; used 
for corning, or for a la mode ; also for dried beef. — 13. 
The hock, or hind shank ; used for soups. 

The Ideal Farmer. 

Ralph Waldo Emerson, in one of his essays, 
thus portrays the glory of the farmer: 

"The glory of the farmer is that, in the divis- 
sion of labor, it is his part to create. All the 
trades rest at last on his primitive authority. 
He stands close to nature ; he obtains from the 
earth the bread and the meat.. The food which 
was not he causes to be. The first farmer was 
the first man, and all historic nobility rest on 
possession and use of land. Men do not like 
hard work, but every man has an exceptional 
respect for tillage, and the feeling that this is 
the original calling of his race, that he himself 
is only excused from it by some circumstances 
which made him delegate for a time to other 
hands. If he had not some skill which recom- 
mended him to the farmer, some product for 
which the farmer will give him corn, he must 
himself return into his due place among the 
planters. And the profession has in all eyes 
this ancient charm, as standing nearest to God, 
the First Cause. Then the beauty of nature, 
the tranquility and innocence of the country- 
man, his independence, and his pleasing arts — 
the cares of bees, of poultry, of sheep, of cows, 
the dairy, the care of hay, of fruits, of orchards, 
and forests, and the reaction of these on the 
workman in giving him a strength and plain 
dignity, like the face and manners of nature, 
ali men acknowledge. All men keep the farm 
in reserve as an asylum, where, in case of mis- 
chance, to hide their poverty, or a solitude, if 
they do not succeed in society. And who 
knows how many glances of remorse are turn- 
ed this way from the bankrupts of trade, from 
mortified pleaders in courts and senates, or from 
the victims of idleness and pleasure ? Poison- 
ed by town life, and town vices, the sufferer 
resolves: 'Well, my children, whom I have in- 
jured, shall go to the land, to be recruited and 
cured by that which should have been my nur- 
sery, and now shall be the ; r hospital.' " 

Walnutsin Los Angeles. — The Walnut crop 
is quite an item in Los Angeles County, where 
more attention has been bestowed upon the 
propagation of the walnut than in any other 
part of the State. The crop this season, the 
Express says, amounts to 60,000 pounds, as 
against between 40,000 and 50,000 last year. 
Fifty thousand pounds of this year's crop had 
been sold at ten cents per pound. 

Fid. 2.— Veal. 

The calf should not be slaughtered until it is 
six weeks old. Spring is the best time for veal. 
It is divided as marked in the drawing. 

1. The head, sold with the pluck, which includes the 
heart, liver, and sweet-breads. — 2. The rack, including 
the imk ; used for stews, pot-pies, and broths ; also 
for chops and roasting.— 3. The shoulder. This, and 
also half the rack ribs of the fore quarter, are some- 
times roasted, and sometimes used for stews, brothB, 
and cutlets. — 4. The fore shank or knuckle ; used for 
broths. — 5. The breast ; used for stews and soups : 
also to stuff and bake.— 6. Tho loin ; used for roast- 
ing.— 7. The fillet, or leg, including the hind flank ; 
used for cutlets, or to stuff and boil, and to stuff and 
roast r,r bake.— 8. The hind shank, or hock, or knuckles ; 
used for soups. The feet are used for jelly. 

Fio. 3.— Mutton. 
1. The shoulder ; for boiling or corning:— 2, 2. The 
neck and rack ; for boiling or corning. — 3. The loin ; 
is roasted, or broiled as chops. — t. The leg ; 1b boiled, 
or broiled, or stuffed and roasted. Many salt and 
smoke the leg, and call it smoked venison. — 5, The 
breast ; for boiling or corning, 

Fig. 4.— Pork. 

1. The leg, or ham ; used for smoking —2, The 
hin/l tnin. — 3. The fore loin. — 4. The spare -rib ; for 
roasting ; sometimes including all the ribs. — 5. The 
hand, or shoulder ; sometimes smoked, and sometimes 
corned and boiled. — 6. The belly, or spring, for corn 
ing or salting down. The feet are used for jelly, head- 
eheeMi himI souse. 


In selecting Beef, choose that which has a 
loose grain, easily yielding to pressure, of a 
clear red, with whitmh fat. If the lean is pur- 
plish and the fat yellow, it is poor beef. Beef 
long kept turns a darker color than fresh-killed. 
Stall-fed beef has a lighter color than grass-fed 

Ox beef is the best, and next, that of a heifer. 

in cold weather, it is economical to buy a 
hind quarter ; have it cut up, and what is not 
wanted immediately, pack with snow in a bar- 
rel. All meats grow tender by keeping. Do 
not let meats freeze ; if they do, thaw them in 
cold water, and do not cook till fully thawed. 
A piece weighing ten pounds requires ten or 
twelve hours to thaw. 

In selecting Veal, take that which is firm 
and dry, and the joints stiff, having the lean a 
delicate red, the kidney covered with fat, and 
the fat very white. If you buy the head, see 
that the eyes are plump and lively, and not 
dull and sunk in the head. If you buy the 
legs, get those which are not skinned, as the 
skin is good for jelly or soup. 

In choosing Mutton, take that which is bright 
red and close-grained, with firm and white tat. 
The meat should feel tender and springy on 
pressure. Notice the vein in the neck 01 the 
fore quarter, which should be a fine bine. 

In selecting Pork, if young, the lean can be 
easily broken when pinched, and the skin can 
b<- indented by nipping with the fingers. The 
fat also will be wlute and soft. Thin rind is 

In selecting Hams, run a knife along the 
bone, and if it comes out clean, the ham is 
good, but if it comes out smeared, it is Spoiled. 
Uood bacon has white fat, and the lean adheres 
closely to the bone. If the bacon "has yellow 
streaks, it is rusty, and not fit for use. 

In selecting Poultry, choose those that are 
full grown, but not old. When young and 
fresh killed, the skin is thin and tender, Un- 
join ts not very stiff, and the eyes full and 
bright. The breast-bone shows the age, as it 
easily yields to pressure if young, and is tough 
when old. If young, you can with a pin easi- 
ly tear the skin. A goose, when old, has r . -d 
and hairy legs ; but when young, they are yel- 
low, and have few hairs. The pin-feathers are 
the roots of feathers, which break off and re- 
main in the skin, and always indicate a ymniii 
bird. When very neatly dressed they are 
pulled out. 

Architectural Skill of Birds. — When the 
writer resided in Central New York, a pair of 
Baltimore orioles were accustomed to build a 
nest every season on the swaying branch of 
some tree near the dwelling. A ladder was 
once ascended simply to inspect their architec- 
tural operations. The birds had chosen a fork- 
ed horizontal branch from which to suspend 
their nest. They had found a few pieces of 
wrapping-cord about a yard in length, one 
end of which had been put three times around 
one branch, while the other end was se- 
curely attached to the other branch, making a 
miniature swing. Another piece of the yarn 
was attached to the same branches, but at differ- 
ent points, so that the pending portion crossed 
the first cord, and hung down just as low. The 
ends of the cords were wrapped around the 
branches with as much skill as an expert sailor 
secures the ends of his lines and hawsers. The 
extremities were tucked beneath the support- 
ing cord, at the upper side of the branch, so 
that it was impossible for either end of the 
cord to slip, as the greater the weight applied 
where the nest was to rest, the tighter the ends 
of the suspension cords would be held. After 
these cords were secured to the branches, other 
cords, strings, spears of dried grass, long horse 
hairs, and tow were woven and interlaced from 
cord to cord in a circular form, in a most inge- 
nious manner.- When the nest was finished, it 
appeared like a minature sack almost ten inches 
deep, suspended beneath aforked branch. The 
birds entered at the top of the sack. 

When Will Farming be More Profitable? 
When' the lands are divided up and sold in 
small farms instead of being held in mon- 
strous monopolies, and rented to poor men 
whose labors make the landlord rich; when our 
public servants get a fair salary for their 
services; "when railroads are built and run for 
the benefit of the public, instead of a few; when 
it is thoroughly disreputable to be a defaulter 
when city customers know pure Bilk from 
white sweetened water; when tobacco is neith- 
er grown nor used; when corn, rye or grapes 
are eaten instead of being converted into alco- 
hol to waste the lives of mankind; when na- 
tions don't spend enough at war to make the 
whole world a garden; when the common peo- 
ple learn the laws of health, and the natural 
rights of man, so that the doctors and lawyers 
will have time to stick to their farms; when 
the churches of the whole world cost a great 
deal less than the schools and public libraries 
—then there will be no trouble in making 
farming profitable. 

The Best Bee Hive. — At the Bee Keepers' 
Convention, held at Kalamazoo, during the 
Michigan State Fair, the above question was 
submitted to a committee, who reported that 
the best bee hive was one with a broad cham- 
ber not exceeding twelve inches, or less than 
ten inches in depth, and to be of such a form 
that contains not Ies3 than 2,000, and not to ex- 
ceed 2,500 cubic inches of space; and that the 
surplus honey space above be of the same size, 
in order to use the same sized frames, or small 
honey boxes with frames. That the < ntrance 
should be small in winter, allowing of not more 
than two bees to pass each other at a time, and 
the ventilation upward to be regulated atpleas- 
ure, as no strong current of air should pass up 
through the hive, that being highly injurious to 
thcbee8. There is no question that this is the 
best hive; but how much of this is patented is 
an unsettled question. 

January n, 1873.] 


UsEfik ifipQR^pQn. 

The Cause of Paint Cracking 

One says because there is too much oil in it; 
another not oil enough ; another thinks because 
it has dried too quick and soon. The fact is, 
says the Coaehmakers' Journal, that more paint 
cracks from the use of oil, and hasty work 
than anything else. Some, in fact a good 
many painters persist in mixing their p«nt 
very elastic although, thinking that they will 
have a tough elastic coat like rubber, that will 
give to the swelling and shrinking of the wood, 
without cracking, and scarcely break apart, if 
the panel of a buggy were split in two. Well 
we will admit that in that way they can get a 
very elastic coat, and if it would remain that 
way and never dry, it would be the thing, but 
the paint will dry sometime. Any material 
will contract in drying. Their elastic body of 
paint will continue to dry and contract until its 
elasticity gets to its utmost limits, then it will 
give way and spread apart in great gaping 

To paint up a job with elastic coats of paint, 
it should go through a very long process, and 
the different coats be put ou tnin and not put 
on one coat of paint until the previous coat is 
perfectly dry. Putting on a number of heavy 
coats of paint or rough stuff as fast as they 
are fairly set will cause cracking of the worst 
kind either before or after varnishing. Paint 
is too often supposed to be dry, when it is 
really not half dry. Six months of good drying 
weather would be a short time to get a coach 
body ready for the varnish on the elastic or 
tacky principle, and that is not all there is to 
contend with; in the oil process, the oil will 
sweat through the varnish and cause it to lose 
its brilliancy or luster. 

The quick process, or flat coating, can be 
hurried so that it will crack, and crack badly. 
Our few limited ideas about obviating cracking 
are all summed up iu a few words, viz: let 
every part of the wood be thoroughly primed 
with a good fresh priming; prime inside and 
out, so the weather cannot net on the wood; 
let the priming get perfectly dry; then mix 
every coat of lead and rough stuff with japans 
and varnishes that will dry firm and hard; put 
enough in to bind the paint well and no more; 
have every coat dead color; do not put on the 
coats too heavy; let every coat be bone dry 
before putting on another; put on enough of 
coats to fill the grain of the wood, and make a 
perfect surface, and no more, then you will 
have a body of paint that is firmly bound to- 
gether, and thoroughly dry, and when paint is 
thoroughly dry it can shrink no more (it only 
shrinks when drying) and if it don't shrink it 
cannot crack, and in this kind of a body of 
paint there is no moisture or oil to sweat out 
and destroy the luster of the varnish. Painting 
of this description will not crack until the joints 
of the wood begin to give away and let the 
water and damp atmosphere in and swell the 
wood along the edges of the joints and cause 
the paint to crack from the swelling and shrink- 
ing of the wood. Varnish may crack on the 
top of the best painting. 

If the paint is not well protected by varnish 
it will perish in time, sooner or later, owing to 
how well it is protected. The ravages of time 
will destroy anything that is temporal. Now- 
a-days, painters will paint jobs in two weeks, 
and wonder why it cracks; the blame is gener- 
ally laid on the material or anything else but 
the right cause. 

Cubious Case or Spontaneous Combustion. 
We have from France a well-attested case of 
spontaneous combustion, the particulars of 
which are thus given in the "Comptes Kendus" 
of the Academy of Sciences. On one of the 
hottest days of last summer, M. Wattier-Guerin, 
a manufacturer of Ribemont, happened to ob- 
serve a light smoke rising from an oaken beam 
which had for a considerable time stood in the 
courtyard of his premises, one end leaning 
against a wall. This beam was some twenty 
feet in length and six by nine inches tquare, 
and stood perfectly isolated, with the excep- 
tion that an old well-cover made of boards, 
sheet-iron, and slates, leaned against it. On 
coming nearer, M. Mattier saw that the beam 
was on fire, but gave out no flame, the surface 
presenting the appearance of an extinguished 
coal fire. By blowing upon it, it was found to 
be burning vigorously. The fire did not com- 
mence at the lower extremety of the beam, but 
at the point where it came in contact with the 
well-cover. Thence it spread upwards, advanc- 
ing in the form of a V, and finally involved 
the entire thickness of the beam, extending 
over ten feet in length. 

Abtificial Volcanoes. — A Viennese chemist, 
Hochstetter, has been experimenting upon the 
artificial production of volcanic eruptions in 
miniature. His process is based upon a certain 
property possessed by sulphur, in virtue of 
which that substance, when melted under the 
vapor of water having a pressure of three at- 
mospheres, absorbs a certain amount of the wa- 
ter, and then the latter, as the sulphnr cools, es- 
capes in shape of steam. Thus, if you take a 
hundred weight of sulphur, and subject it to the 
above treatment, when cooling begins a superfi- 
cial crust is formed; if then you make an open- 
ing in this crust, there will be a succession of 
explosions and emissions of steam and sulphur. 
Ir? the course of an hour a cone will be formed, 
having a diameter of ten or twelve inches at its 
base, anu two or three inches in hight, closely 
resembling the cone of a voloano, formed by the 
Successive currents of lay a 

Mibbob Photogbaphs, as they are called, are 
silvered glass with a picture pasted on the 
back. There is no silver where the picture is 
seen, but on the sides there is enough metal to 
give the effect of a mirror. A person could 
have his photograph taken and so placed upon 
silvered glass as to enable himself to see what 
the camera had made of him and what reflected 
light disclosed. If platinum were to be em- 
ployed in place of silver, the thin film would 
show no picture by transmitted light, but by 
reflected light the image would appear. Such 
a device as this would be capable of extensive 
application in show windows and interior count- 
ing rooms. Glass partitions could be so ar- 
ranged that persons sitting behind them could 
see all that was going on in a store while they 
would themselves be invisible. It is thought 
that if a thin gelatin print were to be pasted 
upon the glass, an engraved picture could be 
produced by means of the sand blast, which 
could be subsequently silvered or not, accord- 
ing to the purposes to which it is to be applied. 
Elegant results could be obtained in this way 
for many ornamental purposes. 


The Geeat Wall in China. — Mr. Seward, in 
speaking of the great wall in China, which he 
examined during his late trip at the East, says: 
"The Chinese have been for the past two or 
three thousand years a wall-making people. It 
would bankrupt New York or Paris to build the 
walls of the city of Pekin. The great wall of 
China is the wall of the world. It is forty feet 
high. The lower thirty feet is of hewn lime- 
stone or granite. Two modern carriages may 
pass each other on the summit. It has a para- 
pet throughout its whole length, with conven- 
ient staircases, buttresses, and garrison-houses 
at every quarter of a mile, and it runs, not by 
cutting down hills and building up valleys, but 
over the uneven crests of the mountains, and 
down through their gorges a distance of a 
thousand miles. Admiral Rodgers and I calcu- 
lated that it would cost more now to build the 
great wall of China through its extent of one 
thousand miles than it has cost to build fifty- 
five thousand miles of railroad in .the United 
States. What a commentary it is upon the 
ephemeral range of the human intellect to see 
this great utilitarian enterprise, so necessary 
and effective two thousand years ago, now not 
merely useless, but an incumbrance and an 

Cundueango and Sabsapabilla.— The famous 
cundurango, from which so much was expected 
in the cure of cancer, is said to have derived its 
name from the circumstance that the condor, 
(cundur) when bitten by poisonous snakes, 
eats its leaves as an antidote to their poison; 
hence cundurango, signifying condor vine. Its 
use in Europe as a remedy for cancer appears 
to have been attended with very doubtful suc- 

The Philadelphi Medical Times in speaking 
of this plant remarks that " It was not the cur- 
ing of cancer, but it was the obtaining of a 
profit of somewhere about 1900 per cent. ($38 
per pound on an article costing not $2 per 
pound), that animated the advocates of cun- 
durango. The bubole has, however, been 
pricked; and we presume that Messrs. Bliss & 
Keene, more in sorrow than in anger, watch 
the fading glories of their great specific. They 
are making a feeble stand, or some one is try- 
ing to do so for them, on its anti-syphilitic 
powers; this will perhaps work off the stock 
they have on hand, but it will hardly do more. 

One point of curious dissimilarity may be no- 
ticed between the medical history of this arti- 
cle and that of its analogue, sarsaparilla; 
namely, the comparatively short time required 
for the explosion of the claims of the former. 
The explanation is undoubtedly to be found in 
the free and constant reports of the results of 
experiments all over the world, which modern 
means of communication alone could render 
possible. Sarsaparilla held its own in country 
neighborhoods, retired towns, and remote 
places, long after it had been tried and found 
wanting at the great centres of medical science. 
Cundurango is known as a stupendous failure 
wherever it is known at all." 

A Stbange Disease. — Intense radiation • 
heat in the great desert of Sahara produces ex- 
traordinary effects on insects as well animals 
and men. When a caravan starts out to trav- 
erse that wide waste of desolation, flies follow 
on in prodigious multitudes, attracted, no 
doubt, by odor from the camels, but they soon 
drop dead by the intensified heat. Fleas, bur- 
rowing in hair, straw, or sacks, are killed off 
rapidly. But the most singular of all is the 
malady to which men are incident after being 
exposed a short time to burning sands and a 
vertical sun on that arid and lite-forsaken re- 
gion. It is called ragle — a kind of brain fever. 
The stricken traveller is delighted, amused, and 
made extensively happy by exhibitions of fan- 
tastic forms. He sees mirages, palm-trees, 
groups of tents, shady mountains, sparkling 
cascades, and misty forms dancing delightfully 
before his entranced vision. From alhthat can 
be gathered upon the subject, it appears that a 
certain condition of atmosphere, wholly free 
from moisture, with intense solar heat, pro- 
duces effects on the brain similar to hasheesh. 
Both exalt the nervous system, and speedily de- 
stroy all desire to exist, deprived of that unnat- 
ural excitation of the brain. 

To Make Coubt Plasteb. — To make court 
plaster, soak isinglass in a little warm 
water for twenty-four hours; then evaporate 
nearly all the water by a gentle heat, dissolve 
the residue in a little proof spirits of wine, and 
strain the whole through a piece of open 
linen. The strained mass should be a stiff 
jelly when cool. Now, extend a piece of silk 
on a wooden frame, and fit it tight with tacks 
and thread. Melt the jelly and apply it to the 
silk thinly and evenly with a hair brush. A 
second coating must be applied when the first 
has dried. When both are dry, cover the whole 
surface with two or three coatings of Balsam of 
Peru, applied in the same way. Plaster thus 
made is very pliable, and never breaks. — Rural 
New Yorker. 

Oenamenting Lamps. — I wonder if many 
readers are aware what a pretty effect may be 
produced by pasting with mucilage autumn 
leaves and ferns on the inside of porcelain 
shades. I refer particularly to the student 
lamp. Of course they should be the brightest, 
smallest specimens, and may be arranged either 
in clusters or a wreath all the way around. 
They should be prepared in the usual way, 
pressed or ironed. I broth mine with linseed 
oil, but I am not sure that is essential. They 
will remain bright two or three months, and 
when faded can be easily soaked off with warm 
water and replaced with others. — Rural New 

Wetting Coal fob Heating Boilees. — M. 
Seidler refutes the opinion, so generally pre- 
vailing that wet coals burn better or produce 
more heat than dry ones. If the blacksmiths 
sprinkle their coal dust near the blast pipe with 
water, they merely do it to keep the top layer 
in shape. Wet coal burns as slowly as green 
wood, evidently from the fact that the water 
must evaporate before the fuel will burst out 
in flames. The author always obtained more 
steam by employing dry coal, and in a compar- 
ative trial, extending over a week, he saved 
fourteen tons of coal by not wetting it. 

A Beautiful Expebiment. — When fifteen to 
twenty grammes of granulated silver is intro- 
duced into a perfectly dry tube of hard white 
glass, with from thirty to forty grammes of 
bisulphide of carbon, and then hermetically 
sealed, on warming gently and then shaking in 
the dark, sparks are observed in the liquid, 
which by continued shaking may be rendered 
quite luminous. Pouring water on the tube 
causes the luminosity to disappear, but on 
shaking it becomes visible. This is a beautiful 
experiment. Iron and aluminum produce 
similar effects, while platinum, copper and 
zinc do not. 

Abtificial Skins foe Sausages— In Wurtem- 
burg there has been started a rew industry, 
which consists in the manufacture of skins of 
parchment paper for sausages. This artificial 
product is considerably cheaper than the nat- 
ural one; it is not subject to fermentation, and 
is distinguished for its cleanliness. It is made 
by means of machines, in the thickness of ordi- 
nary writing papsr, and sent to any address 
through the Post Office. 

Phenomena of the Beain. — One of the most 
inconceivable things in the nature of the brain 
is that, although the organ of sensation, it 
should itself be insensible. To cut the brain 
gives no pain; yet in the brain resides the 
power of feeling pain in any part of the body. 
If the nerve which leads to it from the injured 
part bo divided, we become instantly uncon- 
scious of suffering. It is only by communica- 
tion with the brain that any kind of sensation 
is produced; yet the organ is itself insensible. 
But there is a circumstance more wonderful 
still. A certain portion of the brain itself may 
be removed without destroying life. The ani- 
mal li yes and performs all those functions which 
are necessary to simple vitality, but it has no 
longer a mind. It cannot think or feel. It re- 
quires that the food should be pushed into its 
stomach; once there it is digested, and the ani- 
mal will even thrive and grow fat. We infer, 
therefore, that a part of the brain is simply in- 
tended for the exercise of the intellectual facul- 
ties, whether of the lower degree, called in- 
stinct, or of that exalted kind bestowed on man, 
called reason. 

Now and Then. — The Pulse of Health says, 
in relation to, and deprecation of, what it calls 
" Sensational Hygiene ": Certain facts are so 
patent — as for instance, that the present cook- 
ery is far better than that of twenty years ago; 
our clothing warmer in winter, cooler in sum- 
mer, and every way more sensible than that of 
the last generation; our modern houses incom- 
parably more convenient and comfortable than 
those they replace; our habits of life, in every 
essential respect, more healthy, cleanly, and re- 
fined than those of any other nation or age; and, 
finally, as the direct outcome of these improved 
conditions, the average of life is so steadily in- 
creasing — these facts are so obvious and perti- 
nent that the necessity for exaggeration, dog- 
matism, and sensational half-truths concerning 
hygiene, if such necessity ever did exist, cer- 
tainly exists no longer. 

Phosphated candy is the latest novelty in 
the medicated line. It is based on the popular, 
though not yet well established idea, that there 
is a brain waste of phosphorus which ought to 
be made good by some special or medicated 
food. Phosphoric acid, associated with iron, 
is sometimes prescribed by physicians; and the 
idea of disguising the unpleasant nature of 
phosphoric acid by administering it in candy 
is certainly ingenious and may be advanta- 
geous. We are a nation of candy eaters and as 
bonbons are popular everywhere, perhaps we 
may as well employ them as an agreeable ve- 
hicle for taking disagreeable medicine, as in- 
deed is already done to a considerable extent. 

Activity and Health. — Men who have half a 
dozen irons in the fire are not the ones to go 
crazy. It is the man of voluntary or compelled 
leisure, who mopes and pines and thinks him- 
self into the mad-house or grave. Motion is 
all nature's law. Action is man's salvation, 
physical and mental; and yet nine out of ten 
are wistfully looking forward to the coveted 
hour when they shall have leisure to do noth- 
ing—the very siren that has lured to death 
many a " successful " man. He only is truly 
wise who lays himself out to work till life's 
latest hour, and that is the man who will live 
the longest, and will live to most purpose. 

Taking Cold. — If a cold settles on the outer 
covering of the lungs, it becomes pneumonia, 
inflammation of the lungs, or lung^fever and in 
many cases carries off the strongest man to the 
grave within a week. If cold falls upon the 
inner covering of the lungs, it is pleurisy, with 
its knife-like pains and its slow, very slow re- 
coveries. If a cold settles in the joints, there 
is rheumatism with its agonies of pain, and 
rheumatism of the heart, which in an instant 
sometimes snaps asunder the cords of life with 
no friendly warning. It is of the utmost prac- 
tical importance, then, in the winter weather, 
to know not so much how to cure a cold as how 
to avoid it. 

Colds always come from one cause, some part 
of the body being colder than natural for a time. 
If a person will keep his or her feet warm al- 
ways, and never allow himself or herself to be 
chilled, he or she will never take cold in a life- 
time; and this can only be accomplished by due 
care in warm clothing and avoidance of drafts 
and exposure. While multitudes of colds come 
from cold feet, perhaps, the majority arise from 
cooling off too quickly after becoming a little 
warmer than is natural from exercise or work, 
or from confinement to a warm apartment. — 
Sci. Am. 

How to Walk. — A smooth, long step, the 
weight of the body on the loins, where nature 
intended it should be, and the legs propelled 
from thence, without either stiffness at the 
knee or obtrusive motion of the hips, is, prob- 
ably, the ideal of walking, and such one finds 
both in a highly trained woman and the un- 
taught perfection of a South Sea Islander." 

India-Rubbek Cloth in Skin Diseases. — 
From a note translated by The Doctor, we leam 
that since 1868, M. Hardy, of Paris, has been 
employing india-rubber cloth in place of poul- 
tices or local baths. He employs pieces of cot- 
ton, covered with a layer of caoutchouc, and 
forming an impermeable tissue. This is only 
applicable to the extremities and to the head; 
and for the latter region he makes use of vul- 
canized india-rubber caps. After a certain time, 
the part enveloped becomes not disagreeably 
warm, and then an abundant sweating takes 
place, under the influence of which the crusts, 
and the squames which cover the skin are re- 
moved, the epidermis spreads over the ulcers, 
and the skin becomes softened. 

The results obtained are similar to those ob- 
tained by poultices, but preferable for many 
reasons. Daily experience of the Hopital St. 
Louis shows a great rapidity in the modification 
of the skin; two or three days of application 
suffices completely to cleanse the scalp when 
covered with abundant scales of eczema, etc. 
After forty-eight hours' application of the india- 
rubber cloth upon hands attacked with chronic 
eczema, with fissures and cracks in all direc- 
tions, the wound becomes cicatrized, and the 
skin recovers its suppleness. 

New Cube fob Rheumatism. — There are a 
thousand pretended cures for rheumatic and 
neuralgic affections, not one of which is found 
to effectually eradicate them. If a remedy 
could be devised to answer that end, its discov- 
erer would be entitled to the thanks of the 
world, and might amass for himself a collosal 
fortune. A therapeutist of London thinks he 
has hit upon it, (in the administration of hot 
sand baths. He claims that its advantage con- 
sists iu the fact that it does not suppress per- 
spiration like the hot water bath, but rather in- 
creases it, and does not interfere with the res- 
piration like the steam bath or Turkish bath. 
The body can endure its influence for a much 
longer time, and a much higher temperature 
can be applied. It can be used for infants, 
and permits of easy application to a part or to 
the whole body. Sufferers who are willing to 
resort to almost any expedient to relieve the in- 
tense pain of these diseases, will ascertain the 
efficacy of the recommended cure by giving it » 

Is Caebolic Acid Poison When Puee. — 
Hamberg has ventured to assert that pure car- 
bolic ac'd is not a poison, and that the poison- 
ous properties of ordinary commercial acid is 
due to impurities in it. To this view Husemann 
takes exception, and publishes the results of a 
series of experiments made with rabbits, in which 
all specimens of carbolic acid acted as poison, 
whether taken into the stomach or injected into 
the circulation. 

Laxative Mixtube. — Prof. Lindsleysays the 
best remedy he has ever tried in habitual con- 
stipation, is to take a half drachm of Epsom 
salts, dissolved in half a pint of water— adding 
ten drops of Elixir of Vitriol — one hour before 
breakfast. The smaller the dose the better, 
provided it will operate. It may be taken (or 
weeks till a cure is effected. 



[January u, 1873. 



4. I. DEWST. W. B. EWEB. 0. H. STRONG. J. L. BOONE. 

Principal Editor — 

AlWOCUIE Editoe 

W. B. EWER, A.M. 

.1. N. HOAG, (Sacramento.) 

Office, No. 338 Montgomery street, S. E. corner of 
0allfornia*8treet, where friends and patrons are Invited 
to our Scientific Press, Patent Agency, Egraving and 
Printing establishment. 


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In extraordinary type or in particular parts of the paper, 
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Saturday, Jan. n, 1873. 

Table of Contents. 

GENERAL EDITORIALS— Barley; Testing the 
Vitality of Seeds ; American Tea ; Fruit Growing in 
Nevada; Farmers' Union; Col. Younger's Letter; Silk 
at Calistoga, 24.— Hop Intelligence; Adobe Lands 
for Wheat; Tamarind Tree; Australian Rye flrass, 25. 
ILLUSTRATIONS. — Chemical Manures, 17.— 
Practical liints to Housekeepers, 22.— The Archer; 
Silver Spangled Hamburgs, 25. 

CORRESPONDENCE.— Logging on Puget Sound; 
From Our Traveling Correspondent; Ventura County, 

STOCK BREEDING.— Value of Merino Sheep: 
Stock Breeding in California; Raising Hor6es; Rule of 
Law as to Unsoundness of the Horse. 19. 

BOME AND FARM.— The Tiller of the Soil: 
Japan; The IdeBl Farmir; Walnuts in Los Angeles; 
Practical Hints to Housekeepers; Architectural Skill 
of Birds; When Will Farming be More Profitable?; 
The Best Bee Hive. 22. 

USEFUL INFORMATION.— The Cause of Paint 
Cracking; Curious Case of Spontaneous Combustion; 
Artificial Volcanoes: Mirror PhotogTaphs; The Great 
Wall in China; To Make Court Plaster, 23. 

GOOD HKALTH.- Cundurango and Sarsaparilla; 
Phenomena of the Brain; Now and Th^n: A Strange 
Disease; Taking Cold; India-Rubber cloth in Skin 
Diseases; New Cure for Rheumatism. 23. 

HOME CIRCLE.— Do th Angles Ever Come, (Poe- 
try); The Management of Homes; Royal Homes; How 
Not to Do It; Sensible View on the Woman Question; 
Clarinda'a Nose; Who is Old; Girls; Laugh and Grow 
Fat, 26. 

YOUNG FOLKS' COLUMN.- What a Farmer's 
Boy Should Know; Home Amusement; "Little 
Mother," 26. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY.— Table Use of Oatmeal; 
Beef Soup; Washing Fluid; Fried chickens, 27. 

FARMERS IN COUNCIL.— Important Meetins 
of the Board of Directors of the California Farmers' 
Union; Stanislaus Farmers' Club: Santa Cruz Farm- 
ers' Club; San Jose Farmers' Club, 20. Sacramento 
Farmers' Club; Santa Clara Valley Ag. Society, 21. 

MISCELLANEOUS. -Electricity ; Metal Paper- 
Hanging*; The Spectroscope; Raindrops and Rain- 
bows, 19. Sacramelito Beet Sugar Factory; Beet 
8ugar at Sacramento, 21. Patents and Inventions. 
25. Hyacinths in SDonge, 27. Technical Education: 
The California Short-Horn Breeders' Convention: let- 
ter from Col. Younger, 28. 

The Rural Alabamian. — We have received 
the December number of this excellent agricul- 
tural monthly. It is published at Mobile, 
where the climate is more nearly like that of 
California, than any point north, where similar 
journals are published; hence, we find it treat- 
ing of farm and horticultural products more 
nearly in conformity with our own views, and 
therefore always interesting. It is a valuable 
and cheap publication, at two dollars a year. 

Postaoe on Seeds, Bulbs, Roots, Etc. — Our 
readers will be glad to learn that both the Sen- 
ate and House of Representatives have passed 
a bill reinstating the old rates of postage on 
seeds, bulbs, roots, plants, etc., for which there 
has been so much clamor of late in consequence 
of the rulings of the Postmaster-General. The 
amendment passed permits the passage of four- 
pound packages through the mails, as formerly, 
at the postal rate of two oent s f or four ounces. The 
act is to take effect immediately; but it will not 
take effect unless the Postmaster-Gen. is pressed 
to send instructions at once to the postmasters 
of the country directing its enforcement; for 
postmasters cannot act without instructions, 
and the issue of these is often delayed months 
after an act of Congress goes into effect, such 
is the red tape machinery of the Department. — 
Rural New Yorker. 

Change of Time. — It will be seen that the 
time of the meeting of the Vine Growers' and 
Wine and Brandy Manufacturers' Association 
has been changed from the 15th to the 20th of 
January. This has been done so the Vine 
Growers may attend the annual meeting of the 
State Agricultural Society, which comes on the 
22d., as will be Been by advertisement in another 

On File. — A Correction of Corrections, 0. S. 
M.; Alfalfa, G. F. P., Visalia. 


John Bull has an idea that English barley 
is superior for ale. But he has the same con- 
ceit of English hops, which are manifestly in- 
ferior for all purposes, to American hops. If 
hops in England escape the damaging showers 
of harvest time, they lose half their strength in 
the kiln-scorching necessary in that humid cli- 
mate. Hops in the bale have a blotched and 
damaged look. The hops of California are 
without a speck of discoloration. In the bale 
they show the same light and delicate gray- 
green that Nature gives them when ripened on 
the vine. The strength of our hops is double, 
and English brewers who measure it for use in 
equal bulk with their own, say it makes ale too 
bitter. Our own brewers are mostly foreigners, 
and they fall into the same error. They evjn 
import extra looking hops from England, under 
this mistaken impression. We venture to pre- 
dict that hops grown in our foothills will soon 
be sought by Englishmen for the superior deli- 
cacy of the ale they will make. 

We believe also that our ordinary barley will 
make better ale than the choicest grains of 
England. For our sun gives perfection of ri- 
pening, which the ever murky sun of England 
can never impart. 

Tennent's ale is made of a peculiar grain 
called Ball barley. It Ball barley do so well in 
that climate, it is certain to do better here. 
And it is equally certain that with the same 
care in selecting choice grain and hops, this 
sunny climate and dry atmosphere will make 
and ripen ale to such perfection as England 
cannot approach. Messrs. Paddon & Son, 
English brewers, have proved this at their new 
brewery on Folsom St., San Francisco, and the 
Grand Hotel gives it unqualified endorsement. 
Not to be behind in the quality of our barley, 
Sam Brannan has sent to England for a quan- 
tity of Ball barley, which he is preparing to 
cultivate at Calistoga, He has a perfect oon- 
viction, from practical tests, that we can make 
better ale at home than we are importing, and 
his usual public spirit prompts him to aid the 

We want a home market for barley ; and if 
we succeed in ousting English ale and in get- 
ting their India trade in malt liquors, barley 
will be our most profitable crop to the farmer, 
tuid by reason of the manufacturing industry 
it will inaugurate, it will be the most desirable 
grain we can cultivate for the welfare of the 
State. What we mostly want is industrial em- 
ployment. It is the only anti-hoodlum remedy 
that will save us from impending demoraliza- 
tion. Let us awaken to the pressing necessity 
of this change of policy. The well known 
profits of brewing on a large scale ought to 
stimulate capital to invest in this great enter- 

Testing the Vitality of Seeds. 

Where large quantities of valuable and costly- 
seeds are to be purchased, it is always better to 
obtain a few at first and fairly test their vitality, 
as it will often save a great deal of vexation and 
no little expense. The following are among the 
best modes of cheaply testing the vitality of 
seeds. Sow a few in a box or florist's pot of 
warm, light, sandy soil, and keep it warm and 
moist — not wet — and expose to the sun away 
from cold blasts of air and they will soon sprout 
and grow if they possess vitality. 

By counting the seed when sown, and then 
the number that grow, the proportion of living 
to dead seeds can be approximately ascertained, 
and therefore the quantity of seeds to be pur- 
shased can be easily calculated. Onion seeds 
soaked for 10 or 15 minutes in cold water and 
then gently simmered or even boiled half an 
hour will begin to germinate. 

Indian corn, peas, beans and numerous 
other seeds, soaked four hours in a tepid so- 
lution of chloride of lime and water, mixed in 
the proportion of one fourth of an ounce of 
the lime to a gallon of water, and then sown in 
the ordinary way, have frequently been known 
to throw out germs in 24 hours. As a general 
rule, soaking seeds in tepid water from 24 to 
48 hours, and then coating them with ashes 
or plaster, will hasten the germination of most 
dry and hard seeds. 

Catalogue. — We have received the Fall Cat- 
alogue of 1872, of the Star Nurseries of Harcis 
& Sommer, Qnincy Illinois. It contains an 
extensive and varied list of fruit, forest, shade 
and ornamental trees. 

American Tea. 

It may interest California agriculturists to 
learn that there is an association East which 
has for four years past been making experi- 
ments in several States, with the tea plant. 

Without giving to the public any details of 
their experience, it is now announced by a news- 
paper man, that he has visited a tea garden of 
the association in Crawford county, Iowa. The 
Superintendent has been silently cultivating 
tea plants on a broad scale, without being ob- 
served by the neighlors, who, by-the-by, are 
not very near his farm. 

He observed that every tea shrub was grafted, 
and he learned that a hardier plant which grows 
about there has been used for stock upon which 
to engraft slips of China tea shrubs. The grafts 
take readily, and thus treated, they have pass- 
ed unharmed through three winters of great 
severity. The plants are exceedingly vigorous, 
and the leaf crop is very luxuriant. 

The tea that has been made is not like any 
known varieties, which is attributed to Ameri- 
can manipulation. But it has the Chinese 
flavor improved. We are not advised if irriga- 
tion is used. There appears to be no trouble 
in getting children to learn leaf-picking. Nor 
is there a doubt that tea-making will pay bet- 
ter than any other production at present in that 
county. The name of the stock-plant is not 
given. But we know that the Alleghany for- 
est range (for a length of 1,000 miles through 
all Pennsylvania and Virginia and beyond) has 
an undergrowth of a species of wild tea-plant 
whose flowers are as fragrant as the Chinese 
tea-plant. Its seed is a small oleaginous nut 
exactly the same. We know that it grows where 
snow lies on it for 90 days in winter and we 
also know that tea has been made of it, on a 
considerable scale, in Northwestern Pennsylva- 
nia for the past ten years. It is used for mix- 
ing with weak China teas, to which it adds 
double valuation. This is probably the stock- 

We cannot answer for Iowa. But we are 
sure that the tea-plant of China and Japan 
needs no grafting on any other stock in Cali- 
fornia. It is true that, so far, experiments 
have failed of success. But the failure has 
been due to fortuitous circumastnces, and not 
to either our soil or our climate. Herr Schnell's 
tea garden near Placerville grew vigor- 
ously. But the water from the miner's ditch, 
deposited a rigid ring of mineral around the 
shrubs, which throttled and destroyed them in 
the midst of most luxuriant prosperity. Let 
us not say, on this favorable experience, that 
tea culture is a failure past redemption. Rather 
let us replant; having faith that California 
teas like California wines will, in our day, 
make favorable impression in the markets of 
the world. 

Fruit Growing in Nevada. 

A call from Mr. F. A. Herring, nurseryman 
of Forbestown, Butte county, puts us in pos- 
session of interesting facts in relation to the 
success of fruit growing in our adjoining State 
on the east, Nevada. Mr. H. has been largely 
engaged in sending all the common, hardy fruit 
trees over the mountains, for the last three or 
four years, filling orders for apple, pear and 
cherry trees from every section of that wide 

Three years have brought the trees into bear- 
ing, and tested the conditions of the climate for 
their production of all the hardy fruits to that 
degree as to warrant the planting of orchards 
extensively. In some of the lower valleys, 
frosts occasionally occur doing Blight damage; 
but on what are called first and second benches 
above the lower valleys, both soil and climate 
seem as well adapted to th6 production of the 
fruits named as any portion of the eastern or 
northern States. 

In Carson Valley, which lies directly under 
the snowy drippings of the eastern eaves of the 
Sierras, they are sometimes vexed with late, 
spring or summer frosts; but last year a thou- 
sand or more trees, old enough to bear, pro- 
duced fruit abundantly; whilst further away 
from the snowy belt of mountains they enjoy 
sufficient immunity from frost, from spring to 
autumn, to render fruit growing successful and 

Californians must bear this in mind, and not 
be surprised if in five or ten years from this, 
some of our best keeping winter apples are 
brought to us from east of the Sierras. 

Farmer's Union. 

We would call the particular attention of the 
fanners of the State to the Report of the meeting 
of the Board of Directors of the California Farm- 
er's Union in another column. It does seem to us 
that much good can be effected; that now is the 
auspicious time for action, and that a united 
and determined movement will result in large 
benefits to individuals and the State at large, 
and we earnestly invite a general cooperation 
of the farmers of every section thereof. 

Let clubs be formed in every county, and 
parts of counties wherever most convenient for 
20 or 50 farmers to assemble ; let us do as farm- 
ers are doing in every Eastern, Northern and 
Western State of the Union, act in unison and 
for their and our own interests; for when the 
farmer's interests are subserved all others pros- 
per. The grand movement is now inaugurated 
and it only needs the hearty cooperation of in- 
telligent men to produce a revolution in the 
mode of disposing of our agricultural products, 
and which will keep annually, millions of dol- 
lars in first hands, where it should be kept, 
rather than go to the pockets of a class of men 
notoriously subsisting upon the earnings of the 
laboring farmer. 

Blank forms for Constitutions of Fanners' 
Clubs, can be had free of cost by sending to I. 
N. Hoag, Secretary of State Agricultural So- 
ciety, Sacramento, and no time should be lost, 
in talking the subject up among neighborhoods 
of farmers, until it shall result in complete or- 
ganization, and cooperation with the Central 
Union Club. Secretaries of clubs will please 
send us reports of proceedings for publication. 

Col. Younger's Letter. 

We publish in this number a letter from Col. 
Younger, in defence of the purity of the pedi- 
gree of his famous short-horn stock, which had 
been questioned by certain parties, and evi- 
dently for certain reasons or upon mistaken 
grounds. We invite the attention of all inter- 
ested in the growing of fine stock on this Coast, 
to the letter, as we think the matter of pedigree 
has been made perfectly clear, establishing 
the fact of the stock having originated from 
as pure blood as is found in the United States. 

Col. Younger in his letter refers to a certain 
letter received from Mr. Abraham Van Meter; 
also to a certificate from Mr. B. F. Van Meter, 
and a letter from Mr. G. N. Swezy, of Marys- 
ville, all having a direct bearing upon the sub- 
ject. We have personally seen and examined 
these letters and certificate, and know them to 
be correctly quoted. 

The whole question seems to have been 
hinged upon the simple mistake of substituting 
the name of T. E. Talbott for John Talbott. 
If Mr. Van Meter knows of any other " Lucky 
Lass" than the one from which this fine stock 
originated, it is his duty to point her out, or 
show where she ever had an existence. We 
are satisfied no better or purer blood runs in 
the veins of the short-horns of this State than 
is found in the stock of Colonel Younger. 

Silk at Calistoga. 

Mr. R. Bonhomme the lessee of the fine mul- 
berry plantation of Sam. Brannan, Esq., at Cal- 
istoga, is making all needful additions, altera- 
tions and improvements to the buildings to be 
used the coming spring for the growing of silk- 
worms. It is the intention of Mr. Bonhomme, 
to demonstrate the entire practicability of silk 
growing in that locality as a paying industry, 
and we believe if any man can do it he will. 

We hope, however, as the surest guaranty of 
success, that he will commence the feeding as 
early in the spring as it will be possible for 
him to obtain leaves; for we have no faith in 
attempting to grow silkworms successfully in 
the low, hot valleys of the State after the mid- 
dle of May. In no country in the world is the 
growing of the silkworm made successful 
through the entire season, and why it was ever 
conceived that California could be made an ex- 
ception to the rule, and grow worms in the 
heat of summer, we never could understand. 
We wish Mr. B. complete success. 

The Santa Babbaba Pbess. — This excellent 
weekly comes to us published with a large 
amount of interesting reading; it is among the 
very best of our California exchanges; and 
takes the proper course to make itself locally 
popular, by speaking a good word, or rather 
many of them, of the resources and advantages 
of Santa Barbara county, as a home for the 
immigrant, and the resort of the invalid. The 
S. B. Press should receive a generous support. 

January n, 1873.] 


The Carious in Nature. 

In previous numbers of the Rural we have, 
from time to time, given illustrations and short 
bits of natural history setting forth the pecu- 
liar traits or habits of instinct or reason, call 
it what we will, of some of the smaller of the 
animal creation, whereby they are enabled to 
construct their peculiar habitations or provide 
themselves with food in some remarkable man- 

We have given the ant-lion; ants at home; 
carpenter-bee; tailor-bird, etc., and now we 
continue the series by introducing to our 
juvenile readers a short history of the 
Archer Fish. 

This little fish, seldom exceeding six inches 
in length, is known to naturalists as the Texotes 
jaculator, found in some of the fresh waters of 
Java and a few of the other India islands. Its 
appearance would indicate nothing remarkable 
except a slight peculiarity of form, compared 
with most fishes. But that which gives it 
peculiar interest is the manner it procures its 
food. It lives upon flies and other winged 
insects that swarm among the aquatic plants of 
the waters it inhabits. 

Instead of leaping from the water for its 
prey, which few fish can do to more than once 
or twice their length above the surface, this lit- 
tlojartillerist brings its mouth only to the surface 
and there ejects or shoots, a single drop of water 
from its throat and mouth, with unerring aim, 
and with such force as to disable and knock 
down into the water any fly or insect that — as 
a sportsman would say — "it draws a bead on," 
when it becomes an easy prey. 

The artillerist — for this is a more appropri- 
ate name than archer, as it uses neither bow 

nor arrow — is easily domesticated and seems to 
delight in showing its powers, for which reason 
it is often kept as a pet, in large open vases, 
and loses no opportunity in throwing its shot 
at any unfortunate fly presenting itself, or 
forced within its reach ; its aim is almost un- 
erring at any distance less than three feet, and 
the effect perfectly stunning. 

Hop Intelligence. 

From London Mark Lane Express, we gather 
the following: 

BOROUGH, Monday, Dec. 2, 1872.— Our 
market continues extremely firm, and the ad- 
vance quoted in our last has been fully main- 
tained. The demand is still active, and stocks 
are in a much smaller compass. Continental 
markets are firm. Latest advices from America 
quote a general advance from 3 to 5 cents per 
ft>., with an active demand, and indications of 
a still further rise. Sales are 

Mid and East Kent 19>4@?-t 

Weald of Kent 1634(9 2(5 ?i 

Sussex 17 @23 

Farnham and country 20 J<@i9 

Thos. Wild and Co. 

last.) — The trade has again been brisk. The 
stock of hops in the oountry has not been known 
to be so small as at present for many years at 
the same period. We have an increase demand 
for ohoice East Kents, prices advancing stead- 

last.) —Our market is very bare of hops, and on 
this account alone the business doing is small. 
The general demand is very active, and prices 
have still further advanced all round. There 
seems to be every probability of further rise in 
values, as the stocks are small of Kent and Sus- 
sex. The foreign markets are also much dearer, 
and rising. 

FOREIGN HOPS.— The imports of foreign 
hops into London last week amounted to 132 
bales from Rotterdam, 100 bales New York, 
1,395 Antwerp, 606 Hamburgh, 194 Ostend, and 
20 bales from Boulogne. 

Acknowledgements. — We are indebted to 
Hon. Senator Cole for numerous works of in- 
terest and merit, including: Report of Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, 1870 ; Messages and Docu- 
for 1871-72, statistics of population with census 
of 1870; Diseases of cattle in the United States, 
Geological survey of Wyoming and contiguous 
Territories, etc., etc. 

Adobe Lands for Wheat. 

Whenever adobe land can be put in suitable 
condition for wheat, there is no question as to 
its value for a continued production for a great 
number of years with very little deterioration. 
The only difficulty that attends their use as 
wheat lands is found in the preparation of the 
soil for the seed. It is always said, that, if 
the ground is only just right for the seed, it is 
the best land in the world. 

It must be neither too wet nor too dry; for 
in the one case it becomes a perfect mortar bed, 
unsuited to any kind of vegetation; and in the 
other so hard that it can only be plowed ex- 
cept by throwing it up into lumps and clods, 
equally unsuited to successful seeding or the 
operations of harvesting. 

That a thorough pulverization of adobe land 
to a depth not exceeding four or five inches, or 
to a depth only to which it can be made thor- 
oughly fine, is the best preparation, admits of 
no doubt. A deeper plowing than this, in 
which the subsoil is but imperfectly pulverized 
and left open and porous, causes the soil to dry 
down to the bottom of the furrow slice, in con- 
sequence of the capillary attraction of the soil 
being destroyed by its undue porosity. 

It is getting to be now very generally under- 
stood here — as it long has been in England, 
where they raise more wheat to the acre on old 
lands than we do or can — that soils can easily 
be made too open and porous for wheat, and 
solely upon this principle of capillary attraction. 

Silver Spangled Hamburgs. 

The accompanying cut represents a pair of 
Silver Spangled Hamburgs, imported by Mr. 
G. B. Bayley, of Oakland, who finds them a 
most useful and important denizen of his poul- 
try yard. He has bred them for several years 
successfully and with little trouble. 

The hens are inveterate layers, the pullets in 
the first year frequently laying 215 to 230 eggs, 
in fact their propensity for laying is almost 
continuous from one molting season to another 
— and the eggs are large when the small size of 
the bird is considered. For a fowl combining 
the most perfect form of beauty, with so many 
desirable and useful qualities they cannot be 
excelled, and they are peculiarly adapted to 
the farm ranches of the Pacific coast. For a 
gentleman's lawn, no other fowl can show off 
as well, and they very soon become pets of the 

Tamarind Tree. 

Can the tamarind tree be grown in Califor- 
nia ? What kind of bush or tree does it grow on ? 
Will the seeds, as we sometimes find them in 
the pods in confectioners' shops, grow if 
planted ? These are the queries of one of our 
readers, which we will answer thus: Though 
generally considered a tropical fruit, the tree 
can undoubtedly be grown in California to per- 
fection, as they are successfully grown in some 
of the Southern States. 

As far north as Virginia they have attained a 

Patents & Inventions. 

Telegraphic List of U. S. Patents Is- 
sued to Pacific Coast Inventors. 

Eepobted Officially fob the Mining and Solen- 

tlfio Pbess, DEWEY & CO., Publishebs and 

V. 8. and Fobeign Patent Agents.] 

By Special Dispatch, Dated Washing-ton, 

D. C, Dec. 31st, 1872. 

Churn. — James W. F. How, Douglas Co., Ore- 
Saw-Shakpening Swage. — Alfred J. Hinds and 

James S. Howe, Santa Cruz, Cal. 
Threshing Machine. — James T. Watkins, Santa 

Clara, Cal. 
Portable Water Heater. — John S. Woolsey, 

Gilroy, Cal. 
Miners' Safety Candlestick. — Theodore A. 

Washburn, Gold Hill, Nevada. 
Bed Bottom. — David P. Mahan, Antioch, Cal. 

Hydraulic Mining Apparatus. — Frank H. 

Fisher, Nevada City, Cal. 

By Special Dispatch, Jan. 7th., 1873. 

For Week Ending December 24th, 1872. 
Sewing-Machine. — John H. Mooney, S. F., 

Ore-Crusher. — AVilliam P. Hammond, as- 
signor to himself and Henry Mygatt, Napa, 

Loading and Unloading Wagons. — Richard 

Threlfall, Centreville, Cal. 
Steam Boiler. — Frank A. Huntington, S. F., 

Cutting Tool foe Turning Lathes.— Charles 

Rahsskopff, S. F., Cal. 
Feathering Paddle Wheels. — John Ch. 

H. Stut, S. F., Cal. 
Device for Lubricating Shaft Bearings. — 

Jerome Haas, Stockton, Cal. 

The patents are not ready for delivery by the 

Patent Office until some 14 days after thedate of issue. 

Note.— Copies of U. S. and Foreign Patents furnished 
by Dewey & Co., in the shortest time possible (by tel- 
egraph or otherwise) at the lowest rates. All patent 
business for Pacific coast inventors transacted with 
greater security and in much less time than by any other 


It is well known that fluids will rise higher by 
attraction, in small tubes than in large ones, 
and just in proportion as soils possess their in- 
finitessimal number of small tubes, cells or 
pores over large ones, so is their power to draw 
up moisture from below increased. 

Adobe soils plowed to a depth of ten or 
twelve inches, are left at bottom too open and 
porous, from the impossibility of completely 
pulverizing the soil to that depth. We there- 
fore maintain that a lesser depth, even to a fur- 
row of no more than four or five inches, ren- 
dered perfectly friable and reduced to a fine 
tilth, is a better depth of furrow for wheat up- 
on adobe lands, than any greater depth imper- 
fectly pulverized, as it always must be with our 
present available implements for the purpose; 
as no harrow can penetrate a greater depth 
than four or five inches. 

Ross Browne Before the Farmers. 

Mr. J. Ross Browne will address the Oakland 
Farming Club, Friday evening, January 10th, 
on the Agricultural Interest of California, in- 
cluding Irrigation and Swamp land Reclama- 
tion. The annual election of officers of the 
Club also occurs on the same evening. All 
lectures and meetings are free in this Club. 

Alum in Bread. — From time immemorial 
bakers have been in the habit of using alum in 
bread for two purposes, promoting whiteness 
and preventing sourness. If there is any ob- 
ject in detecting its presence in the bread we 
use, a correspondent, V. D.L., of Walla Walla, 
writes, that by pressing a cold knife into a loaf 
of hot bread, or a hot knife into a loaf of cold 
bread, if there is alum in it, it will adhere to 
the knife; if no alum, the knife will come out 
as clean as it went in. 

hight of 25 feet, with a trunk of 18 inches in 
circumference at the ground in eight years, 
from the seeds. They are ranked among the 
truly desirable ornamental trees for the lawn or 
roadside, being beautifully symmetrical in 
growth, with a trunk attaining to a lofty hight, 
and crowned with wide spreading branches of 
delicate foliage and should be introduced 
amongst us. From their fruit, which is borne 
abundantly, is made a cooling and refreshing 
beverage, and a delicious conserve. The tree 
can be grown from the seeds, procured from the 
pods, previously to being conserved. 

Pure Bred— Full Blood. 

At the recent convention of Short-Horn 
Breeders of the United States and Canada con- 
vened at Indianapolis, Nov. 27th, the attend- 
ance was very large, there being over 125 breed- 
ers present. In the course of discussions had, 
Mr. Miles called up his resolution defining the 
meanings of cattle nomenclature, which after 
discussion was adopted, as follows: — 

" Resolved, That we adopt the following definitions: 

" Pure-bred, Full-blood and Thoroughbred. — Animals of 
a distinct and well defined breed, without any admix- 
ture of other blood. 

•• Cross-bred.— Animals produced by breeding together 
distinct breeds. 

" Grades. — The produce of a cross between a pure- 
bred and a 'native.' 

" High Grade. — An animal of mixed blood, in which 
the blood of a pure-bred largely predominates." 

It is important that the same be adopted in 
California, as well, in regard to sheep and the 
mohair goat as to cattle; then purchasers 
know just what they are buying, and can bring 
the seller square to his mark, compelling him 
to guarantee the animal to be just what he 
sells it for. We believe that among our best 
breeders this nomenclature is now recognized, 
and buyers should understand it also; for buy- 
ing a high grade animal does not secure to the 
purchaser a full blood. 

Australian Rye Grass. 

We have received the following from Clover- 
dale under dite of Jan. 1st, 1873: 

Editors Press: — -Will you please give infor- 
mation through your paper in regard to the 
I growing of Australian rye grass, wt ether adapt- 
ed to our dry soil and a permanent grass like 
alfalfa; can it be grown on hill lands, and you 
will greatly oblige Subscriber. 

Rye or Riy grass, is the Solium perenne of 
botanists, two varieties of which are grown ex- 
tensively in England, the "Italian" and the 
"Improved." The Italian is said to differ con- 
siderably from the English or "Improved," 
in coming earlier to maturity, has larger leaves, 
is of a deeper green and grows to a greater 
hight and better adapted to a dry climate. It 
is greedily eaten by cattle, green or dry and 
yields fifty per cent, of dry hay. 

The "Improved, "which was early introduced 
into Australia — hence its name here — possesses 
several desirable properties, which recommend- 
ed it to the attention of cultivators, the princi- 
pal of which are, its adaptation to a great va- 
riety of soils, the facility with which it is pro- 
pagated, by reason of its seeds being produced 
in abundance, and their uniformity in ripening 
and the fibrous structure of its roots. 

The latter, however, does not fit it eminently 
for culture in California except upon ground 
naturally moist. It has no deeply descending 
roots like the clover or alfalfa, and cannot 
stand the long drouths of our summer like 
alfalfa; but where the climate is moist or fogs 
are common in summer, and the soil is rich, 
enormous crops are produced for hay, two or 
three in a year; or if devoted to pasturage, 
yielding an immense quantity of feed, and pro- 
ducing a turf so compict and firm as to sustain 
the weight of cattle with little or no injury to 
the roots even when the ground is saturated 
with water. 

In commencing with this gras*, we would 
recommend its culture on a small scale only, 
by way of experiment. The seed at the rate 
of 16 or 18 pounds to the acre is sown in win- 
ter or spring on land prepared as for wheat, 
but not sown with any other crop. The seed 
should be lightly brushed or rolled in, or 
brushed and then rolled. The first summer will 
show a fair yield of hay as a single cutting, 
and the next year the product will be more 
than doubled. In suitable soils and a warm 
moist climate, it makes a permanent and valu- 
able forage grass. 

The Napa Reporter, of Jan. 4th, has a full 
column article under the heading of "A Day 
among the wine-makers of St. Helena and vi- 
cinity." It is an interesting expose of the 
condition of the wine interest in the world- 
renowned Napa Valley. The Reporter is a paper 
alive to the interests of that portion of Califor- 
p nia it represents. 


[January u, 1873. 

Do the Angels Ever Come. 


0! 6ay do yon think the Angels come 
Aii'i borer h round our beds, 

1, with 1 yes "f tenderness 
Upon our pillowed heads? 

Do they lay their hands upon our cheeks, 
Do they kiss our eyelids down, 

Do they brash bom om fevered brow 
The tangled loeks and frowns? 

Po they ever Blip beneath our heads. 

Their spirit arms, and hi Id 
The weary ones of earth awhile 

Close, with a fervent fold? 

equal to the task of supplying and paying for 
the daily necessities of the home. If she is 
head manager. 6he will take pride and pleasure 
in making one hundred cents go a great way — 
much farther than a man could make a hun- 
dred and fifty go. She will also make calcula- 
tions about the expenditure of the weekly sum, 
will lay by a certain amount towards buying 
such and such supplies in quantities; will learn 
that there is no economy in buying soap by 
the bar, starch or sugar by the pound. She 
will systemize her affairs, keep books —a day 
book and a ledger — and exhibit her well-kept 
accounts with pride and delight. The very 
fact that the expenditure of the money belongs 
to her, will sweeten her life, give new zest to 
her occupations and make her a happier and 
more contented wife. 

The Management of our Homes. 

A Woman's Ideas. 

A lady correspondent of the Country Gentle- 
man, writes as follows: 

There are a good many sermons preached 
now-a-days— a good many articles written for 
newspapers and magazines, and a good deal of 
fireside conversation — from the text that the 
chief duty of woman is to render her home 
and herself attractive to her husband, father 
or brother. No doubt most women make this 
their crowning delight; but when duty is the 
subject under consideration there is another 
phase of the matter which is not often dis- 
cussed. Is it not also the duty of husbands, 
fathers and brothers to make home pleasant 
for all its inmates ? 

A small portion of the day is usually passed 
in the house by the men or boys of the family ; 
their pursuits lead them away from the house 
excepting at meal times, and in the morning 
and evening, while woman's whole life, or at 
least the greater portion, is absorbed in house- 
keeping, and it does not seem inconsiderate 
that her tastes, desires and convenience should 
be more closely consulted than those of the 

There is in many communities a strong ten- 
dency to regard home as only a resting place 
for the men of the family, and as long as they 
are refreshed and pleased — their peculiar tastes 
consulted and ministered to— there is little 
thought about the happiness or comfort of 
those who stay there day in and day out. f 
course there are many individuals who cannot 
be classed under this head— many men who do 
consult their families' peculiarities, and ar- 
range all matters wilh due heed to their pleas- 
ure. Yet all of us kuow many heads of fami- 
lies who look upon the ordering of household 
affairs as pertaining to them only. They build 
to suit their own convenience and taste, ar- 
range the grounds as their fancy dictates, and 
although they may pay some slight deference 
to their wives and daughters' wishes, still think 
a great deal more of their own views ou such 

The house ought to belong to the wife; to 
her should be mainly given the planning, the 
arrangement of the furniture, the laying out of 
the grounds and the ordering of the details. 
She knows from experience far better than a 
man can know, what arrangements add the 
most comfort to her housekeeping; and what 
furniture is most desirable. It would be no 
more out of her line to arrange his warehouse, 
office or counting-room, than for him to order 
the placing of her shelves and furniture. To 
her also should be left tho arrangement of the 
flower beds and shrubbery. She must see 
them all day long, whilo her husband or father 
would only care for them a few hours out of 
the twenty-four. 

Then the homestead ought to belong to the 
wife in fee-simple; surely she has a right to 
the home in which her children were born and 
reared; and it ought to be assured to her, so 
that the reverses of fortune, so frequently oc- 
curring in this country, would not tako it from 

1 am no champion for woman's rights, ex- 
cepting in the home. I have no fancy for the 
right to push my way to the ballot box, and 
vote for this or that politician; but I do desire 
that woman's home rights should be more 
clearly defined and maintained ; and that men 
should give a woman as much freedom in the 
home as they take in their workshops or 
counting-rooms. All women feel a desire for 
this freedom, and if their comfort and pleasure 
were once made the ruling spirit of the home; 
if they were only sure that they were free to do 
as they please in that place, they would re- 
joice to assume the care of it, and endeavor to 
make home more comfortable and happy to 
every one of its inmates, and would force the 
"Lords of Creation" to applaud their executive 
powers, aud to appreciate the comforts of home 
under their administration. 

To them also should be given tho spending 
of the money devoted to housekeeping. If 
every man would pay his wife a weekly sum 
for housekeeping, clothing, etc., he would find 
that in nine cases out of ten her management 
of tho funds would increase not only his com- 
fort, but that of the whole house. If she is 

Royal Home?. 

Would you like to know how the town 
residence of the royal family of England ap- 
pear to an American? If so, you may peep 
over our shoulder and read two sentences 
in a letier just received from an American 
cousin of ours who walked the streets of 
London for the first time about two weeks 
ago. "Buckingham palace, the town re- 
sidence of the royal family and court, is a 
very unpretending structure of dingy 
yellowish stone, about as large as one of 
our average New York "blocks" and ap- 
parently built in a hollow square. It would 
not be very noticeable as a hotel in one of 
our fashionable watering-places. "The 
Prince of Wales lives in one of the detach- 
ed buildings, a large brick house in a 
garden with a wall around it, but on 
raised ground, so that it is plainly seen. 
A soldier in a red coat stands at an iron 
gate. It looks something as we at home 
would expect a blind-asylum to look." 

Our cousin does not by any means wish 
to snub these royal homes. She simply 
wishes to give us an idea of how they ap- 
pear to her eyes, and she adds a quiet com- 
ment that if she were a queen, or even a 
prince, she'd have at least a» inviting and 
pretty place to live in, or she would throw 
up her situation. But then, you know, she 
saw these houses only from the outside, 
and she had not yet seen the other royal re- 
sidence at Windsor and on the Isle of Wight. 

Besides, had the queen put her royal 
head out of the window and called to her 
to come in, our cousin might have written 
a very different account. 

How Not To Do It. — Did you ever see a 
woman throw a stone at a hen? It is the 
most ludicrous scene in every-day life. We 
recently observed the process. Tho pred- 
atory fowl had invaded the precincts 
of the flower-bed, and was industriously 
pecking and scratching tho nutritious 
seed or the early worm, blissfully uncon- 
scious of impending danger. The lady 
now appears upon the scene with a broom. 
This she drops and picks up a rocky frag- 
ment of the Silurian ages, and then makes 
her first mistake — they all do it— of seiz- 
ing the projectile with the wrong hand. 
Then with malice aforethought, the fur- 
ther blunder of swinging her arm perpen- 
dicularly, instead of horizontally — there- 
upon the stone flies into the air, describ- 
ing an irregular elliptical curve, and 
stikes the surface of the earth as far 
from the hen as the thrower stood at the 
time. At the second attempt the stone 
narrowly missed the head of the thrower 
herself, who, seeing that any further at- 
tempt of the kind would be suicidal, did 
what she might have done at first — started 
after the hen -with her old and familiar 
weapon. — Ex. 

Sensible View op the Woman Ques- 
tion. — The Watchman and Reflector has 
been watching the women, and thus reflects 
on them; "They prefer slop-work and 
starvation to good homes and plain sewing 
in the best of families." It says: 

"We want a good 'plain sewer,' to come 
to the house for a few days, at good wages 
— good food, good bed, good air; and is not 
to be found. We spend hours — yes, days, 
in a fruitless search. A grade higher we 
want a dress maker to come to the house, 
on the same conditions; same fruitless la- 
bor! We want some one to do housework; 
and there is an opportunity to lay up near- 
ly all the wages, and have a comfortable 
home; but no use — we look in vain! The 
truth is they prefer the course they are 
pursuing. We leave it to say, if our out- 
line is not perfectly correct. We are some 
what saving of our sympathy on some 
phases of the women question, until our 
houses are well supplied with competent 
persons to attend to all the departments of 
work. When the day comes that it is easy 
to find girls and women willing to come 
to our houses and work for good wages, we 
shall have more faith in the plea of desti- 
tution and hardship. 

Clarinda's Nose. 

Why is it that poets continually delight 
in chanting the praises of lovely cheeks, 
lips and eyes, and ignore the nose so com- 
pletely, when no feature plays a more 
important part, and occupies a mere con- 
spicuous position in the architecture of 
the face? What would be the beauty of 
the human face unadorned with the im- 
portant organ of smelling? A face with- 
out a nose would be unpoetical, in the 
gaze of admiring eyes, as a comet without 
a tail. Ruby lips would remain unkiss- 
ed, rosy cheeks would never be admired, 
and the beauty of bright eyes would re- 
main unseen were there no nose about 
which to group them. And yet who ever 
saw in the opening chapters of a modern 
novel even so much as a complimentary 
allusion to this important point in the 
center of the human countenance. Clar- 
inda's eyes are blue as tho summer skies, 
her lips and cheeks are like cherries and 
roses, her waving tresses of golden hair 
are like ripples of yellow sunshine, her 
neck and arms are like marble and alabas- 
ter, or white and pure as the newly fallen 
snow, her teeth are like pearls and her 
ears like transparent pink shells; but 
Clarinda's nose is ignored altogether; who 
ever heard anything about Clarinda's nose? 
But, nevertheless, Clarinda's nose is of 
considerable consequence, and were Clar- 
inda by any misfortune to mar its faultless 
outlines or to lose it altogether, there 
would be little said in praise of her other 
features. And thus it is that one little 
fault in our lives, one dissolute habit, one 
false step from the way of honor mars and 
defaces the beauty of all our virtues, and 
is remembered when the recollection of all 
our good deeds has forever passed from 
the minds of our fellow men. When the 
tempter comes with his forbidden pleas- 
ures, when he presents the intoxicating 
draught to your lips; be thoughtful ere 
you drink the contaminating potion. Think 
of the beautiful Clarinda and her fault- 
less features and how hideous she would 
look with an ill fashioned nose. 

Who is Old. — A wise man will never rust 
out. As long as he can move or breathe, he 
will be doing for himself, for his neighbor, or 
for posterity. Almost to the last hour of his 
life, Washington was at work. So were Frank- 
lin aud Young, and Howard and Newton. The 
vigor of their lives never decayed. No rust 
marred their spirits. It is a foolish idea to 
suppose that we must lie down and die becanse 
we are old. Who is old ? Not the man of 
energy, not the day laborer in science, art or 
benevolence; but he only who suffers his ener- 
gies to waste away and the springs of life to 
become motionless; on whose hands the hours 
drag heavily, and to whom all things wear the 
garb of bloom. Is ho old ? should not be put; 
but is he active ? can he breathe freely, aud 
move with agility ? There are scores of gray- 
headed men we should prefer, in any important 
enterprise, to those young men who fear and 
tremble at approaching shadows, and turn pale 
at a lion in their path, at a harsh word or 

Girls. — It is the power of young girls to make 
themselves very dear and very useful to their 
married friends, and to render them such ser- 
vices as are beyond all price. In times of sick- 
ness and of sorrow, the sympathy of a beloved 
female friend are among the best of heaven's 
gifts; while she who ministers to the afflicted, 
is as much blessed as blessing. Let no young 
person stay away from a friend who is ill or in 
affliction, from the fear that that her inexperi- 
ence will render her company undesirable; all 
who have strong affections, and a ready power 
of sympathy, can make- themselves acceptable 
and, in endeavoring to do so, will increase their 
own happiness. Never let mere convenience 
induce you to stay at the houses of persons 
whom you cannot esteem; by so doing, you 
take on yourself the duties of a friend, without 
having the sentiments that would make their 
discharge easy. 

Laugh and Grow Fat. — Laugh heartily 
whenever you have an opportunity. There 
is not the remotest corner or inlet of the 
minute blood vessels of the body that does 
not feel some wavelet from the real con- 
vulsions produced by hearty laughter shak- 
ing the inner man. The blood moves more 
lively, probably its chemical, electric, or 
vital condition is distinctly modified — it 
conveys a different impression to all the 
organs of the body, as it visits them on that 
particular mystic journey, when the man is 
laughing, from what it does at other times. 

And thus it isthatagood laugh lengthens 
a man's life by conveying a distinct and 
additiona l stimulus to t he vita l forces. 

Why is coal the most contradictory arti- 
cle known to commerce ? Because when 
purchased, instead of going to the buyer, 
it goes to the cellar. 

Sow an act, and you reap a habit; sow a habit, 
and reap a character; sow a character, and you 
reap a destiny. 

Yo^HQ Folks' CoLdptfl. 

What a Farmer's Boy Should know. 

Every farmer's boy should know how, 
sooner or later — 

1. To dress himself, black bis own shoes, 
cut his brother's hair, wind a watch, sew on a 
button, make abed, and keep all his clothes in 
perfect order and neatly in place. 

2. To harness a horse, grease a wagon, and 
drive a team. 

3. To carve and wait on the table. 

4. To milk the cows, shear the sheep, and 
dress a veal or mutton. 

5. To reckon money and keep accounts accu- 
rately, and according to book-keeping rules. 

6. To write a neat, appropriate, briefly 
expressed business letter, in a good hand, 
and superscribe it properly, and write con- 

To plow, sow grain and grass seeds, drive a 
mowing-machine, swing a scythe, build a stack 
and pitch hay. 

To put up a package, build a fire, white-wash 
a wall, mend broken tools, and regulate a 

There are many other things which would 
render boys useful to themselves and others — 
these are merely specimens. But the young 
man who can do all these well, and who is 
ready at all times to assist others, and useful 
to his mother and sisters, will command more 
respect and esteem than if he knew merely how 
to drive fast horses, smoke cigars and play 

Home Amusement. 

Many very pretty chemical experiments may 
be made by the young people, which wiil 
amuse and astonish those around them. As 
for instance, with so simple an article as red 
cabbage, a very beautiful effect can be rendered 
in the following manner: Cut three leaves of 
cabbage into small pieces, and after placing 
them in a basin, pour a pint of boiling water 
over them, letting them stand an hour; then 
pour off the liquid into a decanter. It will be 
of a fine blue color. Then take four wine 
glasses; into one put six drops of strong vine- 
gar: into another six drops of solution of soda; 
into a third a strong solution of alum; and the 
fcur.h remain empty. 

iill t.p the glasses from the decanter, and 
the liquid poured into the glass containing the 
acid will quickly become a beautiful red; and 
in the glass containing the soda will be a fine 
green; that poured into the empty one will re- 
main unchanged. 

By adding a little vinegar to the green, it 
will immediately change to red, and on adding 
a little of solution of soda to the red it will 
assume a fine green; thus showing the action 
of acids and alkalis on vegetable blues. 

"Little Mother." 

She is such a mite of a body ! Why, even on 
tiptoe she is hardly as high as the door-knob; 
yet, mite that she is, she would put many a 
grown-up girl to shame. 

"Why are you getting up so early, little 
mother?" said I one morning, opening my 
sleepy eyes at the sound of a pair of small feet 
pattering about the floor. 

"Oh! I'm going to help mamma get break- 
fast," said the little woman, and when I went 
down stairs, there she was, with a great apron 
that reached almost to her toes, tied round her 
waist, putting the forks and napkins in their 

"You needn't think I'm going to play every 
minute, and let poor mamma do all the work!" 
she says with dignity, when Patty Green, the 
little girl next door, teases her to come out and 
swing; that is, if it happens to be when she 
has that apron on, for at other times nobody 
likes to play better than this same mite of a 
woman. When the other day I met Cerulia 
and Sapphira Jones, out making calls in their 
very Sunday best, and found their ''poor mam- 
ma" in the kitchen ironing their ruffled skirts, 
I couldn't help wishing that they had heard 
her say it. — Hearth and Home. 

"What a Pity !" a friend said to me, as we 
were walking along the streets of a busy, bust- 
ling town. I turned my eyes toward the object 
which had caused these words, and could not 
help repeating them. "What a pity !" 

And this object we both saw was a large boy — 
or perhaps I might term him a very young man 
about sixteen years old, with a disgusting black 
pipe in his mouth, puffing and blowing the 
smoke from his face at a terrible rate. A glance 
at him sufficed to tell me that he was used to 
the business, and that both tobacco and liquor 
were articles with which he was perfectly con- 
versant. This sight, with a loud, horrid oath 
uttered just at the the same time, told the 
whole story of his degredation. What a pity. 
Yes, it was a pity; and the poor, misguid. d 
boy was a pitiable object. May the glad day 
come when such terrible vices shall be known 

The Secbet of Success. — Klihu Burritt said, 
"Boys, you have heard of blacksmiths who be- 
came mayors and magistrates, etc. What was 
the secret of their success ? Why, they picked 
up pins and nails in the street, and carried 
them home in their pockets. Now, you must 
pick up thoughts in the same way, and fill your 
mind with them; and they will grow into other 
thoughts. The world is full of thoughts, and 
you will find them strewed in your path. 

January n, 1873.] 




Table Use of Oatmeal. 

Oatmeal Breakfast Cake. 

This is made of No. 2 oatmeal, with water 
enough to saturate it, and little or no salt. 
Pour it into a baking tin half an inch or three- 
quarters deep, shake it down level, and when 
this is done it should be so wet that two or 
three spoonfuls of water should run freely on 
the surface. Put it in a quick oven and bake 
twenty minutes. Kat warm. It will be as 
light and tender as the best "Johnny cake," or 
else you have wet it too much or baked it too 
long. This is one of the most accommodating 
baked dishes that can be made. It will do 
very nicely with a little longer time if the oven 
is net quite hot. If it will not bake there at 
all, pour it into a frying pan, cover it close and 
set it on the top of the stove where it will even 
bake in fifteen minutes. 

For a hurried breakfast and a slow coal fire 
it is invaluable. Scarcely any wholesome thing 
in the whole bread line can be prepared more 
readily. It can be made still thinner and 
baked quicker. It is good either crisp or moist. 
For emergencies alone every housekeeper will 
find it convenient to be able to make the break- 
fast cake. Many use oatmeal mixed with buck- 
wheat, wheat or corn for griddle cakes. For 
this use I prefer it cooked first. Take say one- 
half pint of the porridge or the mush, diffuse 
it in one quart of water ani add the wheat 
meal, sifting it in and stirring slowly. 
Oatmeal Pie Crust. 

A long trial proves the thorough adaptability 
of oat meal for that purpose. Take No. 1 meal, 
if possible, wet with half its measure of hot 
water. It can be easily rolled thin enough; it 
will swell but little in baking. It is not so 
white as those pie crusts made of white flour, 
and to the unaccustomed eye not so attractive, 
though that is a matter of taste. To my notion 
they are far preferab'e, even in appearance to 
the crusts soaked in hog's lard, which here in 
the city have earned themselves the suggestive 
sobriquet of "scabs," and they are certainly 
far more wholesome than any shortened pie 
crusts whatever. 

To avoid the unaccustomed appearance, how- 
ever, tarts, pies, and fruit and berry pies of 
many kinds can be without the upper crust or 
the upper crust can be removed after baking. 
Blackberry, raspberry, plum, peach, grape and 
many other kinds of pies can be made in this 
way. The crust bakes very quickly, so that 
any kind of fruit that requires much cooking 
should be cooked before it is put in. It also 
makes very pretty ornaments cut in various 
shapes with cake cutters, and laid upon the 
surface of tart pies; is agreeable to the taste, 
and very few persons would notice the differ- 
ence when made without an upper crust. As 
people come to recognize its wholesomeness 
they will probably be brave enough to eat it 
openly. — Science of Health. 

Beef Soup. 

A correspondent of the American Rural Home, 
says: "I have eaten beef soup at some houses 
where it would bo watery and tastless, evidently 
containing no vegetable but potatoes, and with 
little seasoning, which mixture I never could 
relish. But this is only a counterfeit of the 
genuine beef soup which is a delight to the ep- 
icurean. The way to make it is thus: 

"Take a small joint of beef, (one which can 
be purchased for a shilling or fifteen cents is 
large enough,) and put in a kettle containing 
about four quarts of water — rain water is best 
if it can be obtained pure. Be sure to put it in 
while the water is cold, then put it over the 
fire, and let it boil for three or four hours. 
Then take about eight good-sized potatoes, 
four parsnips, two carrots, six or eight onions, 
and a small cabbage; after paring the potatoes 
and onions, and scraping the parsnips and car- 
rots, chop the whole together, adding a little 
s.immer savory if it suits the taste, and put it 
in the kettle to cook. If rice is preferred for 
thickening it must be boiled by itself and then 
added to the soup; but instead of rice, the 
white of an egg nibbed in flour until it crum- 
bles into small pieces, is thought best by some; 
either is good. Soon after the vegetables are 
put in, add the salt and pepper, and let it all 
cook an hour longer, when it will be ready to 
serve. If any of the vegetables mentioned 
should be distasteful to one of the family it can 
be omitted, putting in more of another kind, if 
thick soup ia desired." 

Ironing Without Heat. — A lady of experi- 
ence says that much time and trouble may be 
saved by "ironing" without heat and flatirons. 
When rinsing the cloths, fold course sheets, 
towe's and table cloths in the shape they are 
wanted, and pass them through the wringer as 
tight as possible. Unfold and hang to dry 
where the wind does not blow very hard. They 
will need little or no ironing. The table cloths 
should be dipped in old, sweet, skimmed milk; 
this gives them a luster, and they peed no 

Washing Fluid. — Dr. Quesneville, in the 
Moniteur Scientifique, describes a mode of wash- 
ing which has been widely adopted in Germany 
and Belgium. The operation consists in dis- 
solving two pounds of soap in about three gal- 
lons of water as hot as the hand can bear, and 
adding to this one tablespoonful of turpentine 
and three of liquid ammonia; the mixture 
must then be well stirred, and the linen steeped 
in it for two or three hours, taking care to 
cover up the vessel containing them as nearly 
hermetically as possible. The clothes are af- 
terwards washed out and rinsed in the usual 
way. The soap and water may be reheated and 
used a second time, but in that case half a ta- 
blespoonful of turpentine and a tablespoonful 
of ammonia must be added. The process is 
said to cause a great economy of time, labor, 
and fuel. The linen scarsely suffers at all, as 
there is little occasion for rubbing, and its clean- 
liness and color are perfect. The ammonia and 
turpentine, although their detersive action 
is great, have no injurious effect upon theliuen; 
and while the former evaporates immediately, 
the smell of the latter is said to disappear en- 
tirely during the drying of the clothes. 

Fried Chickens.— Cut up the chickens neatly, 
lay them in a large panful of cold water half an 
hour, to extract the blood. Then drain and 
put in just enough boiling water to cover them, 
season with pepper and salt, parboil for twenty 
minutes. Fry crisp and brown .some thin 
slices of salt pork. When the chicken is suffi- 
ciently parboiled, drain it from the water and 
lay each piece into the hot pork-fat. Dust 
over some flour, and fry the chicken a clear 
brown. When done on both sides, lay each 
piece on the platter, neatly, and place where it 
will keep hot but not dry. Now shake from 
the dredge box into the fat enough flour to ab- 
sorb the fat. Do not stir till all the flour is 
saturated, then with a spoon stir smooth and 
pour in, little by little, enough of the water in 
which the chicken was parboiled which should 
be kept boiling — to make white gravy, you 
need to stir it all the time. When thickened 
and free from lumps, pour over the chicken 
and serve hot. 

To Clean Silveh or Gold Lace. — Lay the 
lace smooth on a woolen carpet or piece of 
woolen cloth, and brush it free from dust, then 
"burn" alum, (that is, remove its water of 
crystalization), powder it fine, and afterwards 
sift it through a lawn sieve. Rub it over the 
lace with a fine brush, and it will restore its 
brightness, if it be not too much worn on the 

Arrowroot Biscuits for Invalids and Chil- 
dren. — Rub together three-quarters of a pound 
of sugar and the same weight of butter, until 
they rise, beat three eggs well and mix with it, 
then stir in two cups of sifted arrowroot and 
two cups of sifted flour, roll them out thin 
cut them with a buiscuit cutter, place them in 
buttered tins, and bake them in a slow oven. 

A Convenient Dining Table. — The dining 
tables of the Oneida Community are made 
double, and the central part revolves; the 
dishes and articles that everybody has occasion 
to use are placed on this revolving portion, and 
each one waits on himself, by turning it until 
the thing wanted is in front of him. 

German Coffee Bread. — Take two teacup 
fuls of hop yeast dough, add two eggs wel 
beaten, three table spoonfuls of sugar, two o 
butter, mix well, roll out and place on buttered 
tin, spread a little butter on the top, sprinkle 
on white sugar, add cinnamon and set to rise; 
bake slowly. 

Hyacinths in Sponge. 

Charles Reese, of Enderby, Maryland, gives, 
in the Country Gentleman, the results of an ex- 
periment which he made last December, in 
growing hyacinths in sponge. Remembering 
the slow growth of the bulbs in glasses, often 
not coming into bloom until near spring, he 
pondered whether there is not some substance 
in the great laboratory of nature, more closely 
resembling the soft, warm bosom of the earth, 
than the hard, cold glass. The sponge sug- 
gested itself to his mind as possessing just the 
qualities required: "Soft, warm and yielding; 
power of capillary attraction perfect; porous, 
admitting freely the fruitful atmosphere through 
a thousand tiny apertures; powerful absorbent 
and evaporator of moisture, and besides all this, 
an animal substance, and doubtless filled with 
nitrogenous matters, which dissolving in the 
water, will act as fertilizers to the plants; 
or if they be not there in sufficient quantities, 
they may be placed in the water with the same 
result — liquid manure." 

He took a large sponge, made incisions about 
three inches deep and two long, inserted bulbs 
in them, the sponge closing over their tops, 
permitting only the points to appear above the 
surface. He then placed the sponge filled with 
the bulbs in the top of a large vase, and filled 
the vase by pouring water through the sponge 
until about one-half the sponge is below the 
water. The water was slightly warmed, and 
being kept in a warm room was not allowed to 
become cold. 

In two or three days the bulbs began to shoot 
their spires upward, giving promise of success, 
and in two or three weeks they were five or six 

inches high. About this time, in order to hide 
the unsightly appearance of the sponge, I scat- 
tered a few thimblefuls of rape seed over the 
surface between the bulbs, which sprang up al- 
most immediately, and covered it entirely with 
a fine moss like mantle, adding greatly to the 
beauty of the experiment. 

Desiring to give the knowledge and usefulness 
of the discovery and the enjoyment of its beauty, 
I now had it taken to my store in town, where it 
soon became an object of interest to great num- 
bers of ladies who watched its progress almost 
daily, until the bright flowers, moro radiant 
than 'Solomon in all his glory,' unfolded their 
shining petals, filling the air with fragrance 
and astonishing everyone with their unusually 
large size and perfect forms. The experiment 
was pronounced a complete success. 

Agricultural and Industrial 

B O O I£ « . 

For Sale at this Office. 

American Manures, and Farmers' and Planters' 
Guide — comprising a description of the elements and 
composition of plants and soils — the theory and prac- 
tice of composting — the value of stable manure and 
waste products, etc., etc.; also chemical analysis of 
the principal manufactured fertilizers — their assumed 
and real value — and a full expose of the frauds prac- 
tised upon purchasers. By Wm. H. Bruckner, Ph. D., 
and J. B. Chynoweth. Price $2, post paid. Address 
Dewey & Co., this office. 

The Fruits and Fruit Trees of America, or 

the Culture, Propagation, and Management, in the Gar- 
den and Orchard, of Fruit Trees generally, with descrip- 
tions of all the finest varieties of Fruit, Native and 
Foreign, cultivated in this country. By A. J. Downing. 
Illustrated; 1098 pages; 1869. The best authority, and 
only complete work. Price, in cloth and gilt, $5, post 
paid, by Dewey & Co., this office 

New American Farm Book — originally by R. L. 

Allen: revised by Lewis F. Allen, 1871. Embracing in- 
formation on all general subjects pertaining to Farming 
and all branches of Husbandry— a wide range, yet very 
fully and ably treated . 52(i pages. Price $3, post paid. 
Address Dewey II Co., this office. 

Thresher's Guide and Farmer's Friend — by D. 
Hollihan, a Californian, and a practical thresher for 
over fifteen years. It contain^ facts and hints of great 
value to those specially interested, who thresh or em. 
ploy threshers. Published by DEWEY & CO., at this 
office. In flexible cloth, ?1. Post free. 

Harris (Joseph) on the Pig. Breeding, Rear- 
ing, Management and Improvement. Illus., 250 pages, 
1870. Interesting to all readers; instructive and full of 
hints to raisers. Price $2, post paid from this office. 

Cranberry Culture, by a Practical Grower in 
N. J.. Joseph J. White. A special treatise of 126 pages, 
Post paid from this office. $1.75. 

Farm Implements and Farm Machinery, and 

the principles of their construction and use. W itn simple 
and practical explanations of the Laws of Motion and 
Force as applied on the Farm; by John J. Thomas ; 287 
illustrations and 302 pages. Sold by Dewey & Co., post- 
paid, for $1.75. 

Ten Acres Enough: A practical experience, 

showing how a very small farm may be made to keep a 
very large family, with extensive and profitable experi- 
ence in the culiivation of the smalfer iruits. Tenth 
edition, 1871. Price, post free, $1.50, at this office. 

Observations on the Culture of Silk in 

California. By I. N Hoag, of Sacramento. 1870. 
Pamphlet, 33 pages. For sale by DEWEY & CO. 
Publishers of the Pacific Rural Press, San Francisco 
Post paid, 25 cts. 

Cotton Culture; by J. B. Symon; with an ad- 
ditional chapter on Cotton Seed and its uses. 190 pages, 
1868. Price, post free, $1.75, at this office. 

How Crops Grow: by Johnson; A treatise on 
the chemical composition, structure and life of the plant, 
for all students of agriculture; with illustration and 
analysis. 394 pages ; 1888. Post free from this office, $2.50. 

American Grape Growers' Guide; by Wm. 
Chorlton (N. Y ) 204 pages, 1852. Post free, $1, from this 

American Fish Culture, embracing all the de- 
tails of artificial breeding and rearing of Trout, and the 
culture of other fishes; by Thad. Norris. Illustrated, :i04 
pages, 1868. Post free from this office, $2.50. 

How Crops Feed; Johnson, 1870. On the At- 
mosphere and the Soil as related to the nutrition of agri- 
cultural plants. Illustrated. 375 pages. Post free from 
this office, $2 50. 

New Inventions. 

A Grate Bar that don't burn out, for furnaces. 

Shears for cutting grapes and flowers. 

A new Roller Skate that is superior to all others. 

A Drinking Fountain for fowls. 

A superior Roao Scraper. 

The cheapest and best Farm Fence ever built. 

A Post Driver that every farmer should have. 

An improvement on Dental Plates to hold them 
firmly in the mouth. 

A new Furnace for roasting ores. 

A Sash Tightener that keeps out all dust, takes the 
place of weights, and keeps the windows from rattling. 

A Bed Spring that never gets out of order. 

A machine that packs, sacks and weighs flour. 

A Sand Cap that keeps all dust out of hubs. 

A Potato Digger that will dig a row as fast as a man 
can walk. 

A Household Tool that should be in every family. 

A self-acting Nut Roaster that works to perfection. 

A new Gas Lamp that costs only half a cent per hour 
to burn. 

An improvement in Thtll Attachments. 

A superior Cider and Wine Press. 

The best Self-opening Gate ever invented. 

A Plow on a new principle— it works to perfection in 

A new Vegetable Cutter for house uso. 

An improved Plow Clevis. 

A simple, cheap and perfect Polishing and Fluting 
Iron combined. 

A Toy Engine that every boy should have for in- 

A new Glass Cutter that beats a diamond. 

A Can Opener that cuts any shaped hole and every 

The best Wash Boiler ever invented. 

An Egg Beater — that beats eggs in one minvite. 

A Wall Protf.ctor for placing behind wash stands. 

A new Sulphuret-Saving Machine. 

The Little Giant Corn Shelleu, for $1.50 by mail. 

A Knife Sharpener that should bo in every kitchen. 

A Corn Hcsker that husks 400 bushels per day. 

The best machine to Clean Grain m the world. 

A new Hod Carrier, just out. 

We invite parties who feel interested in any of the 

above named inventions to call and examine samples or 

send for a descriptive circular of the article. We have 

also many other valuable patents on hand for negotiation. 

WIESTER & CO., Patent Brokers, 

}7 New Montgomery street, San Francisco. 



Wine and Brandy Manufacturers' 


Will meet in Masonic Hall, corner K and Sixth streets, 

Sacramento, Wednesday, January 15th, 1873, 

at 2 o'clock p. m. 

Duplicates of Wines and Brandies exhibited at last 
Fair will be examined, the Premiums then awarded an- 
nounced $nd paid, the Premium List for next year 
agreed on, provision made for exhibition of our grape 
products at Vienna, steps taken to secure proper re- 
duction of National Taxes, Essays read on various sub- 
jects of interest to the industry, and such other business 
as may come before the meeting transacted. The meet- 
ing will be continued from day to day so long as neces- 
sary. By order. 
•M- 21 I. N. HOAG, Secretary. 

Ranch for Sale 


260 Acres, situated about four miles northeast of 
the City Hall, Oakland, and just above Fruit Vale, in 
Brooklyn Township. One hundred acres or more have 
been tilled. The whole is favorably located and well 
suited for a milkman's dairy. The dwelliug house con- 
tains eight rooms, hard finished. Barn, 40x100 feet. It 
is bountifully supplied with sweet spring water, be- 
sides being watered by several creeks. There is also a 
lino sulphur spring, with a large and constant flow of 
mineral water. 


Of well proved quality will be sold with the balance of 
the place if desired. It possesses special natural ad- 
vantages superior to any other tract of land within the 
same distance from San Francisco and Oakland. The 
title is perfect, and the place has been in the possession 
of its present occupant for 12 years. Will be sold at a 
low price. Part of the purchase money can remain on 
security. The property should b6 seen to be appreci- 
ated. Apply to A. T. Dewey, 338 Montgomery St., S. F., 
or to Geo. W. Thompson, on the premises. 



2 iv post sr .rfasit^ 

'SAN FRANCISCh^ 2 ™^! 

Pacific. It educates thoroughly for business. Its course 
of instruction is valuable to persons of both sexes and 
of any age. Academic Department for those not pre- 
pared for business course. Open day and evening 
throughout the year. Students can commence at any 
time. Full particulars may be had at the College 
Office, 24 Post street, or by sending for Heald's Col- 
lege Journal. 

Address E. P. HEALD, 

President Business College, San Francisco. 




Devoted to the Interests of Southerit 

J. A. JOHNSON, Editor and Proprietor. 

As the charming character of Southern California, and 
more especially that most favored section called Santa 
Barbara, becomes known to the world, it is not surpris- 
ing that a widespread and growing interest in this re- 
gion should be awakened. It is the constant aim of the 
Press to furnish perfectly reliable information on all 
points of interest to tourists, invalids and home-seekers, 
which we are now able to do with greatly increased fa- 
cilities. While the Press seeks to promote the pros- 
perity of all Southern California by all legitimate and 
honorable methods, it is more directly interested in the 
growth and coming greatness of Santa Barbara. The 
unequalled loveliness of the climate, its almost incred- 
ible healthfulness, the beauty of the scenery, the won- 
drous variety and fertility of the soil, the almost un- 
limited range of products which flourish there without 
irrigation, will be made known by facts which cannot 
be controverted, in the columns of the Press, from time 
to time. Any intelligeat person can become familiar with 
this part of the State by reading the Press for a year. 

Terms of the Daily, per annum $6 00 

Terms of the Weekly, per annum $2 60 

Currency and Post Office Money Orders taken at par. 
W. E. Loomis, L. P. Fisher and Thos. Boyce, San 
Francisco, are authorized to receive subscriptions to 
the Press. 

A Word to Advertisers. — As a simple matter of fact, 
without a word of brag, it is claimed that the Santa 
Barbara Press has a much larger circulation than any 
other newspaper in Southern California, and is mainly 
read by the moro thrifty families of that part of the 
State, and its advantages to advertisers are obvious. 
Our rates are moderate, and within the reach of every 
man who has a business worth advertising. L. P. 
Fisher and Thos. Bovce are our advertising agents for 
San Francisco, though we always prefer to deal directly 
with advertisers. Address simply Press, Santa Bar- 
bara, California. bplt 


A small lot of PEERLESS POTATOES for sale at $1 .00 
per pound, which the undersigned will forward to any 
address, by mail or express, prepaid. 



Pleasanton, Alameda County, Cal. 

Los Angeles County Lands. 

Farming Lands in Los Angeles County for sale, in 
sections and quarter sections, at reasonable prices an d 
on accommodating terms — 6ay, one-fourth cash and 
balance in one, two and three years, with interest at 10 
per cent., payable annually. Apply at the offico of th e 
Company, No. 542, corner Market and Montgonie ry 
streets, over the Hibernia Bank, San Francisco, or tc 
the agent, W. R. OLDEN, Anaheim. 12v3tf 

N. J. AIK.IN, M. D., 
J?liysioian and Snvg'eoii. 

Office, 137 Montgomery street, corner Bush, opposite 
Occidental Hotel, San Francisco, Cal. 

Office hours, 9 to 3 and 4 to 8. Sundays, 12 to a. 


9Jkj&sst@ sotbas spmmss, 

[January n, 1873. 

Technical Education. 

Prof. D. C. Gilman, before the Mechanic 
Arts College, Mechanics' Institute Hall, S. F: 

Lbctcbb 1. Jan. 4. — The first lecture of the 
course to be delivered before the Mechanic Arts 
College, by the provisions of the State Univer- 
sity, was given by Professor D. C^ Gilman, 
President of the University, on Saturday 
evening last. The subject was "Polytechnic 
Schools at Home and Abroad;" The lecture 
was opened under the head of " the relation of 
knowledge to wealth," the speaker stating 
that the subject to be considered is of vital 
importance. It involved two questions: "How 
can we grow wis>er?" and "How can we grow 
richer?" In one of these questions he said 
we are all interested ; in the other we ought to 
be. In communities wisdom and wealth walk 
hand in hand. Individuals do not always find 
this true in their own experience; there may 
be the exceptions to the rule, but the progress 
of nations and States is almost always in di- 
rect relation to their intelligence and educa- 

Respecting Education, Great Changes of Opinion 
Have come about during the last twenty-five 
years, since the time, we will say, when 
men who are still fresh and young, the men of 
forty-five and fifty years of age, completed their 
schooling. This change requires far more at- 
tention than has hitherto been given to theo- 
retical and applied science. The tendency 
toward the study of mathematical, physical 
and natural sciences shows itself in all the 
older colleges, in Cambridge, New Haven, and 
Princeton and Dartmouth. It has secured 
from Congress a grant for the establishment of 
a scientific college in every State of the Union. 
It has entered the old English universities and 
modified their traditional courses. It is unex- 
pectedly becoming the entering wedge by which 
modern ideas are to make their way to Turkey, 
Syria, India, China and Japan, in every one of 
which countries modern science, taught by 
American teachers, is already speaking to those 
who have hitherto been in darkness. What is 
this movement, which is so universally recog- 
nized as important? It is a recognition of the 
fact that 

A Study of the Laws of Nature, 

Of the principles by which the universe is 
shaped and governed; that investigation of 
the rocks, the stones, the seas, the winds, the 
climate, the vegetation, the animal life, the 
human frame, the origin of man, the occult 
forces of light and heat and magnetism, the 
laws of motion and force, in all their intricate 
correlations, is fruitful of good to individuals 
and to nations. 

When this general principle comes to be rec- 
ognized in the school-room or the college, it is 
quickly analyzed into subordinate propositions 
like these: 1st — Eve^body should learn 
something of natural science. 2d — Nobody can 
learn everythiug. 3d — In making the selection 
the practical needs of our circumstances, of 
our own times and their surroundings, should 
not be forgotten; in other words, utility or 
practical advantages should be sought. 4th — 
We must equally plan for the higher wants of 
our higher nature; the development of all our 
intellectual and moral powers, that our infinite 
as well as finite wants may be supplied; in 
other words, to practical skill culture must 
be added. 

Coming among you as a stranger, it has 
given me the greatest pleasure to recognize in 
California the hearty and healthy acceptance of 
these principles; and to find that not only in 
the acts by which the University of California 
were created, and in the doings of the Regents 
and the Faculty, but also in the sentiments 
of the people— educated men and practical men 
alike — there is a manifest determination to 
secure for this State a system of education, 
from the common school to the university, 
which shall bo in harmony with the most en- 
lightened spirit of the age, and which shall 
thus be worthy of the extraordinary gifts here 
bestowed by Nature, and of the equally extra- 
ordinary opportunities here opened to civilized 

The Whole State of California Needs Scientific 

Your mines, your agriculture, your manufac- 
tures and your transportation cry for schools 
and collages in which the young may be 
trained in those branches of sciences which un- 
derlie these modern callings. Elsewhere, and 
under other auspices, I shall endeavor to up- 
hold the interest of the State in technical edu- 
cation. The point of view to be taken this 
evening is that of San Francisco. In every 
community a great city is a miniature State; 
here are crowded together representatives of 
callings; here in the school-house where they 
prepare for life; the market where they sell; 
the manufactory where they produce; and the 
refuge to which they flock in poverty and in 
wealth; here in a compact, accessible mass of 
busy workers, we may study most of the wants 
of the State at lanje. 

Bay District Horticultural, Society. — We 
have received the printed Transactions of this 
society, for the year 1872, with a list of its of- 
ficers and members, Constitution and By-laws 
with the Secretary's Bsport, including essays, 
'ectures, etc. 

The California Short-Horn Breeders' Con- 

Editors Bural, Press:— In September, 1872, 
whilst the Strtte Fair was being held at Sacra- 
mentO) several of the Short-ltorn breeders as- 
sembled and agreed to form a society . There 
being many absent at the time, the meeting 
merely appointed temporary officers, and ad- 
journed to meet in San Francisco on the first 
Monday in February, 1873, it being presumed 
that a larger attendance would be secured at 
that date. 

We have heard nothing of this proposed 
meeting of late, but sincerely trust it will not 
be overlooked, as it is fraught withgreU im- 
portance to the stock interests of the State. 

As the day appointed is near »t hand, we 
think it advisable to make mention of the most 
important subjects which are likely to be- 
brought before this Convention, so as to give 
its members a fair chance of turning them over 
in their minds, and deciding as to what should 
be admitted into their discussions, and what 
should be thrown out, or left to the investiga- 
tion and decision of special committees. 

First. — Where is the line to be drawn, with 
regard to thoroughbred animals ? — it being 
known that there are many such in this State 
whose pedigrees have not for several years past 
been pluced on record. There are many breeders 
in this State whose mere word for the authen- 
ticity of the pedigree would undoubtedly be 
taken by any and every person on this Coast, 
but there are likewise others whose statements 
would be considered unreliable, or, at least, 
doubtful; where, then, is the line to be drawn? 
Should we be justified in accepting the former 
and rejecting the latter ? This is undoubtedly 
one of, if not the most important question to 
be decided by this Convention; it therefore 
behooves its members to give it their most 
careful consideration and unbiased judgment; 
keeping always in mind that the genuineness 
of the pedigree must not merely satisfy the 
present breeders of California, but there should 
be no loophole left open for .those who come 
after them, to pick even imaginary flaws in it, 
and thereby create distrust in all pedigrees 
recorded at or about the present time. 

Secondly. — Should this Association keep a 
record, and appoint a committee to investigate 
the pedigrees of all the Short-horns now in the 
State, and also of such as may hereafter be ten- 
dered for insirtion; or should the whole cara 
and responsibility of their "acceptance as geu- 
uiue and authentic," be left to the editor of the 
American Herd Book, Mr. Lewis T. AlleD, of 
New York, who knows nothing whatever of.the 
standing and character of our breeders and of 
the faith to be placed on their word; and who, 
however honest in his intentions, would, owing 
to the distance he is removed from us, and the 
delay and uncertainty therefrom ensuing in 
making his inquiries and investigations, lie 
liable to be misled and imposed upon by inge- 
nious but not over scrupulous persons, such 
as exist in this State as well as in the East, ami 
such as will crop up all the faster as the Short- 
horn interest is magnified ? 

Thirdly. — It is the duty of this Associa- 
tion to provide means for securing an impar- 
tial judgment on all cattle exhibited at the 
Annual Agricultural fairs held in the several 
districts of this State, and especially at the 
State Fair. To this end its members should 
co-operate with the officers of the societies and 
endeavor to procure the services of men who 
are "experts" on the subject, and moreover, 
are not and have no reason to be biased in 
favor of any certain district or person. 

Fourthly. — It is for this association to decide 
which is the most eligible point for holding 
the State Fair, and by the united action of its 
members to cause the State Agricultural So- 
ciety to hold its Fair at such point as the 
former may designate. 

These, Messrs. Editors, I consider the most 
importaut considerations, which will come un- 
der the notice of the Convention. Folio. 

We give place to the foregoing without en- 
dorsing the views of the writer in regard to the 
power or the right of said Short-Horn Breed- 
ers' Convention, to decide upon the "most eli- 
gible point," for holding] the State Agricultu- 
ral Society's Fair. That point we deem as al- 
ready fixed at Sacramento. 

The Lime Plants. — Prof. Voelcker says: 
Leguminous crops, as peas, beans, vetches, 
saintfoin, clover, etc., all partake of the character 
of the pea, which may be accepted as the type 
of this family of plants. The prevailing min- 
eral constituent of these plants is lime; for this 
reason they are sometimes called " lime 
plants." As we might for this reason expect, 
these plants flourish luxuriantly on lime soils, 
and are cultivated most successfully in limestone 
districts. For the same reason, the addition of 
lime to soils containing but little of this sub- 
stance greatly favors the growth of these crops. 
Another mineral constituent required by these 
plants is sulphur; hence the audition of some 
combination of sulphur is generally attt nded 
with benefit to a crop of this deseription. A 
substance well fitted for this purpose is gypsum, 
or plaster of Paris. This compound, as aiready 
noticed, contains sulphuric acid and lime, and 
on this account may be regarded, as a special 
manure for leguminous plants 

Letter from Col. Younger. 

Eds, Pbess:— Allow me space in your paper, to refuta 
some charges made against two of my Sbort-horn Dur- 
ham cows, "MadalineTalbott" and "Kate Hughes." The 
purity ot this pedigree has been disputed. I have sent 
a statement of the facts to Mr. Louis F: Allen, publisher 
of the A. H. B., but think it proper to have the facts 
published here among those most interested. 

My attention was first called to the charges through 
the kindness of Mr. Wadsworth, editor of the Pacific 
Bural Press, to a letter from Mr. Thos. E. Talbott, of 
Dalhoff, Missouri, published in the Xational Live Stock 
Journal of Nov. last. Trie Journal of that date contains 
a statement from one of the Vanmeters, of Kentucky, 
With the editor's comments and Mr. T. E. Talbott's let- 

The editor in commenting on the statement ami li tt>:r 
in reference to my stock, says: "One of the Vanneters, 
in Kentucky, fur Instance, stated that a grade cow sold 
by his father had been made to figure in the foundation 
of hie herd, with a pedigree that did not belong to her, 
and promised to write out the facts for publication." 
lie then introduces Mr. Talbott. "With the following 
card, conoeming other animals entering into the basis 
of 1Mb herd of Col. Younger," Mr. Thos. E, Talbott 
says in his latter, after speaking of the pedigree, of 
"Kate Hughes:" "The breeding and ownership of "Mad- 
aline Talbott" purports to be the same. Now the facts 
are those: I never bred or owned either of the cowb, 
neither did I ever own "Lucky Lass" (the cow that pur- 
ports to be the dam of these cows,) or any other short- 
horn cow tracing back to Imported "Toting Mary" by 
"Jnplter" ('il70)." I will here correct an error the 
Journal has fallen into, and that Is that these gentlemen 
an speaking of different bows; 1 1 j * - cow "Lucky Lass," is 
the cow they both are speaking about, the dam of "Mad- 
aline Talbott" and "Kate Hughes." I will now proceed 
to give a history of this controversy as far as I know or 
am concerned, or have had any connection with it, con- 
cerning these three cows. 

.Mr. I '.ii ins Oettings, of Liberty. Missouri, owned 
"Lucky Lass," and sold her t\v>> heifers "Madaline Tal- 
bott" and "Kate Hugh's," one under two, and the other 
under one-year old, to Mr. Milton Dale and Paley Car- 
penter f or $800. and refused one thousand dollars lor 
"Lnoky Lass" from these parties. That was In 1880, I 
think." They Imported them to California the same 
year. Now on the 36th of November, 1881, Mr Dale 
sold "Madeline Talbott" and "Kate Hughes" to CO. 
Peters. Mr. Peters sold them tome; Mr. Dale at the 
time di Uvered to me a certificate of pedigree of "Lucky 
Lass." signed by B. F. Yamnetcr, it being the same 
given to him by Mr. Darius clottings, of Liberty, Mo., 
when ho purchased them, and has smce made a ccrtili- 
cate to that fact. 

I will now give a copy of both certificates: "Lucky 
Lass," Hoan by Wellington, dam, certificate by "Young 
Prince Albert," grand dam "Crazy Jane" by .John Itau- 
dolph," gr. dam "Old Pink" by "Ooldnnd. i 
"John Randolph" by "Ooldfind.T" (2066) dam "Young 
Plnllisis," (E. H. B. vol. :!, p. 670) "Young Prince 
Albert," raised by Dr. Watts of Ohio, was by "Prince 
Albert;" he by "Walter," dam was "Lady Parcton;" 2nd 
dam by "Prince Charles Wellington" (8*6) was bred by 
A. lienich of ('lark county, Kentucky, got by 
Paragon," dam "Blossom" by 'Cossack,'" (:t.",0il) gr. dam 
"Miss Franklin" by "Franklin," (3834) gr. gr. dam, 
"Hanot" by "Young Waterloo;" (3817) gr. gr. gr. dam. 
by "Hero" (Ulii) "Young Paragon" by "Ashland" 
(11132) dam "Thames" by "Shakespeare" (13063) gr. 
dam "Lady of the Lake" by "Reglnor" ('•Till",) gr. gr. 
dam, "Roseol Sharon." B. F. Vanjh 

"i, Milton Dale of Y'olo county, California, certify 
that, the above pedigree was delivered to me by Darius 
(Jeddings of Clay county, Mo,, as the pedigree of the 
dam of "Madaline Talbot" and "Kate Hughes." Signed 
by Vanmeter. November B8d, 1ST'. 1 . Milton Dale. 

Now the mistake I made was in giving Mr. T. E. Tal- 
bott of near St. Charles, Mo., the credit of breeding 
• o heifers, when I had not the r emo test knowl- 
edge of him, for up to that time I had not seen a herd 
book or I could have learned who he waa. 

\\ hi D I bought these two heifers in 1801, I asked Mr. 
Dale, who imported "Lucky Lass" from Ky. to Mo., he 
said he did not know, but either Mr. Oettings or Mr. 
Talbott, of Liberty, Mo., did, but was inclined to the 
opinion that it was Talbott; his reason for thinking so 
was that Talbot had imported, and he was not sun Set- 
tings had, and thought most likely that Talbott had sold 
■'Lnoky Lass" to Mr. Oettings. When I was making my 
arrangements to send my pedigrees on for record, I 
wrote to Mr. Dale for this information, and also Mr. 
Talbott's given name, he being absent from the State, I 
got no answer. This very point was discussed between 
Mr. O. N. Swezy, of Marysvillc, Cal., and myself, who 
was assisting me. He asked what was Mr. Talbott's in- 
itials; my answer was that I could not recollect, al- 
though I knew him well before I left Mo., I had been 
from there since 1851, and had forgotten. Mr. Swezy 
said he had seen the name of a Mr. T. E. Talbott in the 
herd book, and he lived in Mo., and thought he must be 
the Talbott of Liberty, Mo., so we adopted the initials. 
for the reasons above stated, and Mr. Swezy remarked 
if it should turnout tot be a mistake it could be corrected 
in the 12 vol., A. H. B. Now this mistake brought out 
this card of Mr. T. E. Talbott's denying that he ever 
owned or bred either of these heifers; his statement is 
true, and it was his duty as a gentleman to make it pub- 
lic. I was not aware of my mistake until I had read 
Mr. Talboti s letter in The Live Stoek Journal. 

I will here say that I knew Mr. John Talbott (for that 
was his name) for many years before I left Mo., and no 
man has left a purer reputation. Mr. Oettings I knew 
much longer, as an honorable high-minded gentleman 
ho has no superior; he is still living at Liberty. Mr. 
Dale and Mr. Peters I have known from their boyhood; 
they are honorable gentlemen and stand high in the 
community in which they live. These heifers and this 
certificate coming to me through these gentlemen, 
knowing them to be reliable in every sense of the word, 
how could I come to any other conclusion than that this 
certificate is genuine, and is what it purports to be, the 
podigree of " Lucky Lass" and she was owned by Oettings , 
and that she is the dam of my two heifers, and should 
stand as a fact until disproved. I will now call atten- 
to the fact that the information given by "One of the 
Tanmeters in Ky." to the editor of the Journal was be- 
fore the Nov. number was published. Now, about the 
Hth of July last I received a letter from Abraham Van- 
meter, of Winchester, Ky., asking for information about 
"Madaline Talbott" and "Kate Hughes," and those of 
similar pedigree — here is the letter. 

Niar Winchester, Ky., July 6th, 1872. 

Mr. Coleman Y'ounger:— San Jose, Santa Clara Co., 

— Allow me to ask, where and from whom you 

got the cows or heifers "Madaline Talbott," "Kate 

Hughes" and others of similar pedigree, running as you 

have them through "Lucky Lass" by Wellington 2366. 

Certificate by "Prince Albert 2d," 857 "Crazy Jane," 
by John Randolph, 603, etc., etc. If you will give me 
all the d, sired information you know and can get In re- 
gard to the pedigrees, and all the persons connected 
with the pedigrees and with Bending the cows to Califor- 
nia: and find out if you can where they first originated, 
I think I can give you some information in regard to 
them yon would like to nave, provided you can tell mi- 
all you know and can find out about them. Let me hear 
on as soon as you can. Direct yours to 

Truly, Abraham Vanmetir. 

This letter was answered within a few day- 
must have got it before the 38th of July, giving the in- 
formation aBked for, andalso a copy of B. F. vanmeter'l 
certificate of pedigree to "Lucky Lass" in the letter, 
with the request to give me any information he could, 
so if there was any errors, I might get it in time to make 
the corrections in the 12th Vol. A. H. B. Yon will see 
from his letter he promised me the information "You 

woold like to have;" he has had that letter and copy of 
certificate since the last of July, and if he has any lnfor. 
inaiion "You would like to have" he has kept it from 
me, or at h-ast given it a singular direction to reach me. 
Whs it the copy of the certificate of pedigree of "Lucky 
Lass," that closed his|corfespondence and prevented me 
from getting the information "You would like to have/' 
why did he not give me the information he gave to thl 
Journal, and also the information he promised to writs' 
out and publish— I repeat the question, why did he 
withhold that information from me after he had prom- 
ised it. Was the letter to entrap me? No gentleman 
with whom I have had the pleasure of corresponding, 
has come so far short of complying *l<h his prom- 
ise as this same Abraham Vanmeter, He says bi* 
father sold a graded cow and she was "Made to figure In 
the foundation of my herd;" was that cow "Lucky 
Lass?" was she a grade cow? well who gave the certifi- 
cate of pedigree to her? B. F. Vanmcter's name is to It. 
Now my conclusions are that he knows nothing about 
it, or, has forgotten. The. certificate says she is a thor- 
oughbred cow. Now it th's ct-rttnoate does not belong 
to the cow, "LUoky Lass," owned by Mr Oettings, what 
"Lucky Lass" does it belong to, and was she a grad r 
cow! Will he Bay this is a grade certificate? I think 
not. I see inthe Dec. number of the Live Stock Journal 
the proceedings of the National Convention of Short- 
Horu Breeders, Mr. Lewis F. Allen, the publisher of the 
A. H. l:.. made a speech in vindication of his course in 
admitting pedigrees to record, and among others that 
was complained of, was these two heifers that Vanmeter 
wrote to me about; he said, "Mr. Vanmeter, 1 under- 
stand, produced some very fine cattle. A gentleman 
from California says he has a herd descended from two 
cows that was said to have been purchased of Van- 
meter. Mr. Vanmeter wrote to Mr. Youngeri of Cali- 
fornia about them, and it appears Mr. Younger had 
bought them through three different hands. My infor- 
mation was through Mr. Younger of California, whose 
letter I have here." Now what letter was this? it must 
have been the letter wrote to A. Vanmeter, for I have 
not written to anyone else on that subject; so Vanmeter 
must have given Mr. Allen that letter with an explana- 
tion, and that was, take this letter of Mr. Younger's, 
and tell that Convention how he got those cows, that 
other parties have swindled him, but don't say any- 
thing about the certificate signed by B. F. Vanmeter. 

oopied into that letter, it is a fraud. If Mr. 
Allen had known as much about It as 1 did, he would 
have read tlie letter and certificate to that convention, 
and in ju- tiee to others, as well as myself, I think he 
ought to have done so: I know that Mr. Allen U 
be was meeting out justice to all parties from the iofor. 
mation ami explanation I BUppose he got from Van; 
meter. We here find this same Vanmeter who was to 
give nie information "You would like to have," with 
holding, or, causing to be withheld as I suppose, from 
that Convention, that ought to have been before it. 
Mr. Allen made a mistake in saying that I had said I 
had "two cows that was said to have been purchased- 
from Vanmeter." I have never intimated anything of 
that kind; the controversy is about "Lnoky Leas," the 
dam of Madaline, Talbott and Kate Hughes. This 
whole matter sifted down to the bottom, resolves itself 
w questions of fact : Did B. F. Vanmeter give 
this certificate of pedigree to "Lucky Lass?" if he did, 

v Mr. D. Cr.-ttings of Liberty, Mo., owned, 
called by that name, the cow meant in that pedigree? 
Now if that is true, then the matter is settled in my fa- 
vor; if this certificate doeB not apply to her. then what 
"Lucky Laes" docs it apply to? The certificate says she 
is the cow Mr. Oettings gives that certificate to Mr 
Dale & Carpenter as the pedigree of his cow called 
"Lucky Lass" the dam of the two heifers he sold to 
them. ' Mr. Dale transferred that certificate to me when 
I bought them, and but a short time since append.'. 1 a 
certificate to the truth of it. Whils writing this, 
[received a letter from 9. N. Swezy of Marysvillo, 
reaffirming statements made above. Here it is: 

M \kvsvili.e, Dec. 17tb, 1872. 
CotOBEL Clemax ToUMUKB : Dear Sir— I have 
recently read a letter from Thomas E. Talbott, of 
Dalhoff, Mo., of the date of October 13th, 1873, pub- 
lished in the National Live Stock Journal , in relation to 
the pedigrees of your two cows. "Kate Hughes" and 
Madaline Talbott, In which ho denies that he ever 
bred . r owned them or their dam, " Lucky Lass." That 
we have fallen into the error of using bis name is most 
likely. You called upon me to aid you in the preparation 
of the pedigrees of your fine, large herd of Short Horn 
Durhams, for entry in the Herd Book, as you had no 
knowledge in that line and no volumes of the Herd 
Book) and I having the only complete Bet then in the 
state. I found your farm-book, 6howing a complete 
registry of your breeding, in a most complete condition. 
You had the pedigrees of most of your stock complete. 
You had also the certificate of B. F. Vanmeter of the 
pedigree of " Lucky Lass," the dam of " Kate Hughes" 
and " Madaline Talbott." So far we experienced no 
trouble. A question arose as to who had imported 
" Lucky Lass" into Missouri, and consequently bred 
from her "Kate Hughes" and "MadalineTalbott." 
You stated to me that Mr. Milton Dale, one of the par- 
ties who brought these cows to California, informed you 
that either Mr. Oeddings or Mr. Talbott, of Liberty, 
Mo., did, and that he believed it was Mr. Talbott 
Neither you nor your wife, although formerly ac- 
quainted with this gentleman, could recollect his 
given name. I therefore suggested that my Herd Books 
might reveal his full name. Accordingly I took home 
with me all your papers, etc., and made an examina- 
tion of the Herd Book. Hi doing so I found that 
the only breeder in Missouri of that name, up to about 

Mr. T. E. Talbot, and from that fact believed 
I had obtained the proper initials of tho Mr. Talbott 
whose given name you so anxiously desired to obtain. 
This 1 informed you of, and you with myself justly be- 
lieved we were correct In adopting T. E. as Mr. Tal- 
bott's name. As it turns out the matter can be easily 
arranged now. Y'ou can, as I suggested, when the pedi- 
grees were being forwarded, correct any errors In the 
subsequent volumes. The error should tot have oc- 
curied, but we were pressed for time being anxious to 
have the pedigreeB appear in the 11th Volume, and so 
did not write to Mr. Talbott himself. Yon can now 
write and obtain his correct initials and learn any other 
facts you may desire, and make the correction in the 
next volume. The Herd Book is full of similar correc 
tions. The error does not detract from the pedigrees of 
the animals, and as there was no intention to wrong any 
one, no injury was done. Respectfully youra, etc., 

G. N. Swezy. 
I will conclude this article, by 6aying that I have 
otler evidences to give if it was necessary, to substanti- 
ate the statements made above. Coleman Younger. 
San Jose, Cal., Jan. 6th, 1873. 

From Tulare. 

Editor Peers. — It commenced to rain here 
on the evening of 22d of December, and con- 
tinued almost without intermission for a week. 
Everything is looking encouraging for the 
farmers this year, and most of them are busy 
plowing and putting in crops. The ground is 
in splendid condition for plowing and plenty of 
land to plow. Settlers are coming in all the 
time, and taking up government lund; but there 
is room for a good many yet. The weather 
continues warm and pleasant, and the grass is 
springing up all over the plains. Cattle and 
sheep men are in high spirits over the pros- 
pects of a plentiful supply of feed neit season. 

Kingston, Jan. 7th, 1873. 

G. H. Payson. 

January n, 1873.] 

Rain-fall in San Joaquin Valley. 

Eds. Pkess:— The amount of rain for the sea- 
son to January 3d, at this point is as follows: 

Oct and Nov 0.28 inches 

Dec 4.70 " 

Jan 0.11 " 

Total 5.09 •' 

This will be seen to be about half the amount 
reported for the same time in San Francisco. 

The same is true of the entire rain-fall last 
winter at San Francisco, and in this portion of 
San Joaquin Valley. The amount at San Fran- 
cisco -was some 34 inches and here only 17. 

A friend informs me that the amount in the 
Alabama Settlement, in Fresno Co., GO miles 
southeast of here for December, was about 4.50 

No season for five years has opened so favor- 
ably for grain as the present. J. w. a. w. 

Turlock, Jan. 4th, 1873. 

Proposed Lectures. — Professor E. S. Carr, 
well known as a pleasing and instructive lec- 
turer, has been requested by a number of par- 
ties interested in industrial andmechanics' arts, 
to deliver a series of lectures in Oakland on sub- 
jects as his judgment indicates, would be for 
their benefit. The request has been published 
in the Oakland News, and is quite complimen- 
tary to the Professor. 

Annual Meeting-.— The Annual Meeting of the 
State AaBicuLTUBAi, Society for the election of officers 
for the ensuing year, and for the transaction of other 
business, will be held at Agricultural Hall, corner of 
Sixth and M streets, Sacramento, on the 22d day of 
Januarynext, at 12 o'clock, noon. A general attendance 
is requested. By order of the Board, 
jll ROBERT BECK, Secretary. 

Our Weekly Market Review. 

[By our own Reporter.] 

Wednesday, m., Jan. 8th, 1873. 

With the new year, we have still to chronicle an im- 
proved tendency in the price of wheat, our principal 
domestic staple. In fact so great is the demand for ex- 
port that exporters are complaining before the Board of 
Harbor Commissioners of want of facilities. At the 
present rate we shall very probably have got rid 
of all our available surplus long before next harvest. 
Bye is scarce and the price of Buckwheat nominal. 

RECEIPTS.— Receipts of Bay produce since the New 
Year have begun to come in more freely though Flour, 
Middlings, Potatoes, Beans, Hay, Straw, and Onions are 
much behind what they were three weeks ago. We how- 
ever have to chronicle larger receipts of Barley and Oats 
than for some time past. 

We summarize receipts of Bay produse to date as 
17,497 quarter sacks of Flour; 213,938 centals of Wheat; 
4,223 do of Barley; 781 do of Oats; 729 do of Middlings; 
1,890 do of Bran; 2,715 do of Potatoes; 300 do of Buck- 
wheat; 163 do of Beans; 68 do of Onions; 63 do of 
Corn; 13 do of Peas ; 32 do of Alfalfa Seed; 2,482 
Hides; 86 bales of Wool; 630 tons of Hay; 65 do Straw; 
33 do of Salt; 13,940 gallons of Wine and 40 do of Brandy. 

Wheat receipts at Oakland Wharf have aggrega ed 
77,000 centals or 38G car loads. 

The coasting craft have brought us the following 
quantities of Domestic Produce from Coast ports: Wheat, 
6,169 centals; Barley, 7,212 do; Oats, 316 do; Corn, 5,024 
do; Potatoes, 12,276 do; Beans, 622 do; Castor Beans, 7 
do; Flaxseed, 22 do; Mustard Seed, 36 do; Wool, 28 bales. 
Hides 78 and 14 pipes, 8 puncheons, 1 bbl., 1 half-barrel 
and 1 three-quarter cask of Wine. All the Wheat, 
save 130 centals from Tomales, arrived from Moss Land- 
ing, more than two thirds of the Barley from Hueneme, 
the balance being from San Buenaventura and Moss 
Landing; chiefly from the former. Tomales supplied us 
with nearly all the Oats; the Beans were divided between 
San Diego, San Buenaventura and Hueneme; so also was 
the Corn, but chiefly from the latter; two-thirds of the 
Potatoes were from Humboldt, and the balance from 
Moss Landing, Tomales, Point Arenas, Pigeon Point and 
Fort Ross, principally from the former; the Castor 
Beans were from San Buenaventura; the Flaxseed and 
Mustard 3eed from Moss Landing; the Hides from Hum- 
boldt, Hueneme and San Buenaventura and the Wool 
from Hueneme and San Buenaventura. 

From Oregon we have received 485 half sacks and 6,10O 
quarter sacks of Flour, 2,113 centals of Barley, 60 do of 
Potatoes and 114 bales of Wool. 

BARLEY.— Barley remains nearly the same. We note 
salesof 900 centals of Coast at $1.30; 400 do. at $1.31!^; 
300 do. Choice, at $1.32}*; 150 do. Bay, at $1.37 J$, 0UO 
do. at $1.40; 500 do. Brewing, at $1.45; and 500 do. at 

FLOUR.— Flour has remained stationary. Exports 
have included 24 half sacks, and 890 quarter sacks per 
"Comet" to Honolulu, 50 bbls. and 20 quarter sacks 
per "Prince Alfred" to Victoria, and 582 quarter sacks. 
to Honolulu, per "Nebraska." 

HAY. — Receipts have been pretty large this week. We 
note sales of ten tons of cow at$16; 20 tons do at $16.50; 
10 tons of fair at 18; and on Monday last a whole 
cargo at 16. 

OATS.— Oats remain Ann on account of the small re- 
ceipts. We note Bales of 150 bags of Dark Coast at 
IJ.02H; 800 do. of fair to choice, at $2.07)4 to $2.25; 200 
do. of fair at $2.10; 1,400 do. of Oregon and 200 do. of 
good at $2.20; and 1,500 do. of various grades at $2.25. 

■POTATOES. — Potatoes have again begun to arrive 
freely from coast ports, and prices though now higher 
than they were a week or two ago must, if the impoit 
continues, again go down. We note sales of 4,200 bags 
of Humboldt, at $1.10 to $1.25; 2,640 do of Monterey, 
at $1.15 to $1.25; 500 do of Cuffe e's Cove, at $1.12>$; 
400 do of Bodega, at $1.05,,and 400 do of Petaluma, at 
90c to $1. 

WHEAT. — Receipts are still large and prices have ad- 
vanced five cents per cental on the highest quality of 
milling. Wheat has risen four cents in the Liverpool 
market being now quoted by telegraph at 12s. 8d. to 12s. 
lOd. Freights are nominally the same as last week, with 
a firm tendency. We quote the following sales: 700 
sacks of fair coast at $1.85; 1,000 do. of dark coast at 
$1.S1H, 1,570 do., inferior shipping, at $i.90; 7,100 do. 
of coast at $1.95; 1,500 do. coast at $1.95 to $2.00; 8,540 
do. of good at $2.00; 6,000 do. of good shipping at $2.05; 
30,800 do. at $2.10, and 11,000 do. of choice shipping at 
$2.12 M- Large quantities are being taken from the 
warehouses on the San Joaquin above Stockton, and the 
equivalent of $2.20 has been paid in the interior of the 

Exports have been unprecedentedly large, five 
cargoes having left on the 4th inst. They include 
per " Nesutan," to Queenstown, 30,674 centals ; 
per "Hamilton Fish," to Liverpool, 42,725 centals; per 
" Satsuma," to Cork, 11,994 centals; per "Thomas 
Bell," to Cork, 26,186 centals; per " Savoir Faire," to 
Liverpool, 44,356 cental; per "Santiago," to Cork, 14,158 
centals; per " Trowbridge," to Liverpool, 39,377 centals; 
per " Thatcher Magoun," to Liverpool, 35,148 centals 
per "Alaska," to Liverpool, 39,323 centals; per •' Ella 
Beatrice," to Queenstown, 14,185 centals; per "Comet," 
to Honolulu, 39 centals; per " Van Dieman," to Liver- 
pool, 31,664 centals; per "Guenissa," to Liverpool, 17, 891, 
and per "Ellena," to Liverpool, 23,267 centals — making 
a total of 13 cargoes and one shipment of 370,936 centals, 
worth $700,309. 

WOOL.— We have shipped overland 20,000,000 lbs 
during eleven months of the past year, and have re- 
ceived 32,800 bales from the interior of the State during 
the same interval. Sales since our last include 45,000 
lbs of Spring and 95,000 lbs of Spring and Fall, at private 
rates. In Boston, California Wool, during the last week 
in December, 1872, brought 40c to 4154c for California 
Spring, 23c to 28c for Fall, and 30c to 37c for choice 


The steamer "China" arrived this week with a small 
cargo of Tea of 11,000 packages, besides 230 bales of 
Silk, 2,700 mats of Rice, 60 bales of Cassia and 4,000 
packages of General Merchandise. The small quantity 
of Tea is explained by the fact that the competition of 
the Suez route with our own line of steamships, is rap- 
idly driving the latter to the wall. A cargo of 2,0^0 
kegs of Hawaiian Sugar arrived during the week. Bus- 
iness has been very quiet in the wholesale line during 
the holidays, but matters are now becoming more 


San Francisco, Wednesday m., Jan. 8, 1873. 


Alviso Mills, bbl .4 25 @6 00 

California 4 25 @6 00 

Oily Mills 4 50 @6 25 

Comme'l Mills. .4 50 g6 25 

Golden Gate 4 60 @6 29 

Golden A*e 4 25 86 00 

National Mills... 4 25 @6 00 
SantaOlaiaMills 4 25 (g(H 00 
Genes, e Mills. . .4 25 (3,6 00 

OreK"n 4 25 (§6 00 

Vallejo Star 4 25 @6 00 

Venus.Oakland..4 25 @8 00 
Stockion City. ..4 25 @6 00 
Lombard. Sh c . . . 4 25 @ — 

Beans sm'l w'iU3 A @ — 

do, butter 4-K(2> — 

do. Urge, do... 5 @ — 

do, bayo S'i& — 

uo, pink 3?ii(g) — 


Perton $40@120 


WheatCal. coastl t-5 <ai 90 
do, shipping.. 2 10 @ — 

do, milling 2 10 @2 15 

do, Ori'gon — © — 

Barley, DarkO'stl 32,'aftul 35 

do, Light 1 32>,<sl 35 

do. Brewing... 1 40 M 50 

Oats, Coast 2 00 fe2 25 

do. Bay 2 25 @ — 

Corn, White 1 40 @ — 

do. Yellow 1 40 (3 — 

Ruckwheat 2 2.5 @ — 

Rye 2 25 (3 — 


Butter.Cal. fresh M'A@ — 
do, ordinay roll 35 @ — 
do, choice .... 40 (<d — 
do, new firkin. — @ — 

do, packed — @ — 

do, New York. 35 wi — 

Cheese, Cal. new — @ — 
do, Eastern . .. 15 (5) — 

Eggs, Cal. fresh 37^(g) 40 

do, Oregon 37J£@ — 

do, Eastern 37J2® — 


Bran per ton.... 26 (3>27>< 

Middlings Xl'Am — 

Hay 16 @ 33 

Stiaw 10 (s) 

Oil cake meal... 35 @ — 

Beef, fr quality.. 8 @ — 
do, second do.. 6^f^ — 
do. third do.... 5>s@ — 

Veal 7 

Mutton 6 

Pork, undressed. 53K@ 6 

do, dressed.... 8 @ 8 


California, 1871, lb — @ — 

do 1872... 37>i@ 40 


Beeswax. per lb.. 32<4 @ 45 

Honey 10 W 25 

Onions 2H@ — 

Flaxseed 3 (§) — 

anary do 4^<flU — 

Mustard do.wite 1&@ — 

do, brown 3 ((2 — 

Peas 3 50 (a) — 

Peanuts per lb... 

Pecan nuts 

Hickory do 

Brazil do 

Prince Almonds.* 100. 12 00 
Alm'dsh'rd shell 12 

do, soft. 23 @ 


Sweet, per lb IMS) — 

Humboldt 1 I0®1 20 

Monterey 1 IOIojI 20 

Tomales 1 @1 10 

Live Turkeys lb. 23 (a> 2.5 
Hens, per dz.... 9 00 (ajlO 00 

Roosters 9 00 ©10 00 

Chickens 6 00 ©8 00 

Ducks, tarae.dozll 00 @12 00 

do, Mallard. ...5 (10 
Gee«e, per doz. 18 00 
0,uail, per doz.. .2 25 
Hare, per doz... 3 50 
Rabbits, per dozl 50 
Larks, per doz .. 75 
Doves, per doz.. 75 
Plover, per doz.. 2 00 
Curlew, per doz.l 50 

Teal, per doz 1 50 

Snipe, Enn., dozl 50 

do, small, doz.. 75 
Venison, per lb.. 8 

Cal. Bacon, per lb 12 @ 
Eastern do 11 © 

do sugared 13 © 

Cal. Hams 14 @ 

Eastern do 16 (a) 

Cal. Smoked Keef 10)6® 

Native, perlb... 12 @ 

California. 25 kit 

Oregon 25 @ 

Hides, dry 18 <B 

do, green salt'd 9 @ 
VA Tallow 8 © 




The supply of tropical fruit is limited; in fact thev may 
be almost said to be out of tbe market. Pears are also out. 
Vegetables, such of them as are quoted in our price list, 
are in plentilui supply. 

Mex.Or.per 1000 — 

Limes, * M — 

Au'lnLemons.bx — 

Malaga do., bx. . . — 

Bananas, "j* bite h3 10 

Pineapples, ^ dz 5 

Applescat'g, bx. 75 

'• Cooking, — 60 

Pears, Eating... 1 00 

Cooking. . 30 

Pomegrans.HlOO — 

Grapes, Mis-ion. — 

Rose of Peru.. — 

Blk Hamburg. — 

Black Prince.. — 

Muscat of Al'r — 

Flame Tokay... — 

Black Morocco 

Wine Grapes.. 

Apples, ¥ ft 6 

Pears.^ft 7 

Peaches,* lb 
Apricots, II ft. 
Plums, ■» ft.... 
Pitted, do f( ft 
Raisin?,* ft... 
Black Figs, * ft 
White, do 12>4@15 


Cabbage, f, ft 1%@— 

Garlic* lb 5 ® 6 

Green Peas 8 ©10 

Green Corn * doz.. — ®— 
Marrow) at Squash 

perton 10 00915 00 

Artichokes.* ft....l 00 ©1 25 
Tomatoes. river*bx. — @— 
Strlne Beans, *tb ... — @— 

Lima Beans — © 8 

Peppers 10020 

Okra 37,';.©10 



Rough, * M $20 00 

Roueh refuse, * M 16 00 

Rough clear,* M 32 50 

Rough clear refuse, M.. 22 50 

Rustic,*M 3500 

Ru-tic, refuse, * M 21 00 

Surfaced, * M 32 50 

Surfaced refuse, * M... 22 50 

Flooring, *M 30 00 

Floorins refuse, * M.. 20 00 
Beaned flooring, $>, M... 32 50 
Beaded floor, refuse, M. 22 50 

Haif-inch Siding. M 22 .50 

Half-inch siding, ref, M. 16 00 
Half-inch, Surlacd.M. 25 00 
Half inch Surf, ret., M . 18 00 
Half inch Battens, M... 22 50 
Pickets, rough,* M.... 14 00 
Pickets, rough, p'ntd... 16 00 
Pickets, fancy, p'ntd.... 22 50 
Shingles, * M. 3 00 

tail Price. 

Rough, *M $25 00 

Flooring and Step, * M 37 50 
Flooring, narrow. * M.. 40 00 
Flooring, 2d quality M. .30 00 

Laths,*M 3 50 

Furring. * lineal ft lc 

Rough.* M $25 00 

Rongh refuse, * M 20 00 

REDWOOD-R?tail Price. 
Rough Pickets.* M.... 18 CO 
Rough Pickets, p'd, M.. 20 (JO 

Fancy Pickets, * M 30 00 

Siding, * M 27 50 

Tongued and Grooved, 

surfaced, * M 40 00 

Do do refuse, * M 27 50 

Halt-inch surlaced.M.. 40 00 

Rustic,* M 42 5U 

Battens, * lineai toot. .. lc 
shingles, * M 3 50 



Eng, stand. Wh't 15 

Flour Sacks lis.. 1 

3. 8>5© 9M 

© 70 
@ — 
© MX 


Stand. Gunnies.. 

" Wool Saoks. — 

" Barley do... 17 

Hessian 40-in gds — 


Costa Rica per ft 18 

Guatemala 18 

Java . 52 

Manilla 16 1 

Rio - 

Ground in cs 22>£i 

Chicory 10 


bundles, * lb . . — 
Salmon in bbls . .7 50 I 

do A bblsl 75 1 

do 2A ft cans — 

do 2ft cans. .3 50 1 

do 1 ft cans .2 50 1 

Pick. Cod. bbls.. 8 — 1 

do A b'lls. — 1 

Pug. Sd. Smok'd — 1 

Herr'g,bn*lb — 
Mack'l^o.l.^bls — 1 
Extra — 

" in kits 2 50 

** mess — 

'* ex. mess.. — ©5 00 
Assorted size.... — 

Stand.Wh Lead. — 

Whitening — 

Chflk — 

Paris White — 

Ochre — 

Venetian Red... — 

Red Lead — 

Litharge — 

China No. 1,* lb 6A@ 

do 2, do. 6i£© 

Japan 6 © 

Patna 1A® 

Hawaiian 9 © 

:11 00 

12 00 

_3 25 

t.3 00 




Castile,* ft 12A@ 

Local brands 5 (g\ 

Allspice, per ft.. 17 @ 

Cloves 23 @ 

C ssia 30 (3) 

Nutmeg §iy-(n\ 

Whole Pepper... 18 
Ground Allspice — 
do Ca-sia.. 35 
Cloves.. 22 
Mustard 25 . 
Gmger.. 2% 
Pepper.. 22^^ 
Mace....l 20 ml 30 
Cal. Cube per ft. 
Circle A crushed 
do granulated 

Golden C 

do Extra.... 


Cal. Syrup in bis. 
do in A bis. 
do in kegs.. 

Cal. Bav.per ton.6 50 ©15 00 

Carmen Island.. 14 00 ©15 00 

Liverpool fine... 24 © — 

do coarse 19 00 ©20 00 


Oolong, Canton.. 19 © 25 

do Amoy... 2S @ 50 

do Formosa 40 © 80 

Imperial. Canton 25 <a 35 

do Pngsuey 45 © 80 

do Moyune . 60 ©1 00 

Gunpo'der.C'ant. 30 © 42!^ 

do Pingsuey 50 © 90 

do Moyune. 65 ©I 25 

Y'ng Hy.Canton " 

do Pingsuey 

do Moyune.. 

Japan, Y 2 chests, 


Japan, lacquered 
bxs,4^and5 lbs 
Japan do. 3 lb bxs . 
do pl'nbx,4MB> 35 10 
doi^Al lb paper 30 © 

























San Francisco Retail Market Rates. 

Wednesday Noon, Jan. 8, 1873 

There are plcntv of vegetables in the market. Mush- 
rooms are plen'y since the lata rains. Pears are giving out 
fast. Pyas are nearly gone ; Siring beans are scarce. 


Apple*, pr lb.... 5 

Pears, perlb 5 

Grapes 6 

Apricots, tt> — 

PineApples.each 50 
Bananas, "■$■ doz. . 75 

Onnteleups — 

"Watermelons... — 
Cal. "Walnnts, lb. 
Cranberries, ^ g 
Strawberries, &> 
Raspberries, tb.. 
Gooseberries*. .. 
Cherries, ^ ft),.. 
Oranges, $ doz.. 
Limes, per doz.. 
Figs, fresh Cal, * 
Figs, Smyrna, lb 
Asparagus, wh.* 
Artichokes, doz.l 00 
Brussel's sprts, * 

Beets, ?do/. 

Potatoes.New^tb 6 
Potatoes, sweet,* 2 
Broccoli, ^doz..2 CO 
Caulitlower.t .. 1 (0 

@ 8 
(3) VIK 
@ 25 


Si oo 


a 35 


& — 


a so 


a 75 


o)l .50 

a) 10 


a 25 


12 50 
M fO 

Cabbage,* doz.. 75 ©1 00 

CarTots, D doz... 

Celery,* doz 

Cucumbers.t. . . . 
Tomatoes, i* tb.. 

Green Peas 

String Beans.... 

Cre68, % doz bun .* 

Dried Herbs, lb.. 35 

Garlio 8 

Green Corn, doz. — 

Lettuce, * doz. . 25 

Mushrooms,* lb 10 

Horseradish,* B) 15 

Okra, dried, * lb 50 

do fresh, * lb. — 

Pumpkins. * lb. 2 

Parsnips, doz. ... ■ — 

Parsley 15 

Pickles,* gal... 50 

Radishes, doz.. 25 

Summer Squash 3 

Marrowfat, do. 3 

Hubbard, do.. 3 
Dry Lima, shl... 

Spinage, * bskt. 25 

Salsify, * bunch 10 

Turnips,* doz.. 20 

20 © 

75 © 



Poultry is soarce and dear. The Christmas glut 
over, the farmers hold back, but there will be plenty in a 
few days and prices will be lower. Game is als j scarce. 

Fish are getting plentilui. Prrclt, Smelts and Halibut 
commenced lo arrive. We quote: 

Chickens, apiecel Oo ©1 25 
Turkeys, * lb.. 30 5 — 
Mai d&Canv'sBkl 00 @ — 

Tame, do 2 00 ©3 00 

Teal, * doz.... 2 50@3 00 
Geese, wild, pair 75 Ml 50 

Tame, * pair. .4 00 ©5 00 
Snipe, *doz... 3 00 
Quails,* doz ...2 50 
Pigeons, dom. do4 50 

■Wild, do — ©2 00 

Hares, each ... - 
Rabbits, tamet. 60 © G2J£ 

Wild,do,*dz. — ©2 00 
Beef, tend, * B). 20 

Corned. * lb.. 10 

Smoked,* lb. 20 . _ 
Pork, rib, etc., lb — @ 12^ 

Chops, do,* B> 15 @ 
Veal,* lb — @ 12% 

Cutlet, do @ 18 

Mutton chops,* 12H© — 

Leg, * tt> — ® 12^ 

Lamb,* ft — @ 20 

Tongues, beef, ea 75 @1 25 
Tongues, pig, ea 75 ©1 00 
Bacon, Cal., * ft — @ 18 

Oregon, do - . 18 © — 
Hams, Cal, * ft. 20 @ 22% 
Hams, Cross' s o 20 © 22!£ 

Choice D'ffleld 20 © 22. 

6 © 

12' 2 'r« 

12 S® 

22 ' 2 
37 ' a 


Whittaker's.. 20 

Johnson's Or.. 20 
Flounder,* ft... 

Salmon, * lb.... 8 

Smoked, new,* 

Pickled,* lb.. 
Rock Cod,* ft.. 
Cod Fish, dry, lb 

Perch, s water, ft 1 

Fresh water, lb 15 ~© — 

Lake Big. Trout* 30 © — 

Smelts,large*ft 15 © 18 

Small do 12>i@ 15 

Silver Smelts... — © — 

Soles, * lb 37%© — 

Herring, fresh * 4 @ 5 

Sm'kd.perlOO — ®1 00 

Tomcod,* lb.... 15 @ 20 

Terrapin, * doz.5 00 @7 00 

Mackerel, p'k, ea 15 © — 

Fresh, do ft . . . — © — 

Sea Bass, * lb... — a — 

Halibut 50 ® 65 

Sturgeon, * ft.. 4 ® 5 

Oysters, * 100... 1 00 @ — 

Chesp. * doz.. 75 ®1 25 

Turbot 50 © 62% 

Crabs * doz....l 00 ® 

Soft Shell 37M® — 

Shrimps 10 © 12 

Prawns — ©1 CO 

Sardines 10 ® — 

Corrected weekly by B. Sbarboro 4 Biio., Grocers, No. 531 

Washington street, San Francisco. 
Butter, Cal. pr lb 60 © 65 

Cheese, tab. lb.. 17 © 23 
Lard. Cal., lb.... 12%© 15 

Flour, ex.furu. bl 6 00 ©6 26 

Corn Meal. lb.... 3 © 3% 

Sunar, wh.crsh'd 12 © 13 

do 9 © HA 

family gr'nd, lb 27% 
Oolfce, green, lb.. 18 @ 22 
Tea, fine blk, SO, 65, 75 ©100 
Tea.finstJup.55,76, 90 ©100 
Candles, Admant'eU © 25 
Soap, Cal., lb.... © 10 
Can T dOysters,dz.2 50 ©3 75 
* Per lb. t Per dozen. 

Syrup.S.F.Gol'n. 45 © 50 

Dried Apples. 
Dr'd Ger.Pi-ttnes 
Dr'd Figs, Cal... 9 
Dr'd Peaches.... 8 
Oils, Kerosene .. — 

Wines. Old Port 3 50 

do Fr. Claret..l 00 

do Cal , 00 

Whisky,O.B,gal.3 50 

Fr. Brandy 4 00 

Rioe, ft ... 10 

iJs© 10 

© 10 
© 10 

(a) 70 
©5 00 

«' I 2.5 
©I 50 
©5 00 
©10 00 

g 12', 

Veast Powders, dz.l 50©2 00 
*i Per gallon. 


We will send on receipt of stamp for 
postage, FREE, our 52-page Circular, 
containing 112 Illustrated Mechani- |K|\/P*dTnpC 
cal Movements; a digestof PATENT ll"Cll I UnO. 
LAWS ; information how to obtain patents, and about the 
rights and privileges of inventors and patentees; list of 
Goverment fees, practical hints, etc., eto. Address DEWEY 
A CO., Publishers and Patent Agents, San Francisco. 

Farmers, everywhere, write for your paper. 

Groceries and Provisions.— Wines and Liquors are 
shipped to country orders with dispatch, carefully 
marked and packed, free of extra charge, by B. Sbar- 
boro & Bro., 5;il Washington street, S. F. This long 
established firm now import their goods from the four 
parts of the world, and consequently undersell all other 
grocers In San Francisco. All orders from the State 
and coast are promptly attended to. Address B. Sbar- 
boro & Bro., Lock Box 1126, San Francisco. dI4-3m 

Notice to Farmers and Others.— Skilled 
plowmen, general farmers, teamsters, laborers, me- 
chanics, servant girls, etc., can be obtained by applying 
by letter or personally, at California Labor and Em- Exchange, 637 Clay street, extending to 630 
Commercial street, San Froncisco. 20v4-3m 

Extra Choice Early Rose Potatoes— For Seed.— 
Acknowledged by all to be the best Early Potato. Se- 
lected and put up in new, double-sewed gunnies, in fine 
order for shipping. For sale in lots to suit. Address 
orders or apply to H. DUTAHD, 217 Clay street, Sau 
Francisco. de21-lm 

Agents Wanted. — The new Revolver Trap winds up 
like a clock. Kills Rats, Gophers, Squirrels, etc. 
Throws them away and sets itself. One Trap, by Ex- 
press, for $1; or postpaid, by mail, $1.50. Combina- 
tion Tool Co., 124 Nassau street, New York. de!4-8t 

There is nothing like leather Shoes with a SILVER 
TIP for children. Try them. They never wear through 
at the Toe, 

For Sale by all Dealers. * 

The Illustrated Pr 



tions. Choice Literature, Art und Refined Amu^ementa. 
Sold by subscription, $1.50 a year. Samples, 15 cents. t 

Contents for Jan. 1873. 

ILLUSTRATIONS— The Polar Bear, Pioneers' First 
View of the Sierras, TlieLite Col. A S. Evans Will it 
be "Yes" or "No," Horace B. Claflin. The Attack on Place 
Vendome, A Christmas Carol, "A Merry Christmas," "A 
Happy New Year," St. Nicholas on His Travels, An I»ish 
Country Dance, Cape Horn— On the Columbia River, How 
to Make Wax Flowers, Old B^ Tray. 

EDITORIALS- Here We Are-Introductory, Palifor- 
nia Pioneers, Letter from President Gilman,Tne Litera- 
ry Journal of the Day, Now and Then, "Turned Out to 
Die," Art Etchings, studio Notes Music, The Drama, List 
of Members of S. F. Art Association, Our Young Folks' 
Corner. Old Fashioned Games, Umbrellas. 

POETRY— Colima. The Lark, A Dream of Home, 
Christmas on the Street Cars, Alphabet of Short Rules, 
The Rabbit on the Wall, Sir Bumble-eebeedontvousee. 

MISCELLANEOUS— A Candidate for the Rope, The 
First American Shin, Conversation in Society, A Legend 
of the Mohawk Valley, Saved in Mid Air, Miss Pert. I 
Thought it My Duty, The Science of Laughi' g, A Beauti- 
ful Fountain, What is Insanity What is Dirt, Too Late, 
Iron and Coal in the U. S., The Origin of Alphabets, The 
Bells, Getting Married, About Dogs, The H<mds, Christ- 
mas Amusements, Witticisms, The Housekeeper, Gems 
of Thought. 
Just issued. Canvassers wanted. Address MURRAY, 

DEWEY &, CO., Publishers. 414 Clay St., S. F. 
Dewey & CO., (Patent AgentO W. H. Murray. 

Brittan, Holbrook & Co., Importers of 

Stoves and Metals, Tinners' Goods, Tof Is and Machines, 
111 and 113 California. 17 and 19 Davis slreets, San Fran- 
cisco, and 178 J btreet, Sacramento. 2v5-ly 



A work of 224 pages on the 

Breeds, Breeding', Rearing 1 and General 

Management of Poultry. 

By WM. M. LEWIS, New York, 1871 ; with over One 
Hundred Engravings. Sold hy Dewet & Co., Rural 
Press office, for $1.75, or sent postage paid for $2.00. 




See description in Pacific Rural Press January 4, 1873. 
Address N. GILMORE, 

2v5-eow El Dorado, El Dorado County, Cal. 

Choirs, Musical Classes, Conventions, 


To the following Choice List of 

New Cantatas! Oratorios! Anthems! 

New and attractive Cantatas. 

Forty-Sixth Psalm Dudley Buck. $1.00 

Festival Cantata Eugene Thuyer. $1.25 

Gounod's Choral Music 50 

Well worthy of careful study. 

Musical Enthusiast Hewitt. .60 

An amusing and very melodious musical extravaganza. 


St. Peter J. K. Paine. $1.75 

Prodigal Son Arthur Sullivan. $1.00 

Fine effective coinpositk u». 


Sabbath Guest Emerson k Morey. $1 .00 

Buck's New Motette Collection $2 60 

Baumbach's Sacred Quartettes [New] $2.50 


Strauss's Dance Music- Violin and Piano $1.00 

The above books sent, post-paid, for retail price. 

CHAS. H. DITSON k CO., New York. 


[January n, 1873. 


Have become 

The Standard Wagons of the Pacific Coast. 

Fo» Quality, 


Light Rtjnntno, 

Good Fbopobtion, 

and Excellent Style, 

Tliey Have no Peer. 
Ibon Axle, 

Thimble Skein, 

Headeb and 

Spbino Wagons, 
Of all sizes, with heavy tikes rivited on, always on 
hand and sold lor $100 to $165. 

Having established a Mantjitactoby to build Wagonb, 
Beds, Brakes and Seats, I am better prepared than 
ever to furnish 

Just the Kinds of Wagons Needed, 

I make a specialty of the wagon tbade. 

The attention of Deaiebs Is especially requested. 

Send for Circulab and Price List. 

16v3-3m E. E. AMES, General Agent. 

Factory and Depot, 217 and 219 K street, Sacramento. 

FIRST PREMIUM AWARDED at the State Fair of 
1870; also First Premium at Mechanics' Fair, San Fran- 
cisco, 1871; and Silver Medal and First Premium for 
best Farm Wagon, and First Premium for the best im- 
proved Thimble Skein at State Fair, 1871. Also State 
Fair GOLD MEDAL for 1871. 



San Quentin, Cal. 

Hill's Patent Eureka Gang Plow. 

The following are some of the reasons why these 
Plows, are entitled to preference over any other Plow 
in use. They are made of the best material, and every 
Plow warranted. They are of light draught, easily 
adapted to any depth, and are very easily handled. 

They will plow any kind of soil, and leave the ground 
In perfect order. 


These Plows have taken First Premiums at the State 
Fair, at the Northern District Fair, at the Upper Sacra- 
mento Valley Fair, and the State Agricultural Society 
Premium of $40 for the best Gang Plow, after a fair test 
and competition with the leading Plows of the State. 

Champion Deep-Tilling Stubble Plow, 

Took the First Premium over all competitors at the 
State Fair, 1871. It furrows 14 in. deep and 24 wide. 
This Gang Plow combines durability with cheapness, 

being made entirely of iron by experienced workmen, of 

the best material. Over three hundred are now in use, 

and all have given entire satisfaction. 
Manufactured and for sale by the 


At SAN LEANDRO, CAL., under the personal superin- 
tendancc of the Patentee, F. A. Hill, 

And also by most leading Agricultural Dealers in the 
State. Send at once for Circulars, prices, etc. 21v3 


Took the Premium over all at the great Plowing 
Match in Stockton, in 1870. 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who 
have been long in the business and know what is re- 
quired in the construction of Gang Plows. It is quickly 
adjusted. Sufficient play is given so that the tongue will 
pass over cradle knolls without changing the working 
position of the shares. It is so constructed that the 
wheels themselves govern the action of the Plow cor. 
redly. It has various points of superiority, and can be 
-elled upon as the Best and Most Desirable Gang Plow 
In the world. Send for circular to 

Stockton, Cal. 



Of any on the Pacific Coast. 

State and County Rights for sale. 
Send for a Descriptive Circular containing Price-List 
and all other particulars, postage free. 


Eureka. imnjinimw_ ^zZzJf-^^~ — ~ -^™J!!B!l l MI' y Economy 

Is now the favorite of this State, and sells throe to one of any other make. 
•^ N. B. — A few Windmills have heretofore been made by parties in this city, and advertised under the 
name of the Golden State Windmill, which is an infringement on the Celebrated "Eureka " Wind- 
mill, lor which the undersigned holds a UNITED STATES PATENT ; and any persons making, selling or using 
the same without our consent will be pros»cuted. We warn purchasers against deception, and will pay a liberal 
reward to any person giving information that will lead to the detection of parties infringing on the aforesaid 

Manufactory, corner of Market and Beale streets San Fbancisco. 

W. I. TU8TIN, Inventor and Patentee, 

8elG-lam3tn And Pioneer Windmill Manufacturer of the Pacific Coast. 


Nob. 3 and 5 Front Street SAN FRANCISCO. 




Wostenholme's Pocket Cutlery, 

Blacksmith and Mining Tools, 

Rope, Iron, Steel, Ammunition, 

Powder and Fuse, 

Sole Agents for 


•y These Plows are Deep Tillers, and are Just what the farmers need. They can be run by a small boy, as the 
lifting out of the ground is done by horse instead of band power. Farmers should examine these Plows before 





Orders respectfully solicited. Catalogues and prices furnished on application. 18v4-0m 





And also a superior Iron Axle Wagon. 



•John Deer Moline F*1otv. 

Also COLLINS' PLOW (Smith's Patent). 


EXCELSIOR MOW I It V \ l> l!i il'ill 
K7~ Please call and examine. 17v4-ly 

Ready's Patent Gang Plow. 


Having the Asrencv for the sate of these Wagons, made 
at Fon du Lac, Wis., by Farnsworth Bros., Knapp \ « ' ■ . 
are prepared to furnish them, -ingle or in any number, light 
median) or heavy 2-hnrse and 4-horse [Thiiiible-fikein* find 
boxes 1, and warrant them to sin ml welt, and to be equal in 
all respects to the oest Eastern-made Waging sold here. 

Orders from the Coun»rv will receive i rvmpt attention, 
and .Price Lists sent on application. 


S. E. Cor. California and Davis streets, San Francisco. 
Address P. O Box 664, only. lvMm 



This Plow was awarded the First Premium and Gold 
Medal at the great Plowing Match at the State Fair, 1872. 
Fifteen Gangs entered, including the Eureka, American 
Chief, Sweepstake, and others of notoriety. It has 
Wrought Iron Beams, Iron Wheels, Cast Steel Moulds 
and Shears. It is neat, simple, strong and durable, and 
warranted to run light, and lifts out of the ground 
easier than any other Gang known to the trade. Extras 
furnished and warranted to fit. 

301 J street! SACRAMENTO, Cal.. 
17v4-6m Sole Maker and Patentee. 

For Farm use and Custom work. The only Practice 
Farm Feed Mill ever invented. Can be used with from one 
to eight-horse power, and grinds from '!M lbs. to one ton of 
barley per hour. Price of Mills from $75 to *KK>. according 
to size. Adapted to Wind, Water. Steam, or Horse Power. 
The grinding surface is adjustable, and can be replaced in 
tlfteen minutes at an expense of one dollar to one dollar and 
a quarter. Over 3.U00 now in use. Every Mill warranted to 
give satisfaction. For sale by all leading agricultural firms 
on the coast. For further particulars send for circular. 
M. S. BOWDISH, General Agent. 
With Hawley A Co., cor. California and Battery sts., 

16v4-3m San Francisco. 

Write for Large Illustrated Descriptive Price List to 


Double, Single, Muzzle and Breech-Loading Rifles, Shot 
Guns, Revolvers, Pistols, etc., of every kind, for men 
or boys, at very low prices. Guns, $3 to $300; Pistols, 
$1 to $25. 5v25-eow26t 

J®ELtlNQ^ACJNt\ ., 
W?Rannan Str£3 

1 9v4-2am-bp 

Merchants nut I Farmers, 

Examine our 


Adopted by 


All Graces. 
No complaints. 

No repairing. 

Don't believe 

CorrEB Riveted 

Pa'. Nov., 1861. 

U. S. Army. 

18,000 SOLD. 

Heavy & Light. 

No ripping. 

Examine for 

prejud'd parties. 


Manufactured "^^Wl^^ only by 

J. C. JOHAsON & CO., 

104 KrfiNT STRKl-T. San m AN CISCO. 

Dealers In Harness, NADDl.KKY, I., hi,, i el*. 

Liberal discount to the Trade. l»vl 3iu 

ALFRED WRIGHT Veterinary Surgeon. 



General Depot 159 New Montgomery street, S. F. 

Those in want of 
do well to call at the 
old stand. 113 Com- 
mercial street, San 
Francisco, between 
Davis and Drumm, 
and examine our im- 
provements before \ 
purchasing e 1 s e - 

The undersigned is the pioneer in this line. Laving 
manufactured them for the last ten years in this city. 

•/"Patent applied for. 

Hv22.3m H. G. PRATT. 


With neither Engine, Piston, or Plunger. 

The most Simple , Durable, and In al 
respects the most Economical of all 
Steam Pumps. Uses the same steam 
twice Instead of once. Any person can 
run it. They are used on the Central 
and Western Pacific R.R. from Oakland 
to Ogden. They are used for Water 
Works. Mining, Irrigation, and all other ordinary pump- 
ing. Send for Descriptive Circular and Price List. Ad- 
dress ALLEN WILCOX, No. 21 Fremont street, San 
Francisco. 16v2-3m 

A Beautiful Parlor Amnsement. Fifty Ohromo Scenes 
on the Overland R. R. "Across the Continent" S]di u- 
did gift for the Holidaj'6; suitable for old or young. 
Sent to any address on receipt of $2. TH18TLETOR, 9 
Post street. A new Comical Game, "A Wolf in the 
Fold," sent for $1. Agents wanted. dc21-lm 


JOHN DAlsrXEL, & CO., 

Manufacturers of and Dealers in 

Monuments, Headstones, Tombs, 


<21 Pine street, between Montgomery and 

Kearny, San Fbancisco. 



Chemists and Apothecaries, 

621 Montgomery street, 

Between Commercial and Clay, San Francisco, ( al. 



Genuine Patent Medicines. Trusses, Colognes. 
Soaps. Hair Oils, Pomades, Fancy Goods, Sponges, Brushes, 
Combs, etc. 

Those Goods are now and fre«h. of the best qualities, 
and will be sold at very low prices. Please call and ex- 
amine the slock, before purchasing elsewhere. 

Physicians' Prescriptions compounded with great care 
and accuracy, at all hours of ihe day and night, and 
none but the best articles used in their preparation. Prices 

»»- Our friends and customers residing in the country 
will find it for their advantage to order from ua. Goods 
sent by Express to any part of the United States. 

January n, 1S73.] 

New York Seed Warehouse. 

Established in 1852. 

427 Sansome street, near Clay San Francisco . 


[Successor to C. L. Kellogq] 
Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 

A Splendid Stock of Grass Seed, Embracing-, 

Mesquit, Kentucky Blue Grass, Orchard, Red Top, 

Rye 8nd Timothy; Fine Mixed Seed for Lawns; 

White and Red Clover Seed; California and Chile Alfalfa. 

Dutch Bulbous Roots, imported from the best 
Flower Nurseries of Holland. 

Agent for the Genuine Lang-uedoc Almond 
Tree— By the 100, at from $12.50 to $25.00. 100,000 
Eucalyptus or Australian Gum Trees, at from $15 to 
$26 per 100. California and Australian Seeds. Gar- 
den Hardware, Etc. Seeds Warranted Fresh and Pure. 

Catalogues free on application. 


23v25-3m 427 Sansome street, SanFrancisco. 

Kelsey's Nurseries, 


Alameda County Cal. 

San Franoisco. 

[established in 1852.] 

Containing- the Largest and Best Assorted 
Stock of 

Trees and Plants 

On the Pacific Coast, 

Embracing— FRUIT TREES AND PLANTS of all and 
BULBS, Etc. Etc. 

Send for Catalogues and Price Lists— Free on Appli- 
cation. Iv5-3m 

Bay Nursery, 

[Established 1852.] OAKLAND, CAL. 

Office and Depot Broadway and Thirteenth. 

Nursery and Greenhouses, Telegraph Avenue, East Side. 


Evergreen Trees, Ornamental Shrubs and 
Flowering Plants 

On this Coast. Comprising in part Cape Jasanu'nes, 
Camellias, Azaleas, Magnolias, Araucarius, 
Weeping Cedars, Goideu Arbor 
Vittes, etc, etc. 
My collection of Fuschias, Carnations and Roses are 
unrivalled. Many new and rare Plants recently intro- 
duced of rare merit. Tube Roses, Dahlias and Bulbs in 
great variety. Choice Flower Seeds, Garden and Lawn 
Seeds, fresh and genuine. 



Twenty Years in the Nursery Business in 

A. I>. PBYAL, 

Nurseryman and Florist, 

Near Temascal Creek. 

Offers for sale a good assortment of Forest 
Trees suitable for windbreck or ornamental belts; 
. 50,000 Monterey Cypress and Monterey Pine, from 
six inches to sin feet in hight; 100,000 Blue Gums, mall, 
lit for forest culture; Oak Seedling, Orange and Lemon 
Trees. English Gooseberry, Blackberry and Currant. 
A beautiful assortment of Roses and Lilacs; also Aspar- 
agus Roots. • 
All orders will receive prompt attention. Address 

26v4tf Oakland, Alameda County, Cal. 


— AT THE — 



I offer at moderate prices a general 
assortment of 



Deciduous Flowering Shrubs, Roses, Etc. 

Green House and Bedding Plants in great variety. 

Send for Descriptive Catalogue and Price List. 


15v4 6m 


Petaluma, Sonoma County, Cal. 


Maple Leaf Nursery. 

Has constant- 
varieties of 
GREEN and 
SHRUBS; also 
ment of Choice 
merous to 
Green House 
era and Bulbs, 

ly on hand all 
a large assort- 
ROSES too nu- 
Plants, Flow- 
Garden, Grass 

and Flower Seeds of all kinds, are for sale by 

L. M. NEWSOM, Proprietor, 
12v3-tf Washington street, Brooklyn, Cal. 

Los Angeles Nursery and Fruit 


O. W. CHILDS, Proprietor. 

Desires to call attention to his large and desirable 
assortment of 

Orange, Lemon, Lime and 
Citron Trees, 


Including a limited quantity of ORANGE, Grafted and 
Budded on Lemon Stock. 


50,000 Choice English "Walnut Trees, 

From 2 to 10 feet high. Price, $10 per hundred. And 
a very superior lot of 

Italian and Spanish Chestnut Trees, 
1 to 6 feet high, at very low rates. 


Main street, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Trees and Plants for Sale 

— AT THE — 


I now offer for sale a large and 
well selected stock of 

Fruit and Ornamental Trees, 

Hardy Evergreen Shrubbery 

and Greenhouse Plants. 

Send for Catalogue and List of Prices. 


Petaluma, Sonoma County, Cal. 






Dealers and Nurserymen Supplied at Low 

Catalogues furnished on application 


San Jose, Cal. 

Mulberry Trees for Sale 

— BY — 

I. N. HO AG, Sacramento. 


For the Yard, for the Sidewalk, or the Roadside. 
— also — 

Fruiting Mulberry, 

Of all varieties, and for Silk Culture. 


Of every kind— grown in the best Nurseries 

in the State— for sale at the 

Lowest Prices. 


AH orders promptly attended to. 26v4-3in 


Presidio Road, near U. S. Reservation (on the line of 
the Sutter street Cars) , SAN FRANCISCO. 

A Large and Well Selected Stock of New and 
Rare Plants for the 

Greenhouse and Open Air. 

Evergreen Trees, Geraniums, Pelargoniums, 
Roses, Fuschias, Pinks, Gladiolas, Lilies, 
Coleus, Pansies, Primroses, in great va- 
riety. Also, Tuberroses, Verbenas, Cac- 
tus, Heliotropes, etc. 
Orders from the c >untry carefully attended to. 
Address, through P. O., 
25v4-3m F. LTTDEMAN & CO., 

Grape Vines and Cuttings for Sale 

— AT THE — 

"Vinelaud "Vineyards, 


The undersigned can furnish Grape Cuttings of the 
Choicest Varieties of Wine and Table Grapes. 

Many of the Choicest Wine Grapes can be furnished 
in large quantities, at from $5 to $7 per thousand. 

Rooted Vines, $2 per hundred or $15 per thousand, 
delivered at the Railroad Station. 

Send all orders in - early to 


St. Helena, Napa County, Cal. 

60,000 Evergreen and Flowering Shrubs 

Those intending to embellish their grounds will find 
it to their advantage to examine my stock and ascertain 


Golden Gate Nursery, corner of Folsom and Twentieth 

Streets, San Francisco. 


Fruit, Shade and Ornamental 

Plants for Sale, 

At the old stand, corner Oregon and Battery streets, 
Directly opposite Post Office, San Francisco. 


The Largest and Best Collection of Fruit, 
Shade and Evergreen Trees and Plants 

Ever offered in this market, and at Reduced Prices. 

Persons laying out new grounds would do well to call 
and examine our stock before purchasing elsewhere. 


Promptly attended to and packed with care. 
Send for Price Catalogue. 


516 Battery Street, 

San Francisco. 
P. O. Box 722. 25v4-2m 


Fruit, Shade and Ornamental 
Plants. Etc. 





Having a very large Nursery 

Stock, I can furnish Trees and 

Plants of all kinds cheap. Fruits 
guaranteed true to name. Send stamp 
for printed Price List, Catalogue, and in- 
structions for hedge-growing. A large stock of Osags 
Orange Hedge Plants for sale.' Letters of enquiry 
promptly responded to. Office and Main Tree Depot, 
U street, between Fifteenth and Sixteenth, Sacramento. 
Branch Yards, Sayles & Williamson, J street, Sacra- 
mento; Burney & Williamson, Modesto; and W. T. 
Wright, Agent at Colusa. 



1,000,000 FRUIT TREES, 

And an immense stock of 


EVERGREENS, Etc.— 200 Acres. 

Send us your address and get our Descriptive Cata 

logues and Price Lists. Address 


Star Nurseries, 

26v4-3m Illinois. 


Australian Cum Trees, 

Including all the desirable varieties, at from $5 to $10 
per 100, in the best condition for transplanting and 
transportation. For sale at the Gum Tree Nurseries, 
Haywards, Alameda Co., Cal. 

Address JAS. T. STRATTON, 

23v4-5m Brooklyn, Cal. 



First-ClaBS 19.08 per thousand 

Second-Class $6.00 per thousand 

Third-Class $4.00 per thousand 

Ten per cent, discount made for any thing over 5,000 . 

Orders promptly filled. Address 


23v25-3m Vaca Station, Solano County, Cal. 


Eddy street, corner Powell and Market, San Francisco 
Bouquets and Ornamented Flower Baskets. Plant i 

in great variety. 
de21-lm A. "VIVIE1V, Florist Gardener. 


Pacific Oil and Lead Works, 

Are prepared to 

Furnish Seed and Contract for 


Year's Crop of Flax Seed and Castor Beans at rates 

that, with proper cultivation on suitable 

land, will make them among the most 

profitable Crops grown. 

For further particulars address 


3 and 6 Front Street SAN FRANCISCO, 




No. 607 Sansome street San Feancisco, 

Garden (80 Acres) at San Leandro. 

Have the pleasure of announc- 
ing to the publio, that having 
raised such immense quantities 
of Seeds this year, they are en- 
abled to make a reduction of at least 30 
or 40 per cent, on last year's prices. They have on hand 
a large assortment of CABBAGE PLANTS, BULBS, 
CLOVER, CANARY, HEMP, and all kinds of VEGETA. 
BLE and FLOWER SEEDS. 23v4-6t 


1,500 to 2,000 lbs. for sale in chaff at 
an CENTS J" '.It POUND. 

Orders by mail promptly filled by 

14v4-3m Sebastapol, Sonoma County. 


"© or Kcl all. 

Vegetable, Field and Flower Seeds, 

California and Australian Evergreen Seeds, 

Etc., Etc. 

Pure Kentucky Blue Grass, Red Top, Rye Grasses, 
Orchard Grass, Timothy, Alfalfa, White, 
and Red Clover Seed, 
Mesqxilt Grass Seed. 
Hyacinths, Tulips, Crocus, Lilies, fine clumps of Lily 
of the Valley, new Gladiolus, Etc. 
Ramie Seed and Plants. 

A fine collection of 

Greenhouse Plants, Evergreens, Etc. 

Rustic and Wire Babkets, Flower Stands, Fruit and 

Ornamental Trees, Etc., 


Send for Catalogues. 



425 Washington street, 
San Francisco, Cal. 


hould be ordered now. W. F. HEIKES, Dayton, Ohio. 

The Guide 1b now published Quarterly. 25 <ents 
pays for the year, four numbers, which is not half the 
cost. Those who afterwards order seeds to the amount 
of One Dollar may deduct what they paid for the 
Guide, as I present it to customers. The January 
Number is Beautiful, giving plans for making Rural 
Homes, Designs for Dining- Table Decorations, 
"Window Gardens, etc., and containing a mass of in- 
formation invaluable to the lover of flowers. One Hun- 
dred and Fifty Pages, on fine tinted paper, some Five 
Hundred Engravings, and a superb Colored Plate 
and Chromo Cover. The First Edition if Tvvo Hun- 
dred Thousand just printed in English and German, 
and ready to send out. 

I8v4-3m-sa JAMES VICE, Rochester, N. Y. 





Wholesale Fruit and Produce Commission 


415 and 417 Davis street, cor. of Oregon, San Francisco. 

Our business being exclusively Commission, we have 

jio interests that will conflict with those of the producer. 


Blood Will Tell." 

8&* "la breeding grade animals on either side, you 
breed backwards! With full-blood and thorough 
bred on either side you breed forwards." — Alexander 
"You get no figs tiom thistles."— Old 1'rovtrb. 

I have 20 head of lull-blood, thoroughbred, "Short- 
Horn" Durham Cattle— Weanlings, one, two and three 
years old— embracing three of the best and most fash- 
ionable strains (including the milking) from several of 
the finest herds in Kentucky. Also 300 head of pure- 
bred Spanish Merinos from Vermont and New York, 
and Cotswolds from Kentucky. All my cattle are 
"American Herd Book," registered, and all my sheep 
are perfectly certified. AdJress 

Mission St. Stables, cor. 22d and Mission Sis., 

24v4-tf San Francisco. Cal. 

Office and Rooms, in Webb's Building, 37 Sect nd St., 
opposite the Grand Hotel. 


Breeders and Importers of the 

Cotswold, Lincoln, Leicester, Texel and 

South Down 


— ALSO— 


Now offer for sale the Pure Bred and High Grades. 
We have a good lot of Bucks of crosses between the 
Cotswold and South Down, between the Lincoln and 
Leicester, and the Lincoln and Merino. 


19v4-tf Hollister. Monterey County, Cal. 



625 Sansome street, corner Jackson, SAN FRANCISCO. 

Receive Consignments of Wool, Sheep 
1 Skins, Hides, etc. Liberal advances made to 
consignors. Keep on hand the best quality of 
Wool Sacks, Twines, and other supplies. 

40 Thoroughbred Angora Goats for Sale ! 

Imported by a native of Angora, direct from Asia Minor. 
For specimens see the flock of Thomas & Shirland, 
Sacramento, Cal. Address A. EUTYCHIDES, Spout 
Spring, Appomattox County, Va. 10v4-ly 

SPANISH MERINOS.— We offer for sale low, about 100 
of our fine Thoroughbreds. Send for Catalogue Orders 
solicited. John Sheldon & Son, Moscow, N. Y. 

TO THE WORKING CLASS, male or female, $60 a 
week guarantied Respectable employment at heme, day 
or evening; no capital required; full Instructions and 
valuable package of goods t" start with sent free by mail. 
Address, with 6 cent return stamp, M. YOUNG t. CO , 1 
OourUandt street, New York. dc21-« 



[January n, 1873. 

Jackson, JVTiohigaxL, Farm and Team Wagons 



The Wheels have- Tire Rivets— Felloes run through Hot 
[Boiled Oil— No Shrinkage Possible. 


We.Have'also to Arrive.': 

Wagon of a FARM Wagon. 

[ Also.'.HEADER Wagons complete. 



One-Horse Ctivts. 

Also, a Light Express one or two-scat Wagon— called the OHTO TRADE "WAGON— suitable for one or two horses, for n Pleasure Wagon or other light use. We invite a closo Inspection of this Wagon in the slate in 
which it comes from the Manufactory ii-simisicd), showing it to he the BEST made Wagon of the kind ever imported. We guarantee all our Wagons for Two Years. Anything proving Imperfect in that time will be made good. 

Second Growth Timber, seasoned for yean under cover, but open to the air. The Thimble 
Skeins are cast endwise, making them more solid. Patent Plate for sliding perch. Patent Bed 
Plate for bolster, making tie- Wagons the best and most complete in the market. We keep a 
large assortment on hand of all sizes, both IRON and SHELL Axle, and invite a close examina- 
tion and comparison of our Jackson Wagons with tin numerous Eastern Wagons in this market. 

We Hold Certificates 
From those who have used 

—THE — 

Jackson Michigan Wagons 

For the past Fifteen Years. 


That they^are tho 

Best Wagons 

To stand this dry climate of any 
that have bean 



All Sizes, from One-Horse to Six-Horse Wagons, are in Stock, Wholesale or Retail, cor. California and Davis sts., San Francisco. 


Agents Wanted for the New Book, 

Underground Treasures— How and Where 
to Find Them, 


Of all the Useful Minerals within the United States. 


99 r A work of rare value to every perBon, and worth 
ten times its cost. Price only $1 50. 
Send for full descriptive circular to 


2vS-hptf 542 California street, San Francis, o. 

Ornament Your Grounds. 



Or a Fine assortment of 
< >i-ii;i iii.-ii t :i 1 !"»li l-ni I >» V 

Then call at the 


Telegraph Road OAKLAND. 

^v5-3m S. NOLAN, Proprietor. 

While Muscat of Alexandria. 

I bars a large lot of two-year-old, well rooted WHITE 
1 10, or $50 per 1000. This is the Very Best 
Raisin Grape, bears shipping tie- beat, and is the most 
popular Grape forth* general market ever ywh* re. Also. 
two-year old English Walnuts at 119 per 100, or $100 per 
1000. Choice lot of Almonds and Prunes at 25 to 50 cts. 
each. Large amount of W. Muscat Grape Cuttings, low. 
Orders may be left with A. Lues & Co., San I 
or sent by mail to the snhsenber, San Jose, P. O Box 
No. 494. 

2v5-2m G. W. McGEEW. 


Niirs-ievyiiian stutl Florist. 

The undersigned has continually on hand a large 
assortment of finest KM' 1 1', SHADE AND ORNA- 
etc., of the most varied and choice description, winch 
he sells at lowest rates. Trees ami Plants securely 
packed to travel any distance, 'the undersigned, being 
a practical Nurseryman, offers his services for laying 
out of gardens, plots, etc. T. GOBLET, 

2v6-8m No. 31»- Washington Bt. , San Francisco. 

i N9 430 *\ 



Improve the Breed and increase the Size of your 

Try the Cross of the 
Bronze Turkey 



I am breeding from Fowls welching ft pounds to the 
pair, and have for sale a few i lobolers and Pairs. 
Orders for Eggs receive.! now. 

A Bronze Gobbler running with ordinary Den 
Turkeys, will make a difference, in a brood of twelve 
young Turkeys, of five pounds each, that is sixty- 
pounds, worth, at 25 cts. per. lb., fifteen dollars, 
besides a much greater percentage of the young reach- 
ing maturity, owing to the extreme hardiness of this 

This breed of Bronze Turkey is remarkable for its 
hardiness as Well as great site. 

Give them a Trial. Perfect Satisfaction 

«K?" Send for a Circular to 


Importer and Breeder of Choice Fowls, 
ja4-2t Box 059 San Francisco. 



New Style Florence Sewing Machines ? 
New Style Florence Sewing Machines? 

They are the Latest Thing- Out. 

Run the Work to the LEFT of Operator. 
Run the Work to the RIGHT of Operate r. 
Run the Work TOWARDS the Operator. 
Run the Work FROM the Operator. 

The New Fasteniags are Patented, and used 6olely by 

tin- Florence Sewing Machio 

19 New Montgomery rtr 
Grand Hotel Building, San Francisco. 


6,000 BLUE GUM, 
3,000 ROSES (Choice Varieties), 

And a general assortment of Nursery Stock. 
E. till.I., Twenty eighth rtr« t 
2v5-3m Near Bail Pablo R. ad, O AKLAND 

^1\ 4/V ^MArTd"*'' ArrntH-W«T.lril AUr1ti«»<'IOi wnr*lnjcr«0- 

$919 $2Vpi«,or«uu«raex,yoan*oroul.iiMik«nwi»i 

vaifc fer tulo their ipare nwmentl cram:,..- time Hum atanytMng 

•Jm, ParticuUilfie*. A.lUn*l«U. bliu*..u 4 C".,l'urlUnd,M.lii», 


< J637 CLAY" STREET > 










Wine and Brandy Manufacturers' 


Will meet in Masonic Hall, corner K and Sixth streets, 

Sacrami nto, Monday, January 20th, 1873 

at 2 o'clock e. m. 

Duplicates of Wines and Brandies exhibited at last 
Fair will he examined, the Premiums then awarded an- 
i and paid, the Premium List for next year 
agreed on, provision made for exhibition of our grape 
products at Vienna, steps taken to secure proper re- 
die loin of National Taxes. Essays rend on various sub- 
Jecti of Interest to the industry, aud such other business 
:is m:i\ come before the nesting transacted. The meet- 
ing will be continued from day to day so long as neces- 
s:irv. By order. 
jat-:it I. N. HOAG, Secretary. 

Five Cents Paid Out lor* a 



Adds more to their value than ono dollar expended in 
any other way. 

THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS has the largest circula- 
tion of any weekly journal published west of the 
Rocky Mountains, Independent of a dally Issue. Its 
readers are prominent among the most Intelligent, in- 
dustrious and thrifty classes throughout the Pacific 
States and Territories. 



Grass and Clover Seeds 


Trees, Plants, Roots, Etc., 

For Sale at Wholesale or Retail by 


No. 817 Washing-ton Street, 

•7" Send for a Catalogue. 


100 Barrels Guano for Sale, 

m quantities to suit purchasers. 
6v2-ly-16p GEO. F. 8ILVB8TEB. 


Importer and Breeder of 

Angora or Cashmere 

— or — 


— aitd — 

For sale In Iota to suit purchasers. Location, fou 
miles from Railroad Station, connecting with all part 
of the State. For particulars address 

El Dorado, El Dorado county, 
6v3-tf California 

send, post-paid, an Almanac giving every Year, Month, 
Week and Day of the Century; also a Pocket Calendar 
for 1873. Extra inducements to Agents. Address 

GEORGE A. HEARD k CO., Boston, Mass. 

Volume V.] 


[Number 3. 

Fish Culture. 

Within]the last sixs year a great deal has been 
said and written on the subject of fish culture, 
and widely extended and very successful ex- 
periments have been made resulting in estab- 
lishing the fact, that where conditions are fa- 
vorable, that an acre of water will yield as much 
profit to the owners from the sale of fish, as is 
usually derived from an acre of land cultivated 
to grains or vegetables. 

Among the varieties of fishes most cultivated 
in the rivers and ponds of the East, we notice 
the salmon and shad for the larger rivers and 
for brooks, ponds and the little lakes that 
abound in New England and elsewhere at the 
north, the black bass and trout are pre-emin- 
ently the fish for domestic culture. 

Livingston Stone, Deputy U. S. Fish 
Commissioner, proprietor of Cold Spring 
trout ponds, Charlestown, New Hamp- 
shire, and Secretary of American Fish 
Culturists' Association, in his admirable 
and standard work on Domesticated 
Trout, says: — 

The trout has always stood at the head 
of the fresh water game fishes iu the 
popular estimation. The fickle public 
may change its favorite some time for a 
more admired successor, but up to this 
time the trout has distanced all rivals. 
This honorable place he has gained and 
held, not by accident but by merit. He 
deserves to rank by himself first, for 
where has the trout his equal ? There 
may be fish of nearly as fine flesh as the 
trout, but they have a repulsive coat like 
the pout; or a coarse appearance, like 
the bass; or a disagreeable one, like the 
mascalonge; or are full of bones, like 
the shad; or have no game in them, like 
the mullet; or fail somewhere to match 
the excellent points of the trout. There 
is not one of them that for perfect 
faultlessness can compare with the 
trout. This is his special peculiarity. 
He is faultless. He surpasses all oth- 
er fish in grace of form, in beauty of coloring, 
in gentleness of expression, in fascination of 
manner, in gameness of spirit, in sweetness 
and firmness of flesh, and in general personal 
attractiveness, and to excellence in these points 
he also combines faultlessness in all others. 
Hence it is that he is the favorite among fishes, 
and deserves to be so. 

Trout are peculiarly suited to domestication, 
being very hardy, easily tamed, conveniently 
confined, satisfied with plain food, well adapted 
to artificial breeding, prolific enough to increase 
rapidly, and having a sufficiently high value as 
live game, or as a table luxury, to make it 
worth while to raise them.* 

The illustration which we present herewith 
is a view of the hatching house at Cold Spring 
Trout Ponds, the property of Mr. Stone, taken 
in 18G8. Since that time, exceedingly inter- 
esting and important discoveries have been 
made in the hatching and culture of trout, 
which improvements we may introduce to our 
readers, with cuts illustrative, in future num- 
bers of the Rural. 

There are many places in California, where 
valuable trout fisheries for the culture of fish 
for the amateur or even the general market, 
might be established at very little cost; but as 
there are certain requisites necessary, to make 
the business a suceess, it becomes a matter of 
interest to be infoimed in relation thereto, be- 
fore expenditure in this line is made, and per- 
haps disappointment incurred, from too slight 
an acquaintance with the subject. 

Trout culture is a grand success in the 
Truckee river, the outlet of Lake Tahoe, and 
large quantities are annually sent from thence 

•The excellent work from which the above extract ie 
taken can be had of A.Roman & Co., Booksellers, 417 
nd 419 Montgomery street, San Francisco. 

to all parts of the State and Nevada accessible 
by rail. But as beef or animals' livers, hearts 
and lungs are the principal food of domestica- 
ted trout, where such can be procured, it is ev- 
ident that the vicinity of cities or slaughtering 
houses where this kind of food can be surely 
and cheaply obtained, would be a desirable 
locality for trout ponds; all other requisites as 
an abundance of cold spring water, a natural and 
abundant fall and other requisites being obtain- 

Sowing in the Dust. 

One of our Eastern readers asks what we 
mean by " dry seeding," or "sowing in the 
dust." We will not rise to explain, but being 
comfortably seated will remark, that in Cali- 

Trees for Shade and Ornament. 

It is quite natural when we set out a tree for 
shade, to wish for a speedy growth at least till 
the tree attains a desirable hight; but how after 
that ? It is just this, that the tree is becoming too 
large ; not much in the way it is true, but giving 
us a little too much of a good thing, too much 
shade. It is injuring, by shutting off the 
sunlight, every other smaller tree within the 
circle of its influence, and positively ruining 
every flower-bed and border, its roots can reach, 
by grossly feeding upon what was intended to 
be for the flowers only. 

From this time on, as long as they, the big 
trees are permitted to stand, they remain a nui • 
Banco, and the sooner „they are removed the 


fornia thousands of acres are fitted for wheat, 
by plowing in the spring and early summer, 
and, as there are no more rains after that, no 
weeds or grass grow, hence the land is in splen- 
did condition for being sown with wheat in the 

When it happens that no early autumn rain- 
fall occurs, these fallow fields are simply im- 
mense dust beds, and as a correspondent of one 
of our exchanges remarks : The wheat is put 
in by a system of dry plowing, unknown to 
your people, with a mongrel implement, called 
a chisel point, between a gang-plow and a culti- 
tor, covering a space of from six to eight feet in 
width, and drawn by from eight to ten animals. 
The grain is first sown, then this insrtument 
is put on, and then amid a cloud of dust that 
entirely hides the operator and team, the crop 
is called put in, and a prayer is put up to Jupiter, 
who is said to rule the skies, to send down 
showers to crown their labors with success. 

Thousands of acres of what we term volun- 
teer crops, are also put in, in this way, which 
is simply plowing with the peculiar instrument 
named, the stubble ground of last crop, in 
which condition it remains for the first rains 
to bring up the expected crop. It is a very 
rapid way of seeding and plowing a large area 
of ground at very small expense, whilst a fail- 
crop of grain annually results, if the season 
proves propitious. 

Eucalyptus Forest. — If any one wishes to 
view a forest of blue gum trees before planting 
that variety, they can do so by visiting the 
lands t of Mr. James T. Stratton, near Hay- 
wards, where he has over 60,000 trees in forest 
culture. He also raises immense numbers of 
trees in nursery annually, for sale and without 
the use of pots or other "cork screwing" de- 

better. What we want in our dooryards and 
lawns are, beautiful, symmetrical, but slowly 
growing trees, such as can stand for a lifetime. 
These should have ample room to develop with- 
out being subjected to excessive or close prun- 

But instead of looking forward and consider- 
ing what a tree will be ten years hence, we try 
our best to get a tree that in three or four years 
shall equal in extent of foliage and depth of 
shade, a tree of ten years' growth, and then to 
hasten the extent of shade crowd too many in 
too small a space. 

Americans are proverbial for crowding things, 
and they are now with us doing it with the 
Blue gum trees of Australia; we are getting 
Eucalyptused, or making a mistake in every 
where setting the Eucalyptus, a tree admirably 
adapted to close forest growth for the produc- 
tion of timber, but no better calculated to rep- 
resent sylvan beauty in the dooryard of small 
extent, than an ostrich would the feathered 
tribe, in the cage of a canary-bird. 

Grain Sacks. — Mention has been made to 
the effect that the Oakland Farmers' Club 
made arrangements by which grain sacks were 
or had been procured at eleven cents. We are 
authorized to state that no such arrangement 
was made, nor did any other Club succeed in 
doing it, at that rate to our knowledge. We 
did hear, however, that the Santa Clara Club 
succeeded in procuring sacks at a somewhat 
reduced rate compared with prices generally 
charged. It is to be hoped that the Farmers' 
Union wiU be able to offer to local clubs an op- 
portunity to obtain sacks at reduced rates. 

Trees in the Kitchen Garden. 

We would caution our young beginners in 
horticulture and gardening, again it the too 
common practice of growing large fruit trees 
in kitchen gardens, as the apple, pear and 
cherry trees aro often found high enough to re- 
quire a thirty or forty round ladder to gather 
the fruit. 

These towering trees are much more hurtful 
in the kitchen garden than is generally , llowed; 
as their roots in the well cultivated mold of a 
garden run a great distance, and the crops un- 
derneath the shade of the trees are very indif- 
ferent in quality. 

As most gardens are more or less frequented 
by the family and their visitors, good, useful 
crops are certainly more interesting than 
poor ones, with an indifferent crop, per- 
haps, of apples or pears on the trees 
which overhang them. It is better to 
have the trees by themselves and the 
garden by itself; the trees will do better 
because they can receive the culture best 
for them which is properly surface cul- 
ture, whilst the garden can be deeply 
plowed to insure good crops of vegeta- 
bles, which would be injurious to the 
roots of the trees. 

The main object in recommending 
this system is, to relieve the garden from 
those high, sometimes broad, over- 
shadowing trees which greatly injure so 
many plots of vegetable ground. Trees 
are often too near; though on the out- 
side of a vegetable garden, they injure 
by their shade and they send their roots 
long distances foraging; and the more 
rapid growing kinds will soon devour 
the very fat of the land. 

We have seen a root upwardsof fifty 
feet long, and nearly as thick at one end 
as the other, where it had got into the line of a 
flower border of good material, and speedily 
found its way to the furthest end of it. Trees on 
lawns will also search out flower beds, and 
occupy their enriched contents with astonish- 
ing rapidity, to the detriment of the proper 
tenants there. 

The Horse Epizootic. 

We learn that this malady has made its ap- 
pearance at Salt Lake, and is making its way 
westward, and may possibly reach us before 
spring. Well, suppose it does; we huve heard 
of its appearance and then its progress from the 
eastern cities to the western, as being a disease 
from which but few animals escaped, and from 
the effects of which, but few comparatively, 

As a sanitary measure, rigid cleanliness and a 
full and perfect ventilation of everyplace where 
horses are kept in buildings or stables should 
receive careful attention, and yet care must be 
had, while ventilating freely, that animals are 
not exposed to cold drafts of air; beyond this 
little or nothing more that we have heard can 
be done as a preventive. When the disease 
really makes its appearance here — if it does — 
then we have as a guide the experience of those 
who have had the best success in the Atlantic 
cities as to mode of treatment; at present we 
see no cause for alarm. 

Early Wild Strawberries. — The native 
strawberry of the sandhills between the city 
and the Cliff House, are in full flower, and in a 
few of the more sunny hillside places, the ber- 
ries are fully formed. Early peas are in blos- 
som ; green peas yet in the pod are in the mar- 
ket places, but getting scarce. 


&JLQW1Q UWUS.% &S&S88. 

[January 18, 1873. 


California Pork. 

Editobs Pbess: — I wish to preface my re- 
marks with an apology for the hog. Yes, Sir, 
for the "whole hog" and hogs in general. 

The hog is a badly abused animal. I am not 
prepared to say that he is faultless, or entirely 
innocent of the many high crimes and misde- 
meanors laid to his charge; but I maintain 
that he is often unjustly accused. He labors 
under the imputation of being a gross feeder; I 
will not stay to inquire into the origin of this 
charge, but simply remark that what consti- 
tutes "gross food" is a matter on which few 
are agreed, and if the fastidious person who 
finds fault with good country-fed pork, and 
prefers delicate(?) white fleshed chicken or 
savory goose, could see chicken, goose and pig 
at home, I think the goose and chicken would 
be called by ugly names, andthepigbe thought 
a cleanly and wholesome animal. 

Then this bugbear of " tri chinas." One 
might suppose that every pig was affected with 
those parasites that produce "measled pork," 
and that such a thing as the sale of diseased 
beef or mutton was unheard of. Let any who 
are especially nervous over eating pork, take 
care to cook it thoroughly and so destroy the 
possibility of its being noxious. 
"Mad Itch." 

Of late the hog has been accused of causing 
"mad itch" in cattle. Practical farmers are 
inclined to "look and laugh at that." If 
trichina find their way into cows the micro- 
scope could detect them in their carcasses as 
readily as in those of the hog; and how they 
cause derangement of the brain without ap- 
pearing in the intestines, etc., I am unable to 
conceive. It is a usual practice in this country 
to run them together on the same grass, etc., and 
I have neither seen nor heard of any " mad 
itch" during a seven years experience. 


Breeders for fancy who can afford to make 
"drawing [room" pigs of their stock may in- 
dulge in Chester Whites.orany kindof "pintos" 
that they choose. Farmers who can't afford to 
pay for style, will do well to stick to black, 
Berkshire or Essex, or a cross. White hogs 
are very apt to "scald" in our dry, hot climate, 
and moreover, are prone to mange. Any one 
possessing good Essex or Berkshire stock may 
feel proud in the possession of a ne plus ultra 
breed. But do not breed "in and in." It is 
a prime requisite in all kinds of stock to in- 
troduce frequent change of blood; without this 
your stock will run down. 

Feed, Etc. 
There are few places in the Southern coast 
counties of California that are naturally suita- 
ble for "hog ranches." A pig would die where 
sheep and cattle might be "rolling fat." Suc- 
culent herbage or roots must bo provided for 
hogs when grain and acorns give out. Hogs 
are and have been raised with profit in the fol- 
lowing way: During rainy season by running 
them on grass; although while the grass is 
very short, it is almost a case of "root hog or 
die;" so hog does root, and digs up worms, 
roots etc., which keeps him going until grass 
starts ahead. When natural herbage gets too 
dry to be palatable, a field of volunteer barley 
must be ready to receive the hogs that are to 
be fattened, and on that they are kept until 
harvesting is over, and the stubbles are ready. 
These being cleaned out, fat hogs are sold, and 
stock hogs may be driven to the mountains, 
provided there is a tolerable crop of mast, 
which should suffice to keep them until rain 
comes once more. 

As the country settles, this method becomes 
more and more impracticable, and hogs must 
be wintered at home instead of run out on 
mountain ranges. For this purpose few crops 
are so suitable as the mangel wurzel. With 
good cultivation on suitable land, fifty tons or 
more may be raised per acre, and this, with 
the help of a ton of barley, would keep one 
hundred grown hogs for three months. Pump- 
kins are better food, pound for pound, but 
yield far less per acre, and cannot be kept so 
long as beets buried underground, or beets can 
be left standing all Winter and Spring, if frosts 
are not too severe, and when going to seed are 
still good pig-feed. In this way many pigs can 
be raised on a small piece of land, and fattened 
either on stubble, or in a small field of uncut 

It is by far too common a practice to starve 
pigs half the time and surfeit them the other 
half. I am no advocate for keeping growing 
pigs too fat; but still less do I believe in stinting 
food, and so stunting the growth — thinking 
that poor, pot-bellied runts from half-starved, 
stunted mothers will "come out all right" when 
turned on the stubble. My experience tells me 
that one well-bred and well-kept sow is more 
profitable than half a-dozen, long-legged, razor- 
backed, wolf-snouted, starving creatures, rais- 
ing big litters of miserable pigs. No animal 
Eays so well for a dash of good blood. A well- 
red pig both eats less and put on more flesh 
than a "runt;" and produces more solid meat 

in proportion to weight of carcass. Hogs of 
good breed have also this advantage over other 
stock: they are marketable and readily fattened 
at any age; but they must be of good breed. 
Practically I have known hogs that the most 
liberal feeding would hardly have any effect on; 
while I havo had, and still have, others that I 
can hardly keep from getting too fat for breed- 
ing purposes. 

In conclusion, beware of keeping a larger 
stock of hogs than you can feed. Of all miser- 
able sights on a California ranch a set of starv- 
ing hogs howling round the door-yard is one of 
the most miserable, least profitable and least 
excusable ! 


Any one who is afraid of work need not read 
this. But any one who likes good bacon and 
has the grit to make it can follow these instruc- 
tions: Let your hogs be "hard-fed" for some 
weeks previous to killing; and choose, if pos- 
sible, clear, cold weather for the operation. 
Kill overnight, and cut up early in the morning, 
before the flies get about. The larger your 
pieces, the less waste and the easier to handle. 
In cutting the haniB, remove the bone of the 
pelvis, but do not let any one persuade you to 
cut out the leg-bone — it ruins the ham. Have 
ready some saltpetre, finely po.vdered, mixed 
with three times its bulk of salt — Bay or Liver- 
pool salt. 

Take each piece separately on a table and 
rub it well with very little of the above mixture, 
near shoulder-blades, and in hams and other 
places where the meat is thick and where there 
ate bones run in your knife and force in a pinch 
of the mixture; then rub thoroughly all sides 
with plenty of salt, and pile the pieces one on 
another, with a thin layer of salt between. Put 
the fleshy sides together. 

For a week turn every day, rubbingwell each 
piece, and putting fresh salt in the knife-holes, 
and using fresh salt to rub with all over. The 
next week every other day will suffice, and there- 
after every third day. If hogs were under 200 
lbs., live weight, j r our bacon maybe put in the 
smoke-house in less than three weeks. If 
larger, more time will,be necessary; use oak wood 
to smoke with, and let it be dry. Any place 
will do as a make-shift, if you have no smoke- 
house. I have smoked bacon in an old coal 
hogshead, by putting the fire in a hole in the 
ground. Smoke for ten days or two weeks, 
according to taste. Then stow your bacon 
away in old dry-goods boxes, putting some 
kind of chaff or bran between the pieces, and 
do not touch it for a month. By that time you 
will have an article that you will be proud of — 
good, firm, well-flavored bacon, ahead of any 
"Chicago sugar-packed," greasy meat that 
your neighbors pay 18c to 20c a pound for. 

Never mind who says you cannot make good 
bacon — pitch in and try ! Put in the work, 
and success is yours ! e. b. 

A Correction of Corrections. 

Editobs Bubal Pbess: — I was surprised to see 
in your paper of Dec. 21st, some statements of 
Mr. Minto in regard to my sheep. He has 
made a greater and more willful blunder than 
your travelling correspondent. Mr. Chapin I 
believe to be a gentleman and a man desirous 
to do the right thing honestly. 

In April, 18G1, I bought of Minto & Holman, 
one thoroughbred Merino Ewe and have the 
certificate of such sheep from Mr. Minto. 

In September 1863, I bought of Donald Mc 
Leod one thoroughbred Spanish Merino Ewe 

I copy Mr. McLeod's certificate: "This is to 
certify that the ewe lamb I sold to T. L. David- 
son is pure Spanish Merino, out of Patterson 
& Hammond's stock of imported sheep." 

Donald McLeod. 

Sept. 1863. 

July 1865. Bought of John Minto, two thor- 
oughbred Merino ewes, twins one-year-old 

Sept. 8th, 1865. Bought of Kev. J. L. Par- 
rish, one thoroughbred Spanish Merino ewe 

Oct. 1871. Bought of J. B. Roberts, 11 head 
of Spanish Merino Ewes and two Spanish 
Bucks and two half bloods. These sheep are 
directly descended from the Rockwell impor- 
tation, from sheep sold to Rev. William Rob- 
erts, by Mr. Rockwell. 

Sept. 1860. Bought of J. D. Patterson, one 
yearling Spanish Merino Ram. Mr. Ham- 
mond's famous "Gold Drop" was his gr. gr. gr. 
grand sire. I have Mr. Patterson's certificate of 
the pedigree of this sheep running back to the 
beginning of Mr. Hammond's first breeding. 

Oct. 1869. Bought of Mills 4 Luelling one 
thoroughbred Spanish Merino Ram, imported 
into Oregon, in 1865, by J. D. Patterson. 

Now Gentlemen Editors, you see I have the 
papers, I will expjain my plan of breeding. I 
have two strains of blood in my flock. One 
the American Merino, the other the Spanish 
Merino. The American strain is founded upon 
ewes bought of Mr. Minto, and bred constantly 
to Spanish Bucks. The Spanish strain is 
founded upon Spanish ewes bought of Donald 
McLeod, Rev. J. L. Parrish, and John B. Rob- 

The larger part of my flock are Spanish 
Merinos and the greater part of them from 
the McLeod ewe and her descendants, she hav- 
ing borne some six or seven pair of twin ewe 
lambs, and having never borne but two buck 

The sheep shown by me at the Oregon State 
Fair, were all descendants of this McLeod ewe 

but three. Two of them from the Roberts' 
flock, an ewe andlamb, and one lamb (63-64,) 
sixty-three sixty-fourths Spanish, and one in- 
finitessimal sixty-fourth Australian. 

Mr. Minto's clap-trap about furnishing every- 
body breeding material is all nonsense. There 
.Are plenty of fine sheep breeders in Oregon. 
Mr. Thomas Smith of Roseburg, has a large 
flock that he purchased of Donald McLeod. 
Another gentleman near him has a larger flock, 
Mr. Knox has a small flock, Mr. Naylor of For- 
est Grove, has a number, Mills & LueUing and 
other getlemen; also R. Smith my nearest 
neighbor. To none of these gentlemen has he 
furnished ewes to breed from. 

The deductions of Mr. Chapin in regard to 
my flock are certainly as nearly correct as a 
correspondent could get. My very best sheep 
are all from Rockwell, Patterson, and Ham- 
mond crosses, and not from the strain purchas- 
ed from Mr. Minto. 

Mr. Minto should have informed him- 
self before he wrote his corrections. No 
man should dare to write the pedigree of his 
neighbor's stock without first consulting him 
about it. 

The truth of this whole question lies right 
here : Mr. Minto and I have been breeding fine 
sheep for a number of years, and run one 
another pretty warmly every State Fair, and I 
have rather been gaining on him of late and 
last State Fair took all the premiums I offered 
for, both first and second. 

Gentlemen of the Re rax Pbess, I have writ- 
ten this article mainlj to defend your corres- 
pondent from Mr. Minto's insinuations that 
he did not tell the truth, and also to defend the 
reputation of my flock of sheep. This is all 
the good this article will do except it will show 
you Californians that we have some good stock 
up here, and that we are in earnest about it. 

The weather is a little frosty, clear and beau- 
tiful, a magnificent winter so far. Money 
scarce, and wheat low — seventy-five cents per 
bushel. You talk in California about monopo- 
lies. Nonsense, if you had Ben Holladay hold 
of your throats you might squirm. Oregon 
groans, and her only salvation is the success 
of the Northern Pacific Railroad. 

T. L. Davidson. 

Oak Hill, near Salem, Jan. 1st, 1873. 

Ventura to Los Angeles. 

Editobs Pbess: — The rain which began fall- 
ing on the night of the 22d of December, con- 
tinued with intervals of cloudy weather and 
mild," up to the 29th; in the amount and man- 
ner of its coming it was as nearly perfect as it is 
possible. There was about four inches, a little 
more in some localities hereabout.and possibly 
a little less in some, but for the amount no 
rain we have ever taken note of has moistened 
the dry earth to such an extent. That four 
inches of water penetrated and saturated the 
ground from one to two feet, according to con- 
dition. In the hard trodden road and upon the 
more compact fields and pastures the grateful 
draught was only imbibed, as one might 
moisten the mouth of thirsty earth; but where- 
ever the cultivation had been thorough and 
recent, the nectar tickled more than the palate 
and was drank deep. 

The croakers had been garullous for some 
weeks and when the rain came it found them 
and the drones unprepared. But with the ma- 
jority of Southern Californians this pluvial 
blessing was received with a gratitude unuttera- 
ble. The three years of drouth that have just 
passed cannot be realized by the people of the 
northern half of our coast, and even as far 
south as Santa Barbara there was only a par- 
tial failure from lack of rain. 

The suffering has been felt by the southern 
counties more keenly as they were being occn- 
pied and farmed by now comers, many of them 
from Eastern States, wholly or partially unused 
to the long dry summers of this Pacific 
slope, therefore nothing could have been more 
acoeptible than the general and most beauti- 
fully penetrating rain. 

The hills and valleys are already covered with 
the mantle of verdure, and although the storm 
was of such long duration, it came and went so 
gently that hardly a lamb even perished by ex- 
posure; and although the feed in some places 
was almost totally gone, the stock generally 
passed through the time between the first rain 
and the starting of grass much better than is 
usually the case. 

For the past three years we have not ceased 
any of our ordinary out door occupations on ac- 
count of storms, nor did we lose an hour at a mill 
by this. We started southward upon our conclud- 
journey through Ventura county before the 
rain had fairly ceased, and were fully rewarded 
for any slight wetting by the magnificent va- 
riety of eloud and sunshine that illuminated 
or darkened the valleys and mountains of the 
Santa Clara. 

We are naturally buoyant, but more jubilant 
than usual, for the new dress nature was 
fast assuming under the effect of the warmth 
and moisture. 

Everything would be cotor de rose if we 
could exclude from our senses the outward evi- 
dences of "mans' inhumanity to man." But 
in our ride up this beautiful valley, with its 
generous supply of running water, we come on 
every hand upon the poor settlers who have 
been driven hither and thither by the land- 

graspers who have managed to extend the in- 
terminable grant over every available acre. 

This Santa Clara is probably the most feasi- 
ble railway route to and from the southern part 
of the State and Coast counties; and although 
at present sparsely settled and almost wholly 
undeveloped, is without a doubt one of the 
most productive in capacity of any like area in 
the State. 

Our route followed the windings of the San- 
ta Clara for thirty miles, and in a south and 
easterly direction until we arrive at the junc- 
tion of the San Francisquita, where we turn 
westward toward Los Angeles upon the Visalia 
and Owens River road, which is intersected at 
this point. 

The petroleum is here again met with; for we 
are still in the peculiar sandstone and shale 
formation which accompanies the asphaltum 
and petroleum regions to the northward. What 
was originally called Lyons ' Station is now Pe- 
tropolis (pretentious?) and reminds one of 
the Mountain Caravanseries along the old road 
to Nevada. 

This station is in a picturesquo locality sur- 
rounded by live oaks and wild walnut, com- 
pletely embowered and hidden, so that the 
traveler drops upon it as an agreeable surprise 
at the eastern base of the dividing chain of 
mountains that skirt Los Angeles and San Fer- 
nando valley on the east. 

Rising to the top of this ridge one looks 
Southward and Westward over a basin of 25 
miles in diameter, enclosing the Old Mission of 
San Fernando and therancho of the same name. 
We believe this is one of the estates of the 
original Spanish occupants that remains — a por- 
tion at least, in first hands. The DeCellis re- 
taining 56,200 acres out of 115,200 which the 
whole rancho contains. 

This is the basin and reservoir of the Los 
Angeles river, and is so arranged as to retain 
and hold back the moisture which gives the 
never failing supplies, that irrigate the gardens 
and orange groves of the city of the Angels. 
That attitude has an important bearing upon 
the condensing or rain capacity of our locality, 
as is verified in this vicinity. 

The amount of rainfall lessens as we go south 
all the way from the mouth of the Columbia to 
the San Diego; but in the vicinity of the higher 
elevations of Los Angeles and San Diego there 
is an exception to the rule. 

Since the atmosphere has been cleared by the 
rain, vision is almost unobstructed; the moun- 
tains twenty miles away showing every feature 
in the clear cut outline, the light and shade of 
the corrogationson their sides tinted off in pur- 
ple, brown and buff, to variegate this frame in 
which is set the lovely picture. And this 
morning, Mount San Bernadino and even San 
Jacinto, one hundred miles away, are as plainly 
seen glistening with their snow crowns, as 
though they were within ten miles, r. m. s. 

Los Angeles, Jan. 5th, 1873. 

Fruit Packages. 

[Written for the Pbess.] 

These, as well as questions of freight and 
commission are important elements in the 
problem of reducing the margin between what 
the consumer pays and what the producer gets. 
As we are consumers at work for the producing 
class, this problem interests us in both its as- 

Questions of this class are worthy the dis- 
cusssion of Farmers' Clubs and we hope to 
get items of interest from them. In the mean- 
time we shall do our best to find out what they 
need and where they can be supplied. Let us 
do our talking and planning now; in peace 
prepare for war. 

Fruit Packages Should be Neat 
And tasty; for we must always sell to the eye 
before we can sell to the mouth, and in a 
crowded market what looks best will sell first 
and the rest will be left. Fresh packages always 
look best and this is one of the great advanta- 
ges of the 

Gift Package System 
In vogue at the East. There the apple and po- 
tato barrels are never returned, and the straw- 
berry baskets seldom. They should be 

For they must be tumbled about in a hurry on 
cars, boats and drays. If square boxes are not 
strong enough to bear dropping on the corner 
when filled, some will be broken. A small 
percentage of total loss from this cause will 
make a sad showing in the profit and loss ac- 

For we must pay as much freight on extra lum- 
ber as we do on fruit, and any unnecessary 
material is so much added to the cost. 

For a bit saved in the'eost of a box is a bit add- 
ed to the profit. This small item when mul- 
tiplied by the thousands that must be bought, 
makes a large sum. 

If we could save the State a cent on each 
grain sack used in California, it would be a 
great deal more than the Pbess costs for its 
whole yearly issue. 

Let us hear from the farmers in regard to 
the comparative merits of the various packages 
now in use. Let them give their suggestions 
for improvement and let the manufacturers 
tell ns ' ' What they are going to do about 
it." c. 

January 18, 1873.] 


i-T^Y P@T ES . 

Squash and Pumpkin Seed for Poultry. 

In our issue of Jan. 4th we gave a letter to 
to the N. Y. Farmer's Club from J. N. Book- 
staver of New Jersey, to the effect that he had 
found squash seeds fatal to his poultry ; also 
another from Mr. Anderson of Michigan, that 
he had found the same true also of pumpkin 

We have since seen a letter addressed to the 
Club from "H. E. U." of Long Island, in which 
he thinks the fowls above alluded to ' 'went died' ' 
of dropsy of the crop, a disease not uncommon 
among the feathered tribe when permitted to 
gorge themselves, as they are often injudicious 
enough to do. The fact that a fowl is suffering 
from this disorder may, he says, be ascertained 
by observing the crop puffed out and swollen, 
and filled with fluid and quite soft when han- 
dled. When this happens pills of soap rubbed 
with powdered rhubarb should be adminstered, 
three as large as peas, at a dose; if this does 
not bring relief half a teaspoonful of castor oil 
may be given, either of these medicines to be 
followed with six pills of bread crumbs, with 
ginger or red pepper, which should be fed daily 
for several days. The food should be scalded 
meal, fed slightly warm and moderate in quan- 

If neither of these remedies are successful, 
the crop may be punctured with perfect safety, 
and the fowl will mend at once. The skin 
should be carefully slit up with a pair of sharp 
scissors, for an inch and the crop laid bare. A 
small opening is then to be made in the crop 
and the liquid allowed to escape. The wound 
in ihe crop is then drawn together by means of 
a stitch passed through the lips with a common 
needle and thread, the ends of the thread tied 
and cut off. The wound in the skin is then 
treated in the same manner, but it is better to 
put two stitches here; each stitch should be 
separate — not made as in sewing cloth, but the 
thread passed through both lips of the wound, 
and the ends tied and cut off. This is a surgi- 
cal stitch. When fowls are crop-bound or 
gorged with food and go around gaping and 
stretching their necks as though they were 
choking, they should be taken instantly and re- 
lieved in this manner. Food of a soft charac- 
ter, as soaked bread, or boiled mush, should 
be fed moderately for a few days, and no harm 
will accrue. Our correspondent states that he 
has saved several light Brahmas in this way, 
and never had any subsequent trouble with 

Experiment In Raising Chickens. 

G. P. Wilcox, of Little Falls, says: "The fol- 
lowing results of careful experiment in the rais- 
ing of chickens, and the preliminary arrange- 
ment thereto, will be interesting to all readers 
who would raise fowls for market, expecting to 
make the business profitable. An experiment 
with thirty hens and one rooster was tried for 
sixty days, also a rooster with six hens for the 
same length of time, to see what would be the 
effect as a matter of fact in the two processes of 
breeding fowls, and to ascertain the effect upon 
the embryo in the egg, after the expiration of 
sixty days, in the two lots of fowls, which of 
course were not allowed to communicate with 
each other, nor any other fowls; the result as- 
certained was, that, at the expiration of sixty 
days, the embryo in the eggs of the six hens 
was found to be double the size of those in the 
thirty hens, and, that few of the eggs hatched 
in setting of the hens among the thirty lowls, 
while nearly every one of the eggs were hatched 
from those obtained from the six hens; and the 
vigor or strength of the chickens of those of the 
six hens at the time of their hatching was fully 
equal to those from the hatching of the thirty 
hens a week old. It will be necessary only to 
state that neither of these lots of fowls were 
confined, but had a large range, and were the 
result of the breeding of fowls that had been 
kept in the same manner for a series of genera- 
tions, neither had they been degenerated by 
breeding in-and-in, but with reference to the 
production of healthful and vigorous broods of 

Mr. Mechi on Poultry. 

Father Mechi, the celebrated English Agri- 
culturist says, inTthe Gardeners' Monthly: Poul- 
try is evidently dear food to the consumer; but 
does it cost more food to produce a pound of 
poultry than a pound of meat, live weight? I 
answer decidedly not, but the reverse. For 
my cattle and sheep don't eat worms and in- 
sects, whereas fowls consume them abundant- 
ly, and economize and apply every scattered 
seed or kernel that would otherwise be wasted. 
In another point of view, is the cost of atten- 
dance and shelter greater with poultry than 
with cattle? I reply not. As to tne produc- 
tion of eggs, that depends upon the quality and 
quanity of food administered; and the accom- 
paniments of proper warmth and shelter. 
There is no fear of overstocking the market 
with either eggs or poultry. I generally keep 
from 300 to 400 fowls. They have free access 

to every field during the whole of the year, and 
although they help themselves at harvest time, 
I always get my best crop of corn on the fields 
adjoining the hen house. I have this year two 
fields of wheat drilled, only one bushel of seed 
per acre. They come within ten to twenty 
yards of the fowl house, and are a perfect 
plant, although the poultry have been scratch- 
ing and cultivating the fields ever since they 
were drilled; but we are apt to forget that fowls, 
like sheep, manure where they go. I must say 
I used at one time to feel nervous and angry 
when I saw them hard at work on the newly 
sown corn, but I soon learned to feel confident 
that insects were their principle gain, and that 
my well and deeply-deposited corn escaped. 

To Obtain Good Laying Hens. 

It is claimed that there is as much advantage 
gained in paying strict attention in selecting 
hens with prolific tendencies, from any breed, 
as in selecting good milkers to improve the 
dairy stock, and the hypothesis — perhaps estab- 
lished fact — is one that stands to reason. Every 
one who keeps fowls is well aware certain ones 
are greater egg-producers than others of the 
flock, and the eggs of only such as these should 
be saved for the purpose of increase. 

One writer on this subject says that he is per- 
fectly certain that the number of two hundred 
eggs per annum may be attained in a few years' 
time with perfect ease should the object be sys- 
tematically sought. It is a matter within the 
means of all who feel interested in it and one 
that can be easily tested, without any knowl- 
edge whatever as to fancy points. If the poultry 
flock of a farmer can be made to produce double 
the eggs usually obtained from a certain num- 
ber of hens the improvement will be a paying 

Mr. L. Wright says, upon the same subject: — 
In every lot of hens some will be better layers 
than others. Let us suppose we start with six 
Houdans — a cock and five hens. Probably out. 
of this five two may lay thirty eggs per annum 
more than either of the others; their eggs should 
be noticed, and only these set. By following 
this for a few years a very great increase in egg- 
production may be attained. My attention was 
drawn to this subject by a friend having a 
Brahma pullet, which laid nearly three hun- 
dred eggs in one twelve-month, though value- 
less as a fancy bird, and the quality descended 
to several of her progeny; and I have since 
found other instances which prove conclusively 
that a vast improvement might easily be effected 
in nearly all our breeds, were that careful selec- 
tion of brood st >cks made for this purpose, 
which the fancier bestows on other objects. It 
is to be regretted more is not done in this way; 
any having more room than I had, I hope my- 
self to make some experiments in this direction 
shortly. I will say now that I am perfectly 
certain the number of two hundred esgs per 
annum might be attained in a few years with 
perfect ease were the object systematically 
sought. I trust these few remarks may arouse 
a general attention to it amongst those who keep 
poultry for eggs only, and who can easily do all 
that is necessary without any knowledge what- 
ever of fancy points, or any attempts to breed 
exhibition birds. 

Helping Chickens From the Shell. 

Many of our best books on poultry discour- 
age any attempt to assist a weak chicken when 
its own efforts to burst its prison walls are in- 
effectual. It is urged that any excitement 
about the nest worries the hen exceedingly; 
that the operation is an exceedingly delicate 
one, not to be readily or hastily performed; 
and that even when the poor little creature 
survives at the time, it will not live to maturity. 

With regard to those objections, we say, 
when it appears that part of the brood have 
been hatched some time, twelve hours, perhaps, 
let the mother with the chickens already out 
be furnished with a fresh ne3t where they may 
have a little food within reach. If an egg has 
been "chipped" and no further progress made, 
take a pair of sharp pointed scissors and cut 
up to the blunt end of the egg, and in that 
vicinity remove one-third of the whole shell, but 
do not draw blood ; then place what remains 
in the nest under the hen. 

Our experience has shown that with this 
treatment death was an impossibility; the 
probability, life and strength. The writer once 
employed this method upon an egg after it had 
been "chipped" and lain wholly uncovered for 
fifteen hours. In six hours the chicken was on 
its legs, and afterwards grew to be a heavy, 
healthy bird. 

A chicken which is too feeble to hatch 
naturally must surely die if assistance be with- 
held; on the other hand, there is every reason 
to expect that nature will rally when encour- 
aged and stimulated by the co-operation of 
man, and that we shall be rewarded for our 
trouble Ewith that satisfaction which results 
from the saving of life. — Jour, of the Farm. 

Preserving Eggs. — A Parisian paper recom- 
mends the following method for preserving 
eggs : Dissolve four ounces of beeswax in eight 
ounces of warm olive oil; in this put the tip of 
the finger and anoint the egg all round. The 
oil will immediately be absorbed by the shell 
and the pores filled up by the wax. If kept in 
a cool place, the eggs, after two years, will be 
as good as if fresh laid. 

The Use of Zinc. 

In France, Belgium and Germany, the area 
of roofing annually covered with zinc is from 
40,000,000 to 50,000,000 sq. ft., and the expe- 
rience of 50 years shows that it forms a per- 
fectly sound and nearly imperishable roof-cov- 
ering. In England its use is unpopular, if we 
may use the expression, and mainly, we think, 
because the principles upon which it should be 
used are yet hardly understood. When first in- 
troduced, about the early part of the present 
century, there were no English workmen who 
thoroughly comprehended the nature of the 
material with which they had to deal, and a 
special knowledge is absolutely necessary. 

In the first place, the expansion and contrac- 
tion of zinc under atmospheric influences are 
greater than those of other metals in ordinary 
use. Copper, which is very efficient, but rarely 
used on account of its cost, approaches it most 
nearly, but the expansion and contraction of 
zinc is pro rata, nearly one-third more than 
that of copper. Therefore in the construction 
of drips, laps and other uniting points, it is 
necessary that, while being sufficiently sound 
to keep out the weather, a certain "play" to 
use the technical phrase, should always be al- 
lowed. Any attempt to solder together a zinc 
roof into one homogeneous body is certainly 
followed by buckling, cracking and failure, and 
this was a fruitful source of trouble in the 
earlier transactions. 

Another mistake made was, that the zinc was 
used too thin. The process of oxidation which 
this metal undergoes is peculiar. The rusted 
surface does not rub off or blow away, but 
forms a sort of hard crust of enamel upon the 
surface of the metal, and, whe i laid upon 
boarding which is or may become damp, or ex- 
posed to steam or condensat'on below, it rusts 
on both sides. The thin zincs introduced 
into England in this way were rusted through 
ihey then became brittle, and failure was the 
result. But if the zinc be of sufficient thick- 
ness, after a certain period of time oxidation 
ceases, and we hrve a body of solid, sound 
metal, encased above and below by a solid coat- 
ing thoroughly impermeable to the accidents of 
weather or temperature, and which requires no 
painting. To give the exact figures as described 
in the trade, No. 9 gauge is too thin, and per- 
ishes. No. 14 gauge may be generally recom- 
mended as sufficie it. 

There are various ways of laying the zinc. 
First, it may belaid in a corrugated form with- 
out boarding, the trusses of iron or wood of the 
roof carrying the weight; or one may lay it in 
what is called the Italian style, or rafters about 
1 ft. more or less apart, with a corrugation at 
each rafter only; or in a third manner, upon a 
general surface of boarding, in the manner of 
a lead flat, the necessary drips, ridges, etc., pro- 
vided for in the construction, with the extra al- 
lowance for expansion and contraction which 
the peculiar nature of the metal requires. — The 

Decay of Stone. 

Dr. R. Angus Smith, of London, Eng., has 
observed that the particles of stone most liable 
to be in long contact with rain from town at- 
mospheres, in England at least, were most sub- 
ject to decay. 

Believing the acid in the rain to be the cause, 
he supposed the endurance of a silicious stone 
might be measured by its resistance to acids. 
Ke proposed, therefore, to use stronger solu- 
tions, and thus to approach to the action of 
long periods of time. He tried a few specimens 
in this way, and with most promising results. 

Pieces of stone of about one cubic inch in 
size were broken, by allowing a hammer to fall 
upon them, the numbe/ of blows required to 
produce fracture being counted. Similar pieces 
were steeped in dilute acid; both snlphuric and 
muriatic acid were tried, and the lattter pre- 
ferred. The number of blows now necessary 
was counted. Some sandstones gave way at 
once, and crumbled into powder, some resisted 
long. One very dense silicious stone was but 
little effected. It had stood on a bridge (in a 
country place, howe vei) unaltered for centur- 

These trials are merely the beginnings of a 
very extensive set of experiments about to be 
undertaken by Dr. Angus Smith, with a view 
to establish a standard of comparison. 

Iron Ships. — Some shipbuilders predict the 
failure of iron in ships, which will cause a re- 
vival in trade in wooden ships, and assert that 
iron vessels are always ready to sink when the 
heads of the iron rivets become corroded. 
That their decadence, when commenced, will 
be rapid. 

Science is studied by the observation of facts. 
But observation is not easy. It requires more 
memory and a further perspective than most 
men possess. Experiment, too, is necessary, 
which is a series of questions put to Nature, and 
no witness can be found more difficult to exam- 

A Planet Between Mercury and the 

It has for some time been suspected by 
astronomers that there was a small planet re- 
volving about tne sun, between that luminary 
and the orbit of Mercury, and with a period of 
revolution of about 20 days. This matter has 
been quite recently alluded to in Nature. In 
the Scientific American of Dec. 14th, Mr. J. R. 
Hind called especial attention to the subject 
and suggested that, on March 24th next, the 
sun's disk should be watched, as a conjunction 
of this hypothetical planet with the sun is ex- 
pected to occur about 10 a. m. on that day. 

In a subsequent number of the same paper, 
Mr. John H. Tice, an astronomer of St. Louis, 
Mo., writes as follows: In the latter half of 
September, 1859 — I cannot now fix the exact 
date, though it may have been about the 20th — 
I saw the planet pass over the disk of the sun. 
I first saw it about 9 o'clock, my attention be- 
ing called to it by some boys who were looking 
at the sun ^through a smoked glass. It was 
then on the eastern limb, and its apparent 
diameter was about 2% inches. It took it 
about two hours to pass over the sun. As it is 
impossible for any of the known interior plan- 
ets to pass over the sun in the month of Sep- 
tember, it must have been an unknown planet. 
I communicated this fact to the navt>,l professors 
in 1869, requesting that search be made for 
this interior planet at the eclipse of that year, 
but nothing was ascertained. 

New Theory op Cyclones. — An officer con- 
nected with the Spanish navy has published a 
new theory of cyclones, which is, at least, a 
very plausible one. He found his reasoning on 
the hypothesis that a zone of air, saturated 
with vapor and compressed by two opposite 
forces, requires a power of resistance peculiar 
to solid bodies, and may, therefore, be made to 
revolve like a disk. He applies this hypothesis 
to the typhoons of the Chinese Sea, and shows 
what is universally known, that there is a 
northeast trade wind and a southwest monsoon, 
and that between these two winds there exists 
in the Pacific a zone of calms which shifts its 
position in accordance with the pievailing 
wind — that is always on the side of the weaker 
one. Now, if these winds be oblique to each 
other and unequal, the zone will revolve, and, 
as it finds no obstacle to stop it, it will also be 
shifted more or less horizontally, which is the 
exact motion of cyclones. 

Flour Without Millstones. — Another de- 
vice for making flour without the use of mill- 
stones is being put to a practical trial in En- 
gland. The grain is crushed by one thousand 
little trip hammers attached to the proper ma- 
chinery to produce the result desired. The 
machinery is said to be very cheap, doing up 
its work in a most scientific manner, and 
flour produced is said to be far superior to that 
obtained by grinding. A pouudiug mill cost- 
ing one thousand dollars, will produce as much 
flour every day as an old-fashioned mill costing 
$5,000. The new mill is very simple. When 
a hammer is out of order you can replace the 
same with a few cents. For four thousand 
years millers have produced flour by grinding 
the grain with stones. What will be the result 
of the modern attempts to do without grinding 
stones remains to be seen. 

Singing Flames. — M. Peaneth, says Les Mon- 
des, has found that if a flame burning in the 
open air be approached to a vibratory tuning 
fork, the sound of the latter is considerably in- 
creased, as if it were placed in contact with the 
box of a stringed instrument. The sound ac- 
quires its greatest intensity when the flame is 
placed between the two branches of the fork. 
This phenomenon is believed to be analogous 
to the singing flame, only in such case it is the 
flame that excites the vibratory movement of 
the tube in order to place itself in similar syn- 
chronous vibrations; while, in the above men- 
tioned instance, it is the fork that gives the 
tone and the flame takes up vibration in uni- 

Steel Rails are still gaining in favor on first- 
class railroads. By the end of the present 
season the Chicago and Alton Railroad Com- 
pany will have one-fourth of its road laid with 
steel, and it has contracted for enough to lay 
another quarter of the road by the end of the 
next season. 

The Boston and Albany Railroad have also 
decided to substitute steei for iron rails upon 
the entire track of that road as fast as practica- 
ble. About 9,000 tons of steel rails have been 
purchased with this object in Europe, 4,000 
tons of which will be delivered this year and 
5,000 tons next year. They will be laid as fast 
as they are received. 

Plant Phosphorescence. — The Rev. M. J. 
Berkley describes, in the Gardeners' Chronicle, a 
very remarkable instance of luminosity in fun- 
gi. It occured in the mycelium of an unknown 
species growing on a trunk of spruce or larch, 
and was so powerful as to make a perfect blaze 
of white light in the track where the trunk had 
been dragged, and vividly illuminating every- 
thing in contact with it. It gave almost light 
enough to read the time on the face of a watch, 
and continued for three days. 

A Quadruple Railroad Track. — It is an- 
nounced that the New York Central Railroad 
Company have decided to lay a new double 
track all the way between New York and Buf- 
falo, making a quadruple track (of eight rails) 
between the two cities. 



[January 18, 1873. 

p^Rfl*EE\S Ifl CqJ^CIL. 

Farmers' Club of Sacramento. 

The Club met on Saturday, Jan. 11. In the 
absence of the President, H. M. La Rue -was 
called to the chair. 

The Carrying Trade. 

Being called, Judge J. H. McKune delivered an 
extended and interesting address, but which is 
too lengthy for our columns. 

James Rutter followed McKune in some well 
considered remarks. 

J. K. Johnson said he had been entertained 
and instructed with the report of McKune's re- 
marks a week ago, and by listening to those 
made to-day. It had come to the question among 
common carriers what freight can this or that 
article or class of goods bear, rather than what 
can we afford to carry this or that article or 
class of goods for? 

Thus they make their caleulations to take all 
that any particular product can possibly stand 
up under and not be absolutely crushed out of 
existence. Henry Clay was said to have been 
the father of the idea of national, internal im- 
provements. He early saw the necessitj' of en- 
couraging and improving a system of commerce 
between the States, and labored to bring about 
such a system, knowing that the development 
of the country would be accelerated by a cheap 
carrying trade. 

Of late years we have to contend with Credit 
Mobiliers, which, with the subsidies received 
from the people, manage to subsidize the peo- 
ple's agents and servants, the members of Con- 
gress, and thus to obtain further subsidies and 
favors, and oppress and rob the people them- 
selves while pretending to look after and main- 
tain their rights. He referred to a system of in- 
ternational improvements adopted in Pennsyl- 
vania; that of the Government building canals 
and allowing private companies to run boats 
upon them upon the payment of cerlain rates 
of toll, and advocated the adoptiou of such a 
plan by the General Government with reference 
to the railroads. In this way the management 
or operatingof the road would be in the hands of 
private companies, subject to such restrictions 
as the Government may see fit to impose upon 
them. The private companies would thus be 
subject to competition, and secure fair rates of 
charges, and these companies would be liable 
to all private parties for damages or neglect of 

It would almost seem now that the people 
who have subsidized these railoads, must, in 
order to bring the railroads to do them justice, 
turn about and subsidize their own representa- 
tives by paying them larger amounts than the 
railroads can pay them. 

Greenlaw — We as farmers are not supposed to 
know much about operating railroads, but we 
do know what effects too high rates of fares 
have on the industry of the country. When we 
see species of any article we produce on our 
farms high, and the demand good, but find that 
we cannot transport that article to the market 
at the rates of freight charged by the rail- 
road, we are discouraged in the continuod 
production of such article, and the agricultu- 
ral industry is thus cramped and the country 
retarded in its improvement and development. 

There now seems to be an auspicious time for 
the country. There is an investigation now 
going on in Congress which promises to develop 
some very strange things, and now is the time 
for the people to stir themselves, to extend 
their encouragement and sympathy to the hon- 
est men who are engaged in this investigation; 
and to demand and obtain justice from the cor- 
porations. We are glad we have help to ex- 
pose tke wrongs we suffer. 

J. S. H-irbison had given the subject some 
consideration, but not with a view to express his 
thoughts till within a short time. We as farm- 
ers have a good work to do near at home — to 
see that we have good public roads. Last win- 
ter a few members of this club made efforts to 
get the Legislature to pass some wholesome 
laws to secure better roads into this city, but a 
few sharpers managed to secure the change of 
the public road leading down the Sacramento 
river into a private turnpike, and to allow the 
owners of the same to tax the producers of Yolo, 
Solano and other counties for traveling over it, 
to bring their produce to market. Thus for the 
benefit of a few individuals, the city loses the 
trade of a large section of agricultural country, 
the public are greatly inconvenienced — produc- 
tion discouraged. Thus, the people's rights 
are trifled with by our representatives. The 
subject of shipping wheat has been referred to 
and Friedlander's name used. Friedlander in 
this business is a mere miff.(?) It is really the 
old ring— a combination of inside operators 
who conspire against the people, and Fried- 
lander is the open agent or operator of the ma- 
chinery. The only way to remedy the evils 
we suffer is in combination of the industrial 
classes. Elect good and honest men to fill our 
political offices, to send to Congress and the 
State Legislature. We have a good man for 
President, and some noble men in Congress, 
who seem determined to do their duty, and it 
now becomes us to encourage and sustain them 
in their worthy efforts. The farmers and me- 
chanics have only to unite to control the desti- 
nies k of the State and nation. We can and 
must control the railroad system of the coun- 
try and make it subservisnt to ours and the 
country's wants and interests. We must not 

look for immediate results, but if we unite and 
act wisely the results of such action are not far 
in the future. We must forget all old political 
distinctions and unite and act for our own in- 
terest and that of the whole country. We 
must force corporations to do right, and not 
by the gun or bludgeon, but with the ballot — 
to save the use of the former. 

J. T. Day said he was a new member and 
would not be expected to say much, but he 
thought we should look more to the rising gen- 
eration. The way to correct any great evil is 
to properly educate the young. We should 
see to it that the right principles are instilled 
into the minds of the risiug generation. We 
are ourselves too much the worshippers of power 
and of people in place. 

Mr. Johnson offered the following: 

Beeobxd, That a committee of three be ap- 
pointed by the Chair to draw up and submit 
to this club at its next meeting the form of a 
memorial or petition to Congress, asking them 
to pass an Act to condemn to public use all the 
private interests in the railroads which have 
been built in part by the aid of the Govern- 
ment funds. 

Tbe resolution, after some discussion was 
unanimously adopted, and the Chairman ap- 
pointed on the committee J. R. Johnson, J. H. 
MrKune and James Rutter. 

The Secretary, I. N. Hoag, was also, on mo- 
tion, added to the committee. 

The carrying trade was continued for next 
week, and the club adjourned. 

Sonoma County Farmers' Club. 

Club met Saturday, January 4th, 1873, Vice- 
President Whittaker in the chair. 

Mr. Coulter, on behalf of Committee on Cor- 
porating. reported that the Committee had met 
several times and had in part examined the 
subject, but were not prepared to report. The 
new codes going into effect on first of January, 
and the changes in the mode of incorporating, 
had introduced some new features into the dis- 
cussion, upon which the Committee were una- 
ble to agree. The Committee were also divided 
on the question of the character of the corpora- 
tion, i. e., whether it should be for profit, or 
merely beneficial, or ^social, whether it should 
have a capital stock or not. He therefore asked 
for further time to report. 

Mr. Rector said: The Committee may ap- 
pear to have been tardy, but the reasons for 
delay are many. One was that a Committee of 
the State Farmers' Union were to have met in 
San Francisco on the 3d inst., and we thought 
that they would take some action in reference 
to the incorporation of the State Union, or 
recommend a plan of action for county clubs, 
and that our report had better be deferred un- 
til we could hear from them. 

The Committee granted further time. 

Mr. Whittaker, from Committee on Hall, re- 
ported that the hall would not be ready for ten 
days for occupancy. 

Mr. De Turk suggested that steps be taken 
to open the hall with an entertainment of 
some character. 

A member proposed that a lecture be given 
and an admission fee charged, by that means 
we would obtain sufficient funds to furnish the 

ilr. Rector opposed charging admission fees. 
It looked humiliating to go to the public for 
support. We are able to carry on our own op- 
erations. If we are bound together to effect an 
object of pecuniary value to ourselves, let us 
pay our own way. To beg subscriptions or do- 
nations is an admission of weakness. 

Mr. Maslin moved that a committee be ap- 
pointed by the President with power to provide 
an entertaiumtnt of some character suitable to 
the occasion. 

The President appointed Messrs. Thompson, 
Coulter and Rector on the Committee. 

It was ie.-,olved that there should be no ad- 
mission fee, and that the Club would pay its 
own way. 

Sutter County Farmers' Club. 

The Club met according to call, January 4th, 
1873, Dr. Chandler in the chair. J. W. Moore 
was elected temporary Secretary. Remarks 
were made by Mr. Ohleyer and others, and a 
motion made that the office of Secretary be de- 
clared vacant, and a Secretary be elected at the 
next meeting. The motion whs carried. 

Mr. Ohleyer spoke of the propriety of organiz- 
ing the Club, after the manner suggested by 
the State Union, and building a warehouse 
somewhere on the line of the railroad for the 
storage of grain, none but farmers and mem- 
bers of the Club to have stock in it. 

Mr. Chaudlor then offered a resolution as 

Resolved, That this Club'proceed to incor- 
porate under the general incorporation law of 
the State of California, in order that it may 
proceed to acquire and hold real estate and per- 
form such other acts as the Club may deem 

The resolution was adopted as the question 
of discussion at the next meeting. Discussion 
was also ha 1 as to which is the best variety of 
trees to plant for fruit, shade and fuel, which 
question will also be discussed at the next meet- 
ing, the late hour at which the Club met neces- 
sitating an adjournment before a full discus- 
sion was had. Meeting adjourned for two 
weeks, until Saturday, January 18th, at two 
o'cloek v. m. 

Oakland Farming, Hortieultural and 
Industrial Club. 

Friday evening, Jan. 10th, Dr. E. S. Carr, 
President, in the Chair. 

A communication from Mr. I. N. Hoag to 
Mrs. Carr, complimenting the Club on its 
action in favor of street shade-tree planting, 
and also recommending the mulberry tree, was 

The annual report of the Secretary was read 
and ordered on file. It contained a list of 46 
members. Mrs. J. P. Moore and Mr. A. 
Holmes were elected to regular membership, 
and Mr. W. Halley, of the Brooklyn ILnnc 
Journal, to honorary membership. The Club 
now has seven lady and forty-two gen tlemen 

The association has been organized six 
months, and President Carr, who has probably 
visited more farmers' clubs in this State than 
any other person, spoke encouragingly of its 
progress, of the regular attendance of its orga- 
nizers and of many new members. The good 
they have already accomplished by exchanging 
ideas at home, and, through the auxiliary of 
the press, disseminating information abroad, 
has been worthy of the time given to the meet- 
ings — while the prospects for greater influence 
in the future, for our own and other clubs in 
the State, are certainly very gratifying. The 
announcement of 

Mr. 1. Ross Browne's Lecture, 
On the agricultural interests of the State, drew 
an unusual number of visitors to the meeting. 
He gave many carefully gathered facts, and 
enlivened his lecture in a conversational way 
with interesting personal incidents. We hope 
to give his address in full in a future issue. A 
resolution of thanks was passed "for his ex- 
ceedingly interesting lecture — and especially 
for plain and truthful sentiments favoring 
legitimate agricultural and industrial enter- 

Being the evening for annual election the 
President appointed Mr. John E. Benton, teller. 
The following officers were unanimously chos- 
en: Prest.. Dr. E. S. Carr; Vice-Prest's., J. V. 
Webster, Dr. W. P. Gibbons, and Christian 
Bagge; Sec'y., A. T. Dewey; Treas., Chas. II. 
Dwindle; Librarian, Miss Jennie C. Carr. 

On motion of Mr. C. Bagge, the Chair ap- 
pointed a committee to memorialize the City 
Council to designate some suitable place in the 
city for a market place for produce raisers to 
congregate and dispose of their produce as of- 
ten as twice a week. Messrs. Bagge, Webster 
and Dwinelle were appointed. 

Adjourned to Friday evening, Jan. 24th. 

Yolo County Farmers' Club. 

There was a litttle better attendance at the 
meeting of the Club on Saturday last than at 
the previous meeting, but not so many by half 
as there ought to have been, when the objects 
of the Club are known — to protect farmers by 
combination from such outrages as were prac- 
ticed upon them the past season in keeping 
down the price of wheat; for interchange of 
views, and general improvement. With such 
objects, it does seem as though Yolo, which is 
one of the very foremost wheat growing coun- 
ties in the State, ought to have a Farmers' Club 
of at least a hundred members. The prospect 
now is that our county will have at least as 
much wheat to sell this year as last. It is none 
too soon now to be forming plans for protection, 
and to be casting about for the best means of 
disposing of the coming crop. By the first of 
March the crop will all be in the ground and 
it will be known what the acreage is, with a 
pretty good chance to figure on the yield. Af- 
ter that time farmers will have more leisure, 
and they will surely, for their own interest take 
an active part in the Club. By acting jointly 
they can control the markets, instead of being 
obliged to take just what middlemen see fit to 
offer, regardless of the real worth in the con- 
suming markets of the world. There are a 
great many more things farmers may do to im- 
prove their own condition and prospects, 
which we have not now time or room to refer 
to, but which will come up in due time. Tbe 
next meeting of the Club will be on Saturday 
next, Jan. 18th. 

How to Enjoy Life. — It is wonderful to what 
an extent people believe happiness depends on 
not being obliged to labor. Honest, hearty, 
contented labor is the only source of happiness, 
as well as the only guarantee of life. The 
gloom of misanthropy is not only a great de- 
stroyer of happiness we might have, but it 
tends to destroy life itself. Idleness and lux- 
ury produce premature decay much faster than 
many trades regarded as the most exhaustive 
and fatal to longevity. Labor in general, in- 
stead of shortening the term of life, actually 
increases it. It is the lack of occupation that 
destroys so many of the wealthy, who, having 
nothing to do, play the part of drones, and 
like them make a speedy exit, while the busy 
bee fills out its day of usefulness and honor. 

The Evolution Theory. 

In all that has been said in favor of the Dar- 
winian doctrine of evolution it is claimed that 
no one has yet been bold enough to assail the 
position that "there is a distinction in kind be- 
tween the mental faculties of man and those of 
the brute; and that in consequence of this dis- 
tinction in kind, no gradual progress from the 
mental faculties of the one to those of the other 
can have taken place." James More, M. D., 
furnishes the London Lancet for July 27, 1872, 
with a paper upon this special point from 
which we condense as follows: 

This specific distinction is nowhere more ap- 
parent than in the feelings andemotions. A very 
slight observation is sufficient to convince us 
that, though there is a close similarity, or even 
identity, in what may be called the physical or 
corporal feelings of man aud the brute, still 
man stands alone in the possession of purely, 
intellectual and moral emotions. It is in vir- 
tue of his animal or corporal organization that 
man possesses, like the brute, theso grosser feel- 
ings; but it is iu virtue of his self consciousness 
that he possesses feelings and emotions which, 
in their expression, control the intelligence, 
guide the will and are in strict harmony with 
his religious nature. 

We cannot but admit that the lower animals 
have feelings and emotions of a complex kind, 
which, besides entering largely into their men- 
tal life, produce much the same effect upon 
their bodily organization as the same feelings 
and emotions do on man. Terror acts in the 
same manner on them as on us, causing the 
muscles to tremble, the heart to palpitate, etc. 
They have suspicion, courage, fear, affection 
aud other allied emotions; but on analyzing 
these feelings, we are bound to admit that they 
are, for the most part, of physical origin — in 
fact, that they are simply modes of instinctive 

When man is the subject of any kind of feel- 
ing he looks inwardly, into his own being, and 
not outwardly. Our emotions are purely sub- 
jec&ive. On the other hand, the emotions of the 
lower animals are deficient in the subjective 
element. Like their higher instinctive and 
probably also their intellectual acts, their emo- 
tions are merely acts of objective consciousness 
Their feelings are always related to some object, 
and can come into play only in the actual pres- 
ence of that object. Their emotions have never 
any reference to any general notion or abstract 
idea, but merely to external objects of the 

This distinction — that of subjective in man and 
objective in the brute — our author holds to be a 
specific and important one, and places man in 
a position far above that of the brute — a posi- 
tion, which could not have been arrived at by 
the latter through millions of ages of evolution- 

In the brute, the appetites, feelings, or emo- 
tions being under the influence and guidance 
of instinct, must be obeyed, and they are often 
obeyed contrary to the conditions under which 
they ought to be manifested. This is ir hit is 
sometimes called blind instinct; it is simply the 
manifestation of any feeling or emotion apart 
from conscious intelligence. 

An instance in point is given of a dog, which 
while suffering under the knife of his master, 
used for pcientific purposes, licked the hand 
that gave him pain — thus showing a feeling of 
love apart from intelligence. 

The brute is incapable of being actuated by 
mixed feelings or motives, one idea being al- 
ways dominant and guiding their conduct. 

In recapitulation our author finally says: 
— "We find that the feelings and emotions of 
man give him quite a distinctive character, and 
seem to exclude him from the scale of mere 
animal being. 

1. The emotions in man are subjective, in the 
brute they are purely objective acts. 

2. Man has intellectual, moral and corporal 
emotions, which may hold simple or complex re- 
lations, according as they are conditioned by 
consciousness or self-consciousness. 

3. The brute has corporal emotions, which 
may hold simple or complex relations, accord- 
ing as they are conditioned by instinct or intel- 

4. Man possesses emotions which have refer- 
ence to his nesthetic or religious nature. 

5. The feelings and the emotions of the brute, 
like the purely corporal emotions in man, 
have reference only to the preservation of the 
individual and continuation of the species. 

G. The higher emotions of man hold very 
complex relations to the element of time, and 
place him in harmony with the past, present and 

7. The emotions of the brute have reference 
only to the present. 

8. The emotions of man are in strict harmony 
with his moral will. The emotions of the brute 
are in accord only with volition. 

9. Certain emotions in man and animals be- 
come, under certain circumstances, dominant 
in the mind, conquering and replacing all other 
emotions and feelings. 

10. Man can control or prevent his domina- 
tion of feelings; the brute cannot. 

11. The emotion or feeling of wonder is one 
of the most important in man, and, from its 
special relations to time and space, forms one 
of the most distinctive features in his mind. In 
the brute this feeling has no definite relation to 
time or space. 

Fire-proof Mansard roofs are among the 
timely specialties of the Union Foundry Works 
of Chicago. 

January 18, 1873.] 


^q^ictkydF^L fl©TEs. 


Transcript, Jan. 9: Grain Shipments.— The 
sixty ninth ship laden with wheat from this port 
for Liverpool will haul into the stream to-mor- 
row or day following. She is named the Royal 
Sovereign, and was built on the Clyde — is an 
iron vessel, and has visited this harbor before. 
She is of 1,388 tons register, and will carry 
hence 1,850 tons of wheat. A gentleman thor- 
oughly conversant with the situation, informs 
us that the great grain monarch of the State, 
I. Friedlander of San Francisco, has shipped 
on his own account from Oakland alone, sev- 
enty thousand tons of wheat since the first of 
July, 1872. The wheat arrivals at the wharf 
still keep up to the old standard. 

New Manufacturing Establishment. — There 
is being finished and furnished with the neces- 
sary implements and machinery, on the corner 
of Tenth and Franklin street, one of the most 
extensive manufacturing establishments in Oak- 
land. It is the Wagon and Carriage manufac- 
tory of Mr. Hammond. The ground occupied 
by the buildings is 75x75 feet. The main 
building is 40x75, and two stories in hight. 
The lower floor will be devoted to wagon mak- 
ing and repairing, and the upper story for fin- 
ishing and painting. The establishment will 
compete with any in the State for character of 
work and prices. 

Dispatch, Dec. 28 : We were shown some very 
nice large oranges a few dayg ago, which were 
raised on the ranch of Mr. Hubbell Loveridge, 
near Butte City, about three miles from Jack- 
son. We were also shown a lot of small ones, 
about the size of a hen's egg, but full grown 
and ripe, which were raised on the ranch of 
Mrs. Pitois, a short distance above town. 

Gazette, Jan. 4: The Kamie. — George D. 
Roberts, who has already experimented with 
the ramie plant upon tule lands, has provided 
for setting out 250,000 roots this season, on 
Twitchell Island, and is confident of success. 
The plant will afford two crops a season under 
proper conditions of soil and culture, and a 
machine has been perfected in San Francisco 
for separating the fiber, which is worth from 
$300 to $400 per ton, when properly prepared. 

Naerow-Gauoe Project. — The project of a 
narow-gauge railroad from deep water at Mar- 
tinez to the Amador valley, is engaging the at- 
tention of parties able to furnish a considerable 
portion of the capital for the enterprise if the 
stock can be taken and held so that the 
control and management of the road will rest 
and remain in the land owners and residents of 
the district through which it is proposed to 
build the road. The construction anil equip- 
ment of thirty miles of road on the proposed 
line would not exceed $320,000, and it would 
undoubtedly pay a good interest on its cost at 
moderate charges for business, besides tending 
to promote improvement and enhance the 
' value of property. We would commend this 
enterprise to the consideration of the people 
of the central portion of this county and the 
Amador Valley, in entire confidence that the 
road can be built without any straining of 
means by their united efforts. 


Expositor, Jan. 1: Rapid Vegetation.— On 
Sunday the 22d ult., the ground was entirely 
destitute of growing vegetation, the roads were 
dusty, and everything looked as uninviting as 
it possibly could. About nine o'clock p. m., 
on that day the rain began falliDg and on 
Thursday following the rain still continuing, 
the ground was green with growing grass and 
weeds, and to-day, ten days after the first rain 
fell, the growing grasses have attained a hight 
of more than an inch. We do not think any 
place in the world outside of California, can 
equal this spontaneous growth, and nc place 
in its borders can excel this. 

Jan. 8: Farming. — Farming is going ahead 
with great activity at this time in this county. 
Every available horse and man is being put to 
the plow, harrow, and cultivator. Mr. Gould, 
near Fresno has several four-horse gang plows 
in operation, breaking up his lands, and a large 
number of grape vines, fruit trees, etc., have 
arrived on the ground for planting. This gen- 
tleman has built him a neat and comfortable 
residence, put up a large and substantial barn, 
and outhouses. He will cultivate several hun- 
dred acres of land. Mr. A. Weighe is plowing 
up his land. He will cultivate about 1,000 
acres. Mr. Voorman, we understand will plant 
about as much more. The Easterby farm is be- 
ing prepared, and we learn that a large amount 
of new land will be seeded this year. Numbers 
of other parties are planting from one hundred 
and sixty to one thousand acres of land. Most 
of this land will be put to wheat, but a large 
quantity of cotton, barley, oats, and the like 
will be planted. All those who can irrigate 
will wait till they harvest their grain crops be- 
fore planting corn. The prospects for the 
farmers are good, and this makes everybody 
else feel cheerful. 

A tomato vine, with fruit in all stages of 
growth, from the flower to the ripening tomato, 
may be seen growing in the open air, in the 
rear of Lawrenson's Saloon. This has been 
the coldest winter known in this county, and 
yet the frosts have not been sufficiently heavy 
to injure the plant. 

Narbow-Gauge Railroad Meetings. — Mr. A. 
J. Atwell and A. W. Roysdon, have been visit- 
ing the different localities, in this connty, so- 
liciting subscriptions to the stock of the pro- 

posed narrow-gauge railroad through the San 
Joaquin Valley. They report quite flattering 
suocess, particularly in the towns of Kingston 
and Centerville, aomething over 200 shares 
having already been taken in this county. 

Independent, Jan. 4: A Home Industry. — We 
are pleased to note the existence, or recent 
adoption rather, of a new industry, which to a 
considerable extent will retain at home money 
that has hitherto gone to San Francisco. This 
is the article of salt, which comes from the 
Rhodes marsh, a few miles north of Columbus, 
from which point all requisite quantities can 
be brought as back loads by Bishop Creek 
teams seeking at that town a market for farm 
produce. The salt is of a very superior quality, 
and can be furnished here at a less cost than 
the imported article. The distance over which 
it is hauled to this point is about 145 miles. 
Mr. W. G. Murkley, at Bishop Creek, keeps 
quantities of it on hand for sale. 

Southern Californian, Jan. 9: The weather 
for the week has been all that the most chronic 
weather grumbler could desire; cloudy and 
warm, with no frost at night. And in conse- 
quence the grass is springing at a marvelous 
rate. The plains and foothills are already 
covered with a fine growth of alfileria, affording 
abundant and delicious feed for stock. 

Democrat, Jan. 11: Plowing. — In this valley 
during the week every available plow and plow- 
horse have been put into requisition. The 
ground is reported in fine condition, almost 

One of the gas wells was opened Tuesday 
night for the gratification of some strangers in 
town. The jet was not very strong, the pipe 
being apparently in a great measure choked by 
sand and gravel, but the flame seemed as pure 
and brilliant as at first. 

Cotton. — The experiments of Col. Strong 
and others have demonstrated that in the San 
Joaquin Valley, cotton may be grown success- 
fully. Though a summer crop, irrigation, we 
are told, is not necessary to it; on the contrary, 
that the experimenters in question allege that 
wherever a fair stand of wheat oan be obtained 
there also cotton will grow. It is added that 
our coast country is not unsuited to the plant. 
We hear that parties are proposing to experi- 
ment with it in our valleys this year. 

Reporter, Jan. 11: Beet Sugarie. — We have 
often urged, the subject of a beet sugarie to the 
attention of our capitalists. That such an in- 
stitution in Napa, where the soil seems special- 
ly adapted to the raising of the beet, and where 
shipping facilities and cheap rents offer super- 
ior advantages, would be eminently successful 
as an investment, the results of the sugaries 
already established in the State place beyond a 
doubt. The Sacramento Valley Sugarie will 
enlarge their sphere of operations the present 
year, and in addition to their lands at Brighton 
formerly cultivated, will plant about 400 acres 
near Davisville in beets. 

Register, Jan. 4: Judge Stanley, who inherits 
a vast property from Hon. Edward Stanley, 
lately deceased, including the Rancho de los 
Cameros, is preparing to establish one of the 
greatest dairy ranches on this coast. The ne- 
cessary buildings are now in course of erection, 
and already make a feature in the landscape 
opposite Suscol. The Judge has made exten- 
sive preparations for watering the uplands of 
his estate. The lower portions, including the 
tule lands, have sufficient moisture in them- 
selves to yield at all seasons abundant nutrition 
and succulent food to vast herds of cattle. The 
enterprise is onalargescale andpromisesprofit- 
able results. 

Republican Jan. 4: White Fish for the 
Truckee River. — Spencer F. Baird, the United 
States Fish Commissioner, has notified the 
Fish Commissioner of this State that he has ap- 
propriated 50,000 eggs of the white fish of the 
Western lakes for California These eggs will 
soon be forwarded from the East and hatched 
at Comee Bros.'s fishery on the Truckee river. 
After the eggs are hatched and the fish of suffi- 
cient size they will be placed in Tahoe and Don- 
ner lake and also in the Truckee river. 


Herald, Jan. 11: Alfalfa. — That this in the 
end is to be the chief cultivated grass of Cali- 
fornia, seems to admit of little doubt; but 
whether it can be made to take root and thrive 
and grow perennially on the dry and rocky 
ridges of the foot-hills and uplands of this sec- 
tion of the State, is the all-important question 
for the people of this county. We tried it 
last season on about as rocky a ridge and as 
poor soil as can be found. That which we ir- 
rigated a little is alive and now coming out 
nice and green. In spots that had no water at 
all it seemed dead in the fall, but now some of 
this even proves to be alive and is sending forth 
green leaves. Judge Fitch also experimented 
with it last soason, and feels confident that if 
properly seeded it will take hold and live on our 
hills without irrigation, yielding some two 
crops in a season, or be of equal value for pas- 
turage. If the roots can once penetrate moist- 
ure in the dryest time of the fust year it must 
be ever after safe, and sure to yield double or 
treble the provender of the natural grasses. 
We think these experiments would justify our 
farmers and stock men in trying it in a small 
way the coming season, and it will be time to 
put in the seed in about three weeks. 

Folsom Telegraph, Jan. 11 : At Work.— The 

farmers are all at work turning over the mellow 
soil in the vallys and on the hillsides. The 
grain looks better in the hills, and the grass al- 
ready is furnishing good feed. 

While the plains and valleys have been en- 
veloped in fog and drizzle of late, the hill coun- 
try in El Dorado, has been enjoying delightful 
sunshine and warm weather. 

Improving. — The Natoma Water & Mining 
Company are running several gang plows on 
their land at Alder Creek, and are also doing 
considerable work at the granite quarries, and 
on the canal designed for manufacturing pur- 
poses. The railroad leading from Folsom to 
the quarries has been placed in fine running or- 
der. Cobbles are again in active demand in 
San Francisco, where wood pavements have 
fallen into disrepute. 

A Mammoth Hog. — On Tuesday last, a hog 
which measured six feet three inches, and weigh- 
ed one hundred and eighty pounds dressed, and 
only seven months old, from Howard's ranch, 
was shipped on the S. V. train, to Alfred Spinks, 
of Sacramento. It was the smallest of the lit- 
ter which numbered seven. 


Press, Dec. 28 : Make Gardens.— New comers 
should be informed that all the hardier vegeta- 
bles, such as peas, onions, cabbages, turnips, 
beets, radishes, potatoes, etc., should be plant- 
ed at once, to a limited extent at least, as they 
will grow well and soon be ready for use. The 
market should be supplied with new potatoes 
grown upon the warm dry ground, by the first 
day of March. Some kinds will mature in 60 
days in favorable localities, on a warm sunny 
slope, for example. Select a sheltered, warm 
place and put in your seeds without delay. 
There is no excuse for any lack of fresh veget- 
ables in our markets. Gardeners neglected 
their own interests when they fail to be prompt 
in planting a full assortment of the hardier 
vegetable seeds, and the public is compelled to 
wait needless months for a supply of fresh 


Mercury, Jan. 9 : Competition. — The farmers 
and fruit growers of the valley held a meeting 
at the Farmers' Club room Saturday and per- 
fected a contract with Capt. Nelson, the owner 
of the steamers which plied between San Fran- 
cisco and Alviso last summer. By the new ar- 
rangements the boats will run regular trips ac- 
cording to the former schedule, and will carry 
fruit and freight at the old prices. Passengers 
will be charged, from San Jose' to San Francis- 
co, $1.00, or with berth $1.50; from San Fran- 
cisco to San Jose or Santa Clara $1.00, includ- 
ing everything. Due notice will be given of 
time of commencement of trips. 

Fruit Drying. — We have hardly begun yet to 
improve the almost inexhaustible opportunities 
which the rich soil and mild climate of this 
valley offer in the way of fruit culture. While 
our fruit-growers have long since reached the 
limit of the demand for green fruits, except in 
pear culture, which the overland railroad has 
given a new impetus to; we have made but a 
bare commencement in the matter of dried 
fruits, for which, when properly prepared, the 
demand is unlimited. This is a branch of in- 
dustry that cannot be overdone. The superior- 
ity of our fruits would give us precedence over 
those of any other section of country. We 
would command the markets of the world. 

There are thousands of acres of land in and 
arourd San Jose that would produce in perfec- 
tion every variety of fruit common to a temper- 
ate or semi-tropical climate. The prune and 
■ the apricot especially thrive as in no other part 
of the world. We need but to utilize this fact 
to develop a mine of wealth worth more than 
our richest auriferous leads. 

Many of our readers have seen the samples 
of dried prunes exhibited at our fairs by Mr. 
Ballou of this township. They far surpass any 
thing of the kind to be found in the markets, 
or that can possibly be produced elsewhere. 
Once it is known to commerce that this valiey 
can furnish such fruits in quantities, we shall 
not be troubled for buyers; orders would come 
in upon us from all parts of the world. 

Advocate, Jan. 11: Our Tobacco Interests. — 
We have on several occasions called attention 
to the operations of our neighbor, J. D. Culp, 
in raising and manufacturing tobacco, and also 
of the patent secured by him from Congress last 
winter for a mode of curing Havana and other 
qualities of tobacco, hitherto unknown in the 
United States, that imparts all the smoothness 
and flavor possessed by the best imported Ha- 
vana tobacco. That the new process is a suc- 
cess there is no longer a question. A ride to 
his plantation, at San Felipe, and a smoke 
from a cigar made in your own presence, out 
of any of the immense piles of cured tobacco of 
this year's raising, will convince the most skep- 
tical. The American Tobacco Company, or- 
ganized last spring, for the purpose of raising 
and manufacturing tobacco and cigars under 
Mr. Culp's patented process, has so gained the 
confidence of the San Francisco tobacconists 
that they eagerly sought and purchased all the 
stock that they could obtain at $100 per share. 


Sentinel, Jan. 11: Whale Ashore.— We learn 
that there is a dead whale on theSoquel beach, 
stranded during the recent storm. "The levia- 
than speaks for himself, in a perfume that is 
neither savory or refreshing," says our inform- 
ant, ''for miles furninst you." 

Plenty of Grass. — The refreshing rains and 
recent warm weather haB started the grass fine- 
ly. The distant hills are clad in Emerald 
Green, and almond trees are, January 8th, 1873, 
in full bloom. 


Argus, Jan. 2: Riverside Colony. — As let- 
ters of inquiry have become too numerous to 
answer separately, we are obliged to resort to a 
circular letter, which will be found to contain 
the information usually sought by correspond- 

In the first place, we referall inquirers to our 
circular of June, 1871, which will be found to 
contain answers to many of the questions still 
asked by those who have that circular. Since 
that date we have fully realized all that we 
hoped for then, and ha7e demonstrated, by act- 
ual test, the adaptation of our soil and climate 
to the purposes of our enterprise. 

Soil. — Our soil is a deep, rich loam, known 
in California as the "red bench land," and is 
the best in the State for the growth of the semi- 
tropical fruits and vines, and is also well adapt- 
ed to the cultivation of all common fruits, grains 
and vegetables. 

Water. — Our water ditches are abundant for 
all present demands, and can be easily increased 
as occasion shall require. The supply is un- 
questionably the largest, and most reliable in 
Southern California. In the cultivation of 
semi-tropical fruits, this is an advantage that 
can not be over estimated. 

Climate. — The climate of Riverside is all 
that we had hoped. As to healthfulness, it is 
unsurpassed inj the United States. It is free 
from bilious disease, and for asthma, bron- 
chial affection, and lung disease it is infinitely 
better than that of any locality near the coast. 
The weather is so mild and uniform that the 
banana grows luxuriantly; and the orange, 
lemon and lime flourish much better than at 
Los Angeles, or any locality along the coast. 
We have orange trees five feet high, lemon 
trees eight feet high, and limes more than four 
feet high — all from the seed and less than one 
year and a half old. Banana plants, from the 
bulb, have grown more fthan ten feet since the 
middle of February last, and now have stalks 
thirty inches in circumference. Other trees 
grow with equal rapidity. We have peach, 
p3pper, Australian Blue Gum and Acacias, 
each more than eight feet high, from the seed 
in one season. Flowers of every variety grow 
with great facility. Most of the green-house 
plants of the East flourish in the open air 
here. Our coldest weather freezes ice of less 
than a quarter of an inch in thickness. Our 
tomatoes were green and the fruit was ripening 
last winter until the 2Gth of January. We 
have very little need for fuel, except for cooking 
and washing. 

Argus, Jan. 4: Cotton Culture. — The gener- 
ous rains of the present week; by ensuring large 
crops of grain upon the uplands, will have a 
tendency to encourage the culture of cotton up- 
on our bottom lands. We are informed that 
a large amount of land upon the farm of H. F. 
Buckley & Bro. has been let to tenants at $10 
per acre for the next crop season, to be planted 
in cotton. The crops of the past two years, 
though looked upon as mere experiments, have 
proved so remunerative to those engaged in the 
business that many who have suitable locations 
will turn their attention to the production of 
the staple instead of corn and wheat. We look 
upon this as a most favorable change in the 
pursuits of our farming population, destined in 
coming years to cause our country to become 
densely populated and exceedingly wealthy, as 
the growth of cotton ensures employment in 
the fields to a large number of working men 
throughout the year. Seed, of a good quality, 
can now be obtained here at greatly reduced 
prices, and the coming season thousands of 
acres of our rich bottom lands will be planted 
in cotton, instead of hundreds as heretofore. 

Independent, Jan. 11: Farming Implements. 
— Enormous quantities of farming implements 
are being sent forward daily by railroad to the 
upper part of San Joaquin valley. Farmers 
aro pushing their work with all possible expe- 
dition, and the area sown in wheat will be far 
in excess of the breadth in crop last year. 

Democrat Jan. 11 : The weather has been un- 
commonly favorable for the growing grain and 
grass. The nights have been warm and vege- 
tation protected from frost by dense fogs which 
have succeeded regularly each night since New 
Years. There is now ample grass for stock 
running out. If this continues the season will 
be uncommonly forward and favorable. It is 
now evident the area of wheat seeded in this 
county will be larger than ever before. 

Letter from Bodega. — The farmers have 
been busily engaged in putting in their small 
grain until the late rains; and had the cold 
freezing weather held on a little longer without 
any rain, the cattle would have died by hun- 
dreds; but the rains camo in time to start vege- 
tation, and the cows will do very well. 

The early-sown grain looks very well and 
promises an abundaut harvest. The roads in 
these parts aro in good condition. 

Banner, Jan. 11: Extensive Plowing. — A 
passenger on the train from Chico Tuosday, 
says the Appeal, informed us that in passing 
the extensive ranch of Gen. Bidwell, sixteen 
gang-plows wore seen in operation. Some of 
these plows were drawn by four and others by 
six horses. The field had tho appearance of 
some large contractor on public works. 

No Horses. — The wedding procession of John 
Alden and Priscilla, with some modifications, 
was acted over again in New Bedford, Mass., 
by a bridal pair, who were carried from a hotel 
to the railroad depot in a hack drawn by oxen, 
with white ribbons on their horns. 


[January i8, 1873. 

H©P«E ^flD f\Rft. 

California Agriculture. 

Gradually our farmers have been learning 
the art of cultivation in a new country, which 
is under the influence of new laws, at least 
new to farmers and others who came here 
from the farms of the East. At first, less than 
a quarter of a century ago, there were with us 
men who had been cultivators of the soil in 
New England and the Atlantic States, as well 
as in Europe, who/traveling through Califor- 
nia, in the long summer time, when the soil 
was parched and baked into clods and lumps, 
as hard as dried adobes, or bricks, could not be- 
lieve that crops could ever be made here. They 
considered that the people here would 
always be dependent upon crops raised 
elsewhere, and the ships that should bring the 
grain or flour hither. But trials, disappoint- 
ments, and interspersed successes, have at 
length told a different story. At last many of 
onr farmers have puzzled out the philosophy 
of cultivation. They have too often waited and 
had to wait too long for the raius, before they 
could, as they thought, put their seeds in the 
ground. And often, when the rains did come, 
they came so abundantly that the ground was 
turned into mud too soft for plowing or plant- 

But some have been wise enough and bold 
enough to strike out from this waiting for the 
rains. As a result, when our first rain fell the 
past autumn, thousands of acres had already 
not only been plowed but dry sown, and the 
peed was all ready for the quickening influ- 
ences. And between the first considerable rain 
and tht present storm, wherever the rain had 
fallen in sufficient quantity to soften the ground 
that had been too obstinate for the plow pre- 
viously, farmers have generally made the most 
of the opportunity, and the result is that in 
some sections of the State there are more acres 
sown than has ever been the case before. It is 
reasonable to conclude thit with a favorable 
condition of the elements between this and May 
next, of which the season thus far gives a fair 
promise, the crop of this year will be greater 
than that of last year. Of course we consider 
that unexpected conditions may arise to disap- 
point this calculation. But the chances at the 
present writing are in favor of an immense 
crop of wheat for the coming season . — Alia. 

Live and Dead Weight of Animals. — The 
amount of me it obtained from a domestic ani- 
mal sold by its live weight is very variable, and 
experiments have recently been made in Liver- 
pool to ascertain the proper allowances to be 
made. From the statistics to be derived from 
the public slaughter-houses, of Paris or Brus- 
sels, it appears that the race and condition of 
the animal, besides many other circumstances 
affect the result, and that certain animals yield 
as much as 70 per cent, of meat, while others 
only give 50 per cent. The mean weight of 
meat produced, however, is calculated at 58 per 
cent, of the live weight in beef cattle. In the 
case of sheep, the proportion is from 40 to 50 
per cent. From experiments made, it appears 
that the different products obtained from oxen 
and sheep areas follows: — An ox of the live 
weight of 1,322 pounds yields, meat, 771.4 
pouuds, skin, 110.2; grease, 88; blood, 55.1; 
feet and hoofs, 22; head, 11; tongue, 6.60; lungs 
and heart, 15.33; liver and spleen, 20.5; intes- 
tines, 66.15; loss and evaporation, _154 322 — 
making the total of 1,322 pounds. " The pro- 
ducts from a sheep weighing 110 02 pounds are 
as follows: Meat, 55.1 pounds; skin, 7.714; 
grease, 55.1; blood, 4.408; feet and hoofs, 2.204: 
head, 4.408; tongue, luDgs, heart, liver and 
spleen, 4.408 intestines, 6.612: loss and evapo- 
ration, 19,836— making the total of 110.2 pounds 

Sixty Successive Grass Crops. — A writer in 
the Country Gentlemen relates the following: — 
Not far from Hartford is the farm of Truman 
Harris, Esq., where I was shown a meadow of 
some four acres, which had yielded a heavy crop 
of hay for over sixty successive years, never hav- 
ing been plowed during that time. It has occa- 
sionally been lightly manured, but owes its suc- 
cess almost entirely to an annual irrigation. 
The soil was originally a sort of gravel bed de- 
posited by two streams flowing through the en- 
closure, but by means of a dam across one of 
them, built before the war of 1812, it has been 
irrigated each spring, and never fails of a good 
crop of hay. Mr. Harris was born on the farm 
and is personally knowing to what has hap- 
pened there during fifty years, and has no 
doubt from the evidence of older friends that 
the irrigation of this meadow dates back to 1812 
or earlier. 

Weight of Roots pee Acre. — Experiments 
in Germany, it is claimed, have determined the 
weight of roots per acre in several of the farm 
crops. Ordinary stubble with the roots in the 
first ten inches of soil were separated from the 
earth and dried. The pounds of red clover 
foots per acre were 6,580; rye, 3,500; wheat, 
3,400 pounds This, of course remains in the 
soil as a fertilizer. 

In Siberia, during the winter, milk is said to 
be bought and sold in a frozen state, and can 
be carried for a long period in a simple bag. 
When required for use, the requisite quantity 
is chopped off with a hatchet or sheath knife, 
and thawed as needed. 

The American Bottle Filler. 

Among the articles brought into requisition 
on this coast by the necessities of our large and 
increasing wine interest, are bottle fillers, de- 
signed to do away with the slow and tedious 
process of filling bottles by hand, where large 
numbers have to be filled. The latest improve- 
ment in this useful machine is that of Messrs. 
Armstrong & Marks, which was patented 
through this agency, and a sketch of which is 
shown in the accompanying cut. The invent- 
ors of this machine claim that one man can do 
as much work with it as three can without it. 
In fact, it is only a question of how fast a man 
or boy can handle the bottles, as it will fill bot- 
tles faster than the full ones can be removed 
and empty ones replaced. 

A, represents the tank or reservoir in which 
the liqnid to be bottled is contained. One or 
more siphons, D, D, are secured at their mid- 
dles to the edges or sides of the tank by means 
of arms or trunnions, so that one leg will pass 
down inside of the tank while the other hangs 
outside. A cap, E, fits over the inside end of 
the siphon, (Fig. 2,) to the upper end of which 
a spiral spring, (/, is secured. This spring 
coils around the tube upward, and is secured to 
it at some point between the cap and bend of 
the siphon. The cap, E, has an opening at 
one side, as shown, a short distance above the 
end of the tube through which the liquid passeE 

neck in a similar position would be all filled. 
The removal of the bottle | from the 
latch causes the valve at the rear end of the 
siphon to close and stops the flow; while the 
removal of the bottle from the siphon causes 
displacement enough to admit of corking 
without bursting the bottles. The siphons 
when once charged will retain the liquid an in- 
definite length of time. 

To use the machine the apparatus is placed in 
front of the hogshead containing the liquid, 
so that the faucet will proj» ct over the top of 
the tank A, or it can be connected by hose if 
more convenient. When the tank is filled to a 
level with the latches in front, the siphons are 
pressed into the latches c, and by the usual 
manner fill the siphons and release them from 
the latch. The attendant then places himself 
in front of the apparatus, with the empty bot- 
tles at his left hand and space for full ones on 
his right. A bottle is placed on the end of the 
first siphon and it is pressed into the latch, the 
others in proper order. By the time the last 
bottle is in the first is full; this is removed 
with one hand and a new bottle placed in its 
stead, and so on. By this means a large num- 
ber of bottles can be filled in a short time with 
little labor. The inventors claim that any one 
can, after a little practice, fill 75 dozen bottles 
per hour with this machine. Parties desiring 
further information can address James Arm- 
strong, No. 240, 6th street, or Samuel Marks, 
corner Folsom and Fourteenth streets, in this 

Mad Itch in Cattle. 

Eds. Press: — Through the columns of your 
wide spread journal I wish to make inquiries 
regard. nga disease which has recently made its 


when the cap is in position. It will be seen 
that the spring will draw the cap upwards so 
that its closed end will be against the open end 
of the tube ; but when the cap is forced down 
ward the open end of the tube comes opposite 
the opening on the side of the cap, c, and the 
liquid enters the siphon. 

In order to operate this cap, a rod, which has 
its lower end secured to the cap, extends up 
wards to a sufficient distance to strike the un- 
derside of a bar which passes across the tank, 
A, just back of the siphons. Now when the 
leg of the siphon, D, which is outside of the 
box, A, is forced toward the box, the leg inside 
of the box is raised so as to cause the rod to 
open the inner end of the siphon ; and when it 
is again freed, the force of the spring will again 
throw the siphon to its former position and 
close the inner end. 

In order o cause the siphon to retain its 
charge when not in use, the outside extremity 
of the outer leg is closed and an opening made 
in the side of the pipe just above the closed 
end. This opening is not as large as the hole 
through the siphon tube. This the inventors 
have discovered will cause the siphon to hold its 
charge until the inner end is opened and the 
liquid allowed to flow through it, thus render- 
ing the siphon automatic and perfectly under 
control. Secured horizontally to the tank, 

A, is an outward projecting flange, B, in which 
a recess is made opposite each siphon. A latch, 
C, is hinged to this flange and a spring draws 
it arms tne opening in the manner Bhown. To 
fill the bottles the outer leg of the siphon is 
introduced into them until the bead around the 
upper end of the bottle rises above the flange, 

B. The bottle and outer leg of the siphon are 
forced towards the tank until the neck of the 
bottle enters the recess in the flange, B; the 
latch c then embraces the outside of the neck 
below the bead and holds it in position. 

This same movement lowers the cap in the 
opposite or inside leg of the siphon and 
allows the liquid to run through until the bottle 
is filled. By keeping the liquid in the tank at 
the proper level the bottles will not overflow 
and the work of filling can be accomplished 
without waste. The bottles being held by the 

appearance here on the ranch, and by which we 
have lost several head of cattle. 

Commence by shaking of the head, scratch- 
ing of same and violently rubbing jor beat- 
ing it against anything with which it may 
come in contact; after four or five hours 
the animal commences swelling about the 
throat and neck, and dies within twelve or fif- 
teen hours. The stock which has been so at- 
tacked are dairy cows, and have been running 
on corn stubble, the stalks having been cut 
down and left lying on the ground. Previous 
to having been turned on the corn stubble, have 
been running on wheat stubble and fed a good 
deal of pumpkins. 

Should any of your readers be acquainted 
with the disease, cause, and a remedy, should 
be glad to hear from them through your col- 
umns. W. H. Souther. 

Kancho San Felipe, Jan. 8th, 1873. 

We have heard of several instanoes of the 
same disease in other parts of the State, and in 
every case it seems to have made its appear- 
ance where hogs had been allowed to run in 
the same field at the time or just previ- 
ous to that of the cattle. There are several 
well authenticated instances that go to prove 
that where cattle and hogs are fed upon pump- 
kins in the same field or feeding ground, the 
disease has immediately followed. We know 
of no remedy for the disease, and no preven- 
tive but to keep hogs entirely away from cat- 
tle feeding grounds. We refer the writer to 
page 155, last volume Bubal Press. 

Sowing Clean Seed Wheat. — A correspon- 
dent of the Cincinnatti Gazette makes the follow- 
ing statement: 

Many years ago, an English colony was left 
upon a lone island in the Pacific. With other 
seeds they had some wheat which happened to 
he entirely clear of all foul seed. For thirteen 
years the colonists grew wheat from this stock, 
without a specimen of chess. After this there 
was sent them a new supply of fereign seed 
wheat, which happened to be foul. Besult! 
Now they grow cheat or chess, all over the 
island. This one fact of itself, well authentica- 
ted, ought to knock the bottom out of transmu- 
tation for all time. 

Practical Poultry Growing. 

Eds. Pacific Bubal Press:— So few farmers 
pay sufficient attention to their poultry, know 
anything of the diseases from which they suffer 
or have any idea of the profit to be derived 
from breeding fowls, that it has occurred to me 
to write a few articles in the farmers' paper to 
reach those who never read poultry books, and 
which may, perhaps, give information to many 
already interested in reading poultry. 

In this warm climate or rather in a country 
where we have no rain in summer, the great dif- 
ficulty to contend with in rearing chickens is 
lice. I have been told again and again that it 
is useless to set eggs in summer; no one ever 
succeeds in raising a brood. But I do succeed 
and find it far less trouble than in winter; but 
I lost many, nearly all my chicks, until I found 
the cause and remedy. I noticed them stand- 
ing with a bedraggled sleepy look; I found them 
dead one after another. The cause was lice; 
the head literally covered with lice. I tried as 
1 thought everything. No wonder farmers do 
not try to raise young chickens in dry weather. 
Then eggs are cheapest and it pays far better to 
set them and sell them when dearer. Moreover, 
chickens hatched in September and October 
will sell after New Years at $7 per dozen, as 
much as they will bring next year when a year 
old if sold after harvest. I wish I could im- 
press every farmer that nothing on his farm 
will pay as well as poultry; and that it is 
neither beneath him nor trifling to pay much 
attention to bis chickens. Very little time will 
serve to keep the hatched brood free of lice and, 
after that, the chances are in this climate that, 
with the smallest amount of care, he will not 
lose a single chick. I will give my method, 
the sulphur and insect powder being the princi- 
ple things, the rest to be modified to suit each 
person's own ideas. Whenever a hen is to be 
set I clean out her nest, place a shovelful of 
damp earth in the bottom, round it out slightly 
and then sprinkle over with pulverized sulphur, 
covering with a small handful of straw. I place 
the eggs and make memorandum of date. A 
fewdays before the eggs should hatch I sprinkle 
a little more sulphur in the nest and next day 
thoroughly rub the hen with insect powder. I 
lose no chicks. 

All my roosting places were full of the small 
mites or hen spiders; I never see one now. I 
paint the roosting poles once a month or of- 
tener with naphtha, bought at the gas-house, 
price 50 ots. per gallon. I clean out the hen-house 
and paint the poles. As soon as a hen hatches 
her brood I clean out the nest and paint inside 
with the naphtha; when it dries I place in the 
nest a little straw, moss or earth and a nest 
egg. I have a hole a few inches deep in each 
hen-house filled with the refuse gas lime ob- 
tained from the gas-works at fifty cents per 
barrel. For some time the hens did not seem 
to notice or use it; now as often as they wallow 
the hole empty I fill it again. The gas lime 
should be kept under cover. All this is very 
little trouble and will fully repay anyone who 
likes eggs or chickens to eat, even if he never 
sells an egg or a bird. 

Let me say to those who think they are too 
poor or too busy to build a hen house 
that one can be erected in very little time and 
for almost nothing. A few laths or even brush 
or small limbs, for posts, and a few nails will 
suffice, the roof alone costing anything. Mine 
are considered very fine houses and have cost 
me almost nothing, as I had some old lumber 
and shakes useless for anything else. I may 
hereafter give some plans for cheap houses. 

I keep the hen roosts free from lice by use- 
ing naphtha; whitewash applied hot will answer 
as well, but I find the naphtha is much less 

I keep geese, ducks, turkeys and chick- 
ens, many fancy breeds of all of them 
too, and I believe that each and all can be 
easily reared. Of course it has taken me some 
time to learn the proper treatment; at first I 
lost whole broods, especially of the geese and 
turkeys, but now I consider it my own fault, 
owing to negligence, if I lose one, except by 
some accident. If anyone finds trouble, as I 
did at one time, I shall be glad, upon applica- 
tion, to give any information, considering it 
no trouble to answer letters. 

Manuel Eyre, Jb. 

Napa, Cal., Jan. 9th, 1873. 

A Ttmelt Hint. — In transplanting tomatoes, 
cabbages and tobacco plants, prepare a tub of 
manure water, and thicken it to the stiffness 
of mush by stirring in rich garden mold; dip 
the root of the plant in this paste before setting 
in the ground; press the earth firmly around 
the root, and sprinkle with manure water. 

" Every cow should fatten one pig" is an 
old rule and good one; that is, the daily product 
of a good cow should be in buttermilk and 
weigh enough to feed one pig, after the cream 
and cheese are extra cted. 

A cobbespondent informs The Practical 
Farmer that he cleans and polishes his plows 
with muriatic acid. This searching stuff does 
the work in short meter, but it should not be 
allowed to remain on the metal. 

New Wheat Insect. — It is said that an ap- 
parently new and industrious white grub, un- 
daunted by show of frost, is hibernating very 
comfortably on Pennsylvania's wiDter wheat. 

The San Jose woolen mills give employment 
to eighty-five hands — twenty-four men, three 
girls, five boys, and fifty-three Chinamen. 

January 18, 1873.] 


UsEfdL I f(f OR |Vf 4pQM. 


It i3 the shallow who believe in luck; who 
say of a successful man, "he always was lucky, " 
or of an unsuccessful one, "Poor fellow, just 
his luck." A man's luck is generally the 
measure of his capacity and perseverance. 
Cause produces effect, the world over. Water 
does not run up hill, nor do we gather, even in 
these days of progress, grapes of thorns, or 
figs of thistles. If we would gather golden 
grain, we must first sow the seed. If we would 
be wise we must work for wisdom, niches, 
goodness, fame, love — each has its price and 
can be purchased for no loss. Life is a per- 
petual auction, where all prizes are knocked 
down to the highest bidder. The world's great 
men have been those who have toiled early and 
late. Even genius can find no royal road to 
its goal. Goethe, and Milton, and Newton, 
labored as the easy-going, fine gentlemen of 
literature cannot conceive. If they were great, 
they achieved greatness — it was not thrust upon 
them. Luck is ever waiting for something to 
turn up. Labor, with keen eyes and strong 
will, will turn up something. Luck lies in bed, 
and wishes the postman would bring him news 
of a legacy; labor turns out at six o'clock, and 
with a busy pen or ringing hammer, lays the 
foundation of a competency. Luck whines; 
labor whistles. Luck relies on chances; labor, 
on character. Luck slips down to indigence ; 
labor strikes upward for independence. — N. Y. 
Evening Telegram. 

Force or Wind. — It is seldom that a more 
striking instaDce of the great force which may 
be exerted by wind, is witnessed than was ob- 
served in the recent hurricane, which swept 
over the island of Sicily. It is said that no 
earthquake ever caused so much destruction. 
There are houses ruined, houses fallen on the 
ground, walls cleft from end to end, walls hang- 
ing outward as if to rest on the adjoining 
houses; there are roofs wholly swept away, 
sunken vaults, balconies torn from their places. 
Not a single house remains in which the whole 
roof and windows do not require thorough re- 
pairs. The streets are a mass of fragments 
and rubbish. 

The iron bars of a balcony are to be seen 
curled up one way, those of another twisted up 
another way. There is a pillar of a palace 
which has been moved forward one foot with- 
out breaking, and stands up isolated all in one 
Eiece. There is a wall of another palace which 
as fallen back more than three feet without a 
crack. Here is a beam of one house which has 
thrust itself into another house. There is half 
of a bedstead the other half of which lies no one 
knows where. All the tiles of one building 
were huddled together in one spot on the roof, 
crushed and broken up as small as if they had 
been pounded. 

How the Chinese Build. — In China when a 
contractor engages to build ahouse, he encloses 
the premises and sets up cooking apparatus to 
supply his hired workmen with regular meals 
at the most economical rates. Having taken 
breakfast, they work until noon, rest one hour, 
and leave off at 5 p. m., and return to their 
homes. On leaving, each takes a ticket which 
admits him next morning. These tickets are 
daily vouchers of the artizan's presence. 
Counted up at any time a true account is ren- 
dered. A man on the ground throws several 
bricks to another ten feet above, and he to an- 
other still higher. Thus the masons are sup- 
plied as they ascend with the wall. Instead of 
carrying mortar in a hod, it is thrown by the 
shovel full from one story to another to any re- 
quired elevation, without spilling a particle, so 
expert are they by continued practice. 

What Shall a Workman Study ? — In " Lec- 
tures iu a Workshop, "in the Industrial Monthly, 
T. P. P. says: If there is any doubt about what 
study or studies should be followed with a view 
to self culture, we can remove it by a simple 
rule given in these words namely: Study your 
business. By this the daily bread is to be earned; 
and it is highly probable that the knowledge of 
the trade engaged in exceeds the information 
on all subjects outside of it. Many men are 
continually attempting too much, and worry 
because they can not swallow whole volumes of 
literature and science in a few months; they 
are apt to slight their daily occupation as an 
unavoidable means of maintenance, and con- 
centrate their efforts upon something quite for- 
eign to their trade. Such men have mistaken 
their calling, and are wasting their time so far 
as self-improvement goes. 

A Beautiful French Art. — A French chem- 
ist proposes a new and unique method of col- 
oring artificial flowers. He selects colors of 
different tints, soluble in water, and mixes them 
with a clean mucilaginous gum, and then pours 
this out upon highly polished square glass tab- 
lets of several inches in diameter. The layer 
is put on uniformly, and the tablets exposed for 
a time to a well-heated stove. The gummy 
mucilage dries rapidly into a thin, polished 
plate, which afterward separates from the glass 
and falls off. It may then be reduced to a 
powder of any required fineness, the result ob- 
tained being remarkable for its transparency 
and permanency. The sheets thus obtained 
with analine colors are considered especially 

How They. Were Wounded. — A German 
newspaper presents the following interesting 
facts with regard to the apparent efficiency of 
the different weapons employed by the com- 
batants in the Prusso-French war: — 

Out of 3,453 Germans wounded around Metz, 
ninety-five and a half per cent, were injured 
by the Chassepot rifle, two and seven-tenths 
per cent, by the artillery, and only eight-tenths 
per cent, by cold steel. 

Among the French wounded twenty-five per 
cent, were wounded by the German artillery, 
seventy per cent, by small arms, and five per 
cent, by cold steel. 

These figures themselves tell a very remarka- 
ble story. 

The same paper pretends that in the whole 
course of the war twenty-five thousand French 
were hit by the German artillery, so that, on 
comparing the number of wounded with the 
number of shots fired, the conclusion is inevit- 
able, that for every three discharges of a Ger- 
man cannon at least one Frenchman was killed 
or more or less injured. 

According to the statistics of the German 
wounded, the following proportion has been es- 
tablished in an official manner: 

Ninety per cent of men were hit among the 
infantry; five per cent, in the cavalry; three 
per cent, in the artillery; and two per cent, in 
all the other branches of the service. 

As these resnlts have been confirmed by every 
course of investigation made up to the present 
time, they establish what had been previously 
asserted — first, that the Chassepot rifle is supe- 
rior to a needle gun Dreyse fusil; second, that 
the breech-loading German artillery is superior 
to the muzzle-loading French. 

The second proposition has never been ques- 
tioned, viz., the overwhelming superiority of 
the German batteries. 

QoOD H E ^ L TH' 

Progress of the Manufacturing Interests. 
At the Engine Builders' Convention lately held 
at Cincinnati, General Leggettsaid: "Manu- 
facturing as it now exist in this country, is the 
development of the last thirty or forty years. 
Forty years ago, there was a blacksmith and 
shoe-maker in every school district, and at 
every cross-road all over the land. The black- 
smith made horse shoes and nails, plow points, 
hoe?, shovels, pitch forks, hinges and latches, 
neaily all of the builders' hardware, and much 
of the cutlery used. Then he was a manufac- 
turer — his own employer and employee. Now, 
farmers' tools, builders' hardware, and house- 
hold utensils are made in large establishments, 
and the village and country blacksmith have 
become mere tinkers, and do little more than 
mend or repair. The cross-roads shoemakers 
have degenerated into cobblers, only making 
an occasional pair of boots or shoes to accom- 
modate deformed feet, not provided for in deal- 
ers' cases. Nearly all our boots and shoes are 
made in immense factories — some single estab- 
lishments turning out over six thousand fin- 
ished pairs a day. The same is true of almost 
every department of manufacturing. 

Brown Tint for Iron and Steel. — Dissolve 
in four parts of water, two parts of crystallized 
chloride of iron, two parts of chloride of anti- 
mony, and warm the brass over the flames of a 
Bunsen burner or a spirit lamp, and plunge it 
while hot into nitric acid for two or three sec- 
onds. Then return it to the flame, and heat it 
till it blackens, brush off blisters, and lacquer. 
Another way is to use a liquid containing two 
parts of arsenious acid, four parts of hydro- 
chloric acid, and one part of sulphuric acid in 
eighty parts of water. 

Zinc may also be given a fine black color by 
cleaning the surface with sand and sulphuric 
acid, and immersing for an instant in a solution 
composed of four parts of sulphate of nickle 
and ammonia in forty of water, acidulated with 
one part of sulphuric acid, washing and drying. 
The black coating adheres firmly, and takes a 
bronze color under the burnisher. 

New Uses for Soluble Glass. — The em- 
ployment of soluble glass, in the chemical and 
industrial arts, is constantly increasing, and its 
value is now fully established. Recently, a 
cement of great hardness and various applica- 
bility has been produced by mixing different 
bases with this singular substance. It is found 
that, combined with fine chalk and thoroughly 
stirred, it will produce a hard cement in the 
course of six or eight hours; with fine sulphide 
of antimony, a black mass is produced which 
can be polished with agate, and then possesses 
a superb metallic lustre. Fine iron dust gives 
a gray-black cement. Zinc dust produces a 
gray mass exceedingly hard, with a brilliant 
metallic lustre, so that broken or defective zinc 
castings can be mended and restored. 

Gold in Sea-Water. — Careful experiments 
made upon water taken at different times from 
Kamsey Bay, Isle of Wight, show that sea- 
water contains about one grain of gold to each 
ton of water. It is held in solution as a chlo- 
ride. The presence of silver in the ocean in 
still larger quantities has long been known. 

Transparent Soap is made by thoroughly dry- 
ing soap cut in thin shavings in an oven, then 
pulverizing and dissolving it in high-proof al- 
cohol, and finally distilling off the latter till the 
soap will solidify into cakes. 

Black and White. — Experiment proves that 
white letters on a black board are seen at a lon- 
ger distance and always more clearly than black 
letters on a white board. 

The Man of Long Life. 

Strength and Health. 

It is quite a common idea that health keeps 
pace with strength. I know intelligent persons 
who really think that you may determine the 
comparative health of a company of men by 
measuring their arms — that he whose arm 
measures twelve inches is twice as healthy as 
one who measures but six. This strange and 
thoughtless misapprehension has give rise to 
nearly all the mistakes thus far made in the 
physical culture movement. I have a friend 
who can lift nine hundred pounds and yet is an 
habitual sufferer from torpid liver, rheumatism 
and low spirits. There are many similar 
cases. The cartmen of our cities, who are the 
strongest men, are far from the healthiest class, 
as physicians will testify. On the contrary, I 
have many friends who would stagger under 
three hundred pounds that are in capital trim. 
But I need not elaborate a matter so familiar 
to physicians and other observing people. 

No test of health would prove more faulty 
than a tape line or a lift at the scale beam. 
Suppose two brothers — bank clerks— in bad 
health. They are measured around the arm. 
Each marks exactly ten inches. They try the 
scale beam. The bar rises at exactly three 
hundred pounds with each. Both seek health. 
John goes to the gymnasium, lifts heavy dumb 
bells and kegs of nails until he can put up one 
hundred and twenty-five pounds and lift nine 
hundred, and his arm reaches fifteen inches. 
Thomas goes to the mountains, fishes, hunts, 
spends delightful hours with the young ladies, 
and plays cricket. Upon] measuring his arm 
we find it scarcely larger than when he left 
town, while he can't put up sixty pounds nor 
lift five hundred. But who doubts Thomas 
will return to the bank counter the better man 
of the two? John should be the better man if 
strength is the principal or most essential con- 
dition of health. 

A circus usually contains among its perform- 
ers a man who can lift a cannon weighing near- 
ly or quite half a ton. Then there a half a 
dozen riders and vaulters, who have compara- 
tively little strength. If any one supposes 
that the strong man has better health than the 
flexible, elastic ones, he has but to make in- 
quiries of circus managers, as I have done, and 
he will learn that the balance is found almost 
uniformly with the latter. Agility and flexi- 
bility are far more important than strength, 
and that fine silken quality of the muscular 
fibre, which comes only from an infinite repe- 
tition of light and ever varying feats, is far 
more important than size. — Dio Lewis, in "To- 


Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs 
attended with fever. Sometimes the fever is 
of the diathesis termed inflammatory, and 
sometimes of the low diathesis to which the 
term typhoid is applied. In either case the 
chief trouble and danger wholly consist (aside 
from treatment) in engorgement of the lungs. 
They are so congested with accumulated blood 
that breathing is laborious, the cough severe 
and distressing, and the expectoration difficult. 
The fever may be mild or violent. But in all 
cases the essential point in the treatment is to 
relieve the overloaded vessels of the lungs. 
This is to be done, not by taking the blood out, 
nor blistering the skin, nor poisoning the stom- 
ach, but simply by determining the circulation 
from the lungs to other parts of the body, and 
freeing the whole mass of blood of its effete 
and viscid matters. And all this can be ac- 
complished by balancing the temperature stead- 
ily at or near the normal conditon standard. 
In a day or two, sometimes in a few hours, and 
in the worst cases within a week, the patient 
will be fairly convalescent. 

The structure of the lungs being spongy and 
elastic so as to allow all the blood in the body 
to pass through them once in three minutes, 
enables them to bear an immense degree of en- 
gorgement without disorganization. 

The pain in the lungs may be very severe, 
the cough extremely violent, the breathing ex- 
ceedingly distressing, the fever intense and 
the patient utterly prostrated, with no danger 
of dying, providing nothing is done amiss, for 
the excretory organs are gradually casting out 
the impurities from the whole mass of blood 
and the myriads of little glands in the lungs 
themselves are unloading the congested vessels 
by the process of expectoration, so that iu due 
time the trouble is removed and ihepatient (not 
the disease) is cured. 

In order to maintain the balance of circula- 
tion so that "nature" can perform her reme- 
dial work successfully, the surface must be fre- 
quently bathed with water of a temperature 
suited to the circumstances of each case, the 
rule being, the warmer the surface or any part 
of it, the cooler the water, and vice versa. — Sci- 
ence of Health. 

Substitute for Quinine. — It is said that the 
Brazilian doctors now use the juice of the fa- 
mous Eucaylptus plant as a substitute for qui- 
nine, and with astonishing success; in fact it 
threatens to supersede the famous febrifuge. 
When Eucalypti are planted no fever of any 
kind appears. There can be no stronger stim- 
ulus to push on the culture of this beautiful 
and swift growing tree :u this country. 

He has a proper and well-proportioned sta- 
ture, without, however, being too tall. He is 
rather of the middle size, and somewhat thick 
set. His complexion is not too florid; at any 
rate, too much ruddiness in youth is seldom a 
sign of longevity. His hair approaches rather 
to the fair than the black; his skin is strong, 
but not too rough. His head is not too big; 
he has large veins at the extremities, and his 
shoulders are rather round than flat. His neck 
is not too long; his abdomen dees not project; 
and his hands are large, but not too deeply 
cleft. His foot is rather thick than long; and 
his legs are firm and round. He has also a 
broad, arched chest, a strong voice, and the 
faculty of retaining his breath for a long time 
without difficulty. In general there is a com- 
plete harmony in all parts. His senses are 
good, but not too delicate; his [pulse is slow 
and regular. 

His stomach is excellent, his appetite good, 
and his digestion easy. The joys of the table 
are to him of importance; they tune his mind 
to serenity, and his soul partakes in the pleas- 
ure which they communicate. He does not 
eat merely for the pleasure of eating, but each 
meal is an hour of daily festivity; a kind of 
delight, attended with this advantage, in re- 
gard to others, that it does not make him poor- 
er, but richer. He eats slowly, and has not too 
much thirst. Too great thirst is always a sign 
of rapid self-consumption. 

In general, he is serene, loquacious, active, 
susceptible of joy, love and hope; but insensi- 
ble to the impressions of hatred, anger and 
avarice. His passions never become too violent 
or destructive. If he ever gives way to anger, 
he experiences rather a useful glow of warmth, 
an artificial and gentle fever without an over- 
flow of the bile. He is fond also of employ- 
ment, particularly calm meditation and agree- 
able speculations, is an optimist, a friend to 
nature and domestic felicity, has no thirst after 
honors or riches, and banishes all thoughts of 

Hygienic Notes — Remedy fob Painful 
Wounds.— The enclosed is excellent, and ought 
to be published once a year. I found it in a pa- 
per sometime ago, and have tried it and can 
recommend it from experience : Take a pan or 
shovel with burning coals, and sprinkle upon 
them common brown sugar, and hold the 
wounded part in the smoke. In a few min- 
utes the pain will be allayed, and recovery pro- 
ceeds rapidly. In my case, a rusty nail had 
made a bad wound in the bottom of my foot. 
The pain and nervous irritation was severe. 
This was all removed by holding it in the smoke 
for fifteen minutes, and I was able to resume 
my reading in comfort. We have often recom- 
mended it to others with like results. Last 
week, one of my men had a finger-nail torn out 
by a pair of ice-tongs. It became very painful, 
as was to have been expected. Held in sugar- 
smoke for twenty minutes, the pain ceased, 
and promised speedy recovery. — Rural New 

Dietetic Hints. — Most chronic diseses, and 
many acute ones, are produced at the table. 
As fluid of any kind should be taken 
at the table, especially if the stomach is weak. 
The stomach should never be overloaded, not 
more than two or three articles should be taken 
at one meal; no stimulants used before eating; 
tobacco arrests digestion. Milk is the best diet 
for infants and children. Tomatoes with cream 
and sugar are healthy and nutritious. Bread 
and butter is the staff of life, and easily digested. 
Too much salt irritates the stomach. Colds 
are frequently produced by drinking hot tea 
and exposure afterwards. Late suppers induce 
heart disease. Pastry and cakes constipate the 
bowels. Boiled potatoes are not as healthy as 
baked ones. Fruits are to be eaten at break- 
fast and dinner. The stomach requires much 
rest to be healthy; purgative medicines weaken 
the bowels. Cheerful conversation promotes 
digestion; anger prevents it. 

Cure for the Opium Habit. — In a recent re- 
port on the condition of the English hospital at 
Pekin, China, the attending physician gives a 
formula for "anti-opium pills." This remedy 
is composed of extract of henbane, extract of 
gentian, camphor, quinine, cayenne pepper, 
ginger and cinnamon, with castile soap and 
syrup to form the coating. The efficacy of these 
pills in overcoming the opium habit, and in 
preventing the suffering on giving up the use of 
that poison, is stated to have been proved in 
numerous cases. The native remedies, it is 
said, contain opium in some form, and most 
frequently the ashes of opium already smoked, 
and consequently are inefficacious — it being as 
difficult to discontinue the use of the medicine 
as of the drug itself. 

Ammonia fob Whooping Cough. — Since it 
has been shown that the inhalation of air 
changed with the vapors of ammonia are bene- 
ficial in cases of whooping cough, M. Groatbam, 
of Paris, has been experimenting on the effects 
of boiling strong ammonia in the room where 
the patient was, with decided success. 

Fruit and Intemperance. — A medical writer 
remarks that he has never known a person de- 
cidedly fond of fruit who became intemperate; 
and he considers the two tastes as naturally an- 


[January 18, 1873. 

. 5f ;««I)AL 


dewe y <st co. 


Principal Editob W. B. EWER, A. M 

Absociate Editob I. N. HOAG, (Sacramento.) 

Office, No. 338 Montgomery street, 8. E. corner of 
California street, where friends and patrons are invited 
to our Scientific Press, Patent Agency, Egraving and 
Printing establishment. 


Bubscbtptions payable in advance — For one year $4: 
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names or more $3 each per annum. $5, in advance, will 
pay for 1H year. Remittances by registered letters oi 
P.O. orders at our risk 
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Per line 25 .80 $2.00 $5.01 

One-half inch H-00 $3.00 7.50 20.01 

One inch 2.00 6.00 U.00 38.0' 

Large advertisements at favorable rates. Special oi 
reading notices, legal advertisements, notices appearint 
In extraordinary type or in particular parts of the paper 
inserted at special rates. 


Saturday, Jan. 18, 1873. 

Table of Contents. 

GENERAL EDITORIALS.— Sowing in the Dust: 
Trees for Shade and Ornament; Trees in the Kitchen 
Garden; The Horse Epizootic. 33. Alfalfa and Fruits 
Moral Status of the R ral; Beet Sugar in New Jersey 
and East Tennessee: How to Buy Sacks; Orang»s ano 
Frosts, 40 ILLUSTRATIONS.— Fish Culture 
33. Tho American Bottle tiller, 38. Fruits oi 
California, 41. 

FARMERS IN COUNCIL.— Farmers' Club of 
Sacramento; Sonoma Co. Farmers' Club; Sutter Co. 
Farmers' Club; Oakland Farming. Horticultural and 
Industrial Club: Yolo Co. Farmers' Club, 36. 

AGRICULTURAL NOTES from various coun- 
ties in California. 37- 

CORRESPONDENCE. — California Pork; A Cor- 
rection of Corrections; Ventura to Los Angeles; Fruit 
Packages, 34. 

POULTRY NOTES.— Squash and Pumpkin Seei" 
for Poultry: Experiment in Raising Chickens: Mr 
Mechi on Poultry: To Obtatn Good Laying Hens 
H»lping Chickens from the Shell; Preserving Eggs, 


HjjIE AND FARM. — California Agriculture 
Live and Dead Weight of Animals; Sixty Successive 
Grass Crops; Weight of Roots per A<re; Mad Itch is 
Cattle; Sowing Clean Seed Wheat; Practical Poultrj 
Growing, 38. . . 

USEFUL INFORMATION. — tuck; Force of 
Wind: How the Chinese Build; What Shall a Work 
man Study: A Beautiful French Art: How They Wer. 
Wounded: Progress of the Manufacturing Interests 
Brown Tint for Iron and Steel; New Uses for Solubl 
Glass. 39. 

GOOD H ^ALTH.— Strength and Health; Pneumo 
nia; Substitute for Quinine; The man of Long Life 
Hygienic Notes; Dietetic Hints; Cure for the Opiun 
H.bit, 31. 

DOMESTIC ECONOMY.— English View of Vege 
Ubles and Salads; Washing Coffee; Use of Bones foi 
Soup, 46. 

FLORICULTURE. — How the Fuchsia Acquired 
Celebrity; How the Rose of Sharon is Propagated; Cut 
Flowers: F.verlasting Flowers; A Floral Curiosity; The 
Diadem Pinks, 46. 

MISCELLANEOUS. -Tho Use of Zinc; Decay of 
Stone; A Planet Between Mercury and the Sun; New 
Theory of Cyclones: Flour Without Millstones; Sing- 
ing Flames, 35. Winter in the Sunny South, 46. 

The Pionekb. — This paper has the audacity 
to speak of one of our excellent soliciting 
agents, in this wise: — 

We like to see newspaper men rewarded or 
this earth, as it is not at all probable that heav 
en will confer upon them its choicest blessings 
We are swelled with pride, then, to know tha' 
that genial and urbane gentleman, L P 
MoCarty, agent and traveling correspondent of 
the Rubal Press and other journals published b\ 
Dewey & Co., of this city, has been the recip 
ient from the proprietors, of a heavy gold ch vn 
and a beautiful gold locket with quartz setting 
as a New Year's present. Mr. McCartv wel! 
deserves this eenerous appreciation. His host 
of friends will be glad to learn that he has beer 
so handsomely done for. By the way, will 
none of the angelio lady spirits take pity on 
Mc and marry him. It's an unspeakable ag- 
ony to see snch healthy bachelors running 
around wild with nobody to sew on their but- 
tons or broomstick them." 

Brtant's Nurseries. — We have received the 
price list of fruit, evergreens and forest tree 
seeds for the spring of 1873. We are glad to 
see nurserymen everywhere adopting the plan 
of giving the prices to pounds and ounces of 
seeds; purchasers from a distance can know 
just how far their money will go in the pur- 
chase of seeds when they remit. Send for cata- 
logue to A. Bryant, Jr , Princeton, 111. 

Wild Crosses. — Experimenters in Europe 
who think that progress may be made through 
wild crosses, have been breeding the Zebu 
upon the ordinary stock of the country. The 
progeny proved poor milkers of course, and 
also obstinate and intractable. Some years 
since, working cattle were to have been pro- 
duced by crossing the American buff lo, (bison ) 
on our native stock, for working cattle, which 
of oourse proved a failure. Wild animals, like 
wild men, cannot improve a civilized stock. 

Alfalfa and Fruits. 

C. S. M. of Linden, San Joaquin county, asks 
for information regarding the culture of alfalfa, 
the soil best adapted to it, time of sowing, etc. 
Also asks for the best 4 or 6 varieties of early 
apples, pears, peaches.'cherries, apricots, nec- 
tarines'and grapes, and the same number of late 

In former numbers of the Rural we have 
given the best 20 varieties for a succession from 
the earliest to the latest. We find different 
varieties recommended for different localities 
and it is quite impossible to find any two fruit 
growers to agree. There are so many reasons 
for deeming an apple or other fruit as first or 
second best, that we are not surprised at the 
difference of opinion. 

One wants it for home use entirely; another 
to meet the market demand; one has only a 
short distance to carry his fruit and entirely 
by steamer and therefore can manage to put 
the very tenderest and most delicate kinds upon 
the market; another must convey his a long 
distance both by wagon and railroad, and he 
finds a less tender apple or other fruit the only 
kind he can raise to advantage, and so it is, 
that the same that would be best for one would 
not be for another. 

We will gladly give place to lists of fruits, 
ripening in succession, from any of our nur- 
serymen or tree sellers or fruit growers, and 
we think it would be a very good way of call- 
iug attention to stooks of nursery trees if the 
proprietors would publish such lists in the 

We know of no treatise on I he culture of al- 
falfa. It will give the heaviest crops on allu- 
vium or the lands along the rivers generally, 
but it will grow well almost everywhere; and 
good wheat land will grow alfalfa; but if very 
dry and hard in summer, irrigation vastly in- 
creases the product. 

It can be sown at any time from now to April. 
The soil should be made fine, the seed sown 
upon the surface broadcast, and bushed or har- 
rowed in with a light, fine toothed harrow, in 
ill respects as you would clover; and that this 
may also answer the inquiry of G. N. W. of 
Santa Rosa we state, that from 18 to 20 pounds 
ire sown to the acre; also that Jute seed can be 
procured of our advertising seedsmen. 

Moral Status of the Rural. 

We have received a note from J. G. W., of 
Antioch, Contra Costa Co., accompanying the 
money for renewal of subscription. The note 
-speaks of the Rubal as a paper in which he 
das never noticed anything that would contam- 
inate the purest mind, and believes that chil 
!ren growing up under the influence of such 
and similar periodicals, can hardly fail of be- 
coming just such men and women as the world 
so much needs. 

From W. B. also we receive words of cheer 
ind money for the Rubal for 1873. He says 
the Pbess has been a steady and welcome mes- 
senger since its first issue, and we are always 
impatient for the next number; and speaks of 
its not being filled up, as it were, with merely 
the floating topics of the day; but goes to the 
bed-rock of science, at the same time always 
open to severe, scientific criticism, without 
seeming to take offence. 

We would be glad to accept the kind invita- 
tion of W. B. to visit him at his home, near 
Milpitas. We might fill columns of the Rural 
with similar expressions of appreciation, but 
we dislike to be called egotistical, so we pass 
the letters to the hook, with a note to the effect, 
that, if we ever pass that way, we'll call. 

Inquiry About Sheep. 

Eds. Pbess: — Will 'you through your widely 
circulated paper, among our sheep producers, 
permit me to ask them to answer me some, if 
they will all, of the following questions: First, 
with 2,000 average grade ewes, what would be 
the expense of herding, doctoring, shearing, 
grazing, loss from age, taxes, etc., that is, 2,000 
sheep with their increase for 5 years ? Then 
with the above number, what would be the in- 
crease, wool and whatever profit may be ex- 
pected, in connection with the above ? Could 
I find also the expense per sheep for keeping, 
etc ? Let it be understood that the original 
cost of the sheep will be $3 per head. By al- 
lowing the above questions to be propounded 
through* the Bubal you will oblige a 


Florin, Saoramento Co., Cal. 

Beet Sugar in New Jersey and East 

We have been allowed the perusal of a letter 
from a gentleman in Jersey City, who in con- 
nection with others contemplate the manufac- 
ture of sugar from beets in New Jersey. They 
have the past season, with a view of testing the 
quality of beets for sugar, grown several lots of 
beets, and find they contain on analysis from 
13 to 15 per cent, of sugar. That the juice on 
being defecated and evaporated, crystallized 

We have no doubt of the ultimate general in- 
troduction of beet sugaries to many of the At- 
lantic States, where the soil is suitable, and 
labor and fuel are not too costly. Tho steady 
growth of this industry in all the European 
countries to which it has been introduced, is 
sufficient evidence that it can also be made to 
pay largely here. We don't like to give up to 
any such idea as, that Europeans, French, Ger- 
man, Russian, Hungarians and Bohemians, all 
of whom are successful in manufacturing sugar 
from beets, have any more or better brains, or 
are any more scientific in the application of 
labor, than are Americans; but believe we can 
accomplish just what any other people can, in 
this or any other business so completely simple 
as is sugar making from beets, when once un- 

A correspondent of Knoxville, East Tennes- 
see, asks the address of some one or more of 
the persons interested in the beet sugar works 
at Sacramento. 

The works are owned by a stock company, 
composed as follows: Henry Miller, Edgar 
Mills, Chas. Crocker, E. B. Crocker, Leland 
Stanford, E. H. Miller, Mark Hopkins, Julius 
Wetzlar, H. G. Smith, Philip Scheld, W. E. 
Brown, S. Ehrenstein, Conrad Stose, F. Mier, 
Chas. Kleinsorge, Milliken Bros., T. M. Lind- 
ley, S. Lavenson, and W. Wadsworth; the lat- 
ter, the originator of the enterprise. President, 
W. E. Brown; Secretary, Moore; Direc- 
tors, W. E. Browne, Julius Wetzlar, H. G. 
Smith, Theo. J. Milliken, S. Lavenson; Super- 
intendent, S. Ehrenstein. 

How to Buy Sacks. 

The Secretary of tho Stanislaus Farmers' 
Club writes: "We have Honorary Vice- 
Presidents in every school district of the town- 
ship. We ask them to take a sack list and call 
upon all the grain raisers in their district, ask 
them to join the Club roll, pay a dollar and 
then if they like, let them subscribe for sacks, 
taking their note for the same payable on con- 
dition the sacks are delivered as per agreement. 
Where a Club is not thus organized an agent 
might be sent out and do this business under 
the auspices of the Club, he to receive pay from 
fees collected. If this was done throughout 
the State, I think we could buy a sack or two 
without the ring." 

In the above we have at least a good idea, 
something tangible that can be carried out in a 
business like manner, and ramificating through- 
out the entire State, or wherever there are 
school districts organized. It is a capital way 
of reaching out for the advancement of our 
interests and is a better plan for the accom- 
plishment of our purposes than making long 
newspaper harangues and calling our sack 
merchants by awful hard names, for trying to 
%et for their sacks just what we are trying to 
get for our wheat— all we can. 

Sacramento Rain-fall. 

Sacbamento, Jan. 14th 1873. 

Total rain-fall since 1st of Jan., to date 0.960 

Total rainfall for season prior to lBt inst 7.540 

Total for first half of season 8.500 

The Barometer is now high, the wind N. W. 
and the probability is that the first rainy term 
is over, and there will perhaps be an intermis- 
sion. As the latter rains are generally in pro- 
portion to the former, we will doubtless have 
an abundance for all agricultural purposes, and 
possibly the rains may extend late into the 
spring. T. M. Logan. 

Alfalfa Seed. — We are asked the price of 
alfalfa seed in San Francisco, and where it can 
be obtained. It can be had of the seedsmen 
who advertise in the Bubal. The price varies 
with quality. Good Chili seed can be bought 
at 25 cents a pound; first quality California 
grown seed, is selling from 30 to 35 cents a 
pound. The difference in price in California 
seed arises from the fact that some is shriveled, 
being unsound or unripened seed and compar- 
atively valueless. 

Patents & Inventions. 

Telegraphic List of U. S. Patents Is- 
sued to Pacific Coast Inventors. 

Refobtf.d Officially fob the Mining: and Scien- 
tific Pbess, DEWEY & CO., Publjshkbs anu 


By Special Dispatch, Dated Washinfirton, 
D. C, Jan. 14th, 1873. 

Fob Week Ending Decembeb 31st, 1872." 
Wood Pavement. — Henry M. Stow, S. F., Cal. 
Wagon-Bbake. — Ezra T. Buckman, Sonora, 

Pump. — Ira D. Cross, Petaluma, Cal. 
Pbesseb Foot Attachment fob Sewing Ma- 
chines. — George Vincent, Stockton, Cal. 
Obe-Feedeb fob Shaft Furnaces. — Edward V. 
Standish, Belmont, Nev. 

*The patents are not ready for delivery hy the 

Patent Office until some 14 days after the date of issue. 
Note.— Copies of U. 8. and Foreign Patents furnished 
by Dewey & Co., in the shortest time possible (hy tel- 
egraph or otherwise) at the lowest rates. All patent 
business for Pacific coast inventors transacted with 
greater security and in much less time than by any other 

Oranges and Frosts. 

One of our interior exchanges says: "Oranges 
are raised near Jackson, in Amador county. 
Jackson is well up in the higher foothills where 
there are frosts, but they do not seem to blight 
the orange trees or injure the fruit in the win- 
ter season." 

There should be no surprise in regard to 
this, for orange trees will stand uninjured a 
degree of cold several degrees below freezing 
without any apparent injury to tree or fruit. 

Mr. F. A. Herring, a nurseryman of experi- 
ence in Butte county, informs us that the 
orange will endure 22°,or ten degrees below the 
freezing point of water without injury; doubt- 
less owing to the peculiar quality or constitu- 
ents of the leaf and limb. Hence the reason 
why we can raise good oranges successfully, 
where ordinary white frosts or even thin ice 
formations are made. 

Ice is frozen dry at 32-> Fah., and white 
frosts may cover the ground till noon-day, yet 
if the thermometer does not indicate a degree 
of cold below 22° oranges escape injury. Hence 
the wide range in all the lower valleys of the 
State adapted to the successful cultivation of 
this fruit. 

Wines in the Foothills. — J. A. Pierce, agent 
for Bubal Pbess, writes us from the foothills, 
that Mr. H. L. Hatch of Vine Hill, near Indian 
Springs, in Nevada county, made from 900 five 
year old grape vines, 1,400 gallons o f excellent 
wine in 1872. From the same vines in 1871 he 
made 1,100 gallons, and this after a very laige 
consumption of grapes by the family. Who 
has done better than this from the same num- 
ber of vines? -The vines are set seven feet 
apart each way, and the varieties are one-t hird 
Mission, one-third Black Hamburg and one- 
third Rose of Peru. 

Australian Blue Gum. 

E. A. G. of Petaluma, asks for information 
in regard to the growing of the Eucalyptus or 
Australian Blue Gum tree; says he has "the 
seed in the shell," would like to know how to 
extract it; and some directions about starting 
the young plants. 

Expose the "seed in the shell," to the sun, 
which will bring out the seed, without injury 
to it. Sow the seed now, if you can do it 
under glass, that is, in a green or hot house. 
Sow thickly in pots or boxes of garden soil 
having a large excess of sand in its composi- 
tion. Sow shallow, a half inch being sufficient, 
keep the soil moist, not wet. 
After the plants have made their second leaves, 
transplant to the nursery row and cultivate one 
year; then to the places where the trees are to 
stand. Keep weeds and grass away from the 
trees, and the surface of the soil around the 
trees, in a perfeotly mellow orfriable condition. 
This is the usual method adopted. There is a 
better way but it is not popular; it is to trans- 
plant from the pots or boxes, directly to the 
places where the trees are to stand. 

This makes better rooted trees, and trees 
that will not blow over with every little gust of 
wind that passes them; but it is a little more 
work, to cultivate and protect them the first 
year. If no green house is at hand, improvise 
one by putting a window sash over a box with 
full exposure to the sun. Or wait till the sea- 
son and soil are sufficiently warm to admit of 
sowing under the open air, without liability to 

January 18, 1873.J 


Tulare Valley. 

Eds. Press: — Having been a reader of the 
Press for nearly two years it is only natural 
that I should become interested in it, as I am 
a fnrmer and desirous to get all the benefit I 
can from the experience of others; at the same 
time I would like to reciprocate in some way, 
but never having written an article for an ag- 
ricultural paper I feel my inability to do so; 
but as I seldom see anything in your very val- 
uable paper from Tulare, I thought I would try 
to say something, and if it is worthy of a place, 
well, if not send it to the waste basket. 

Our county was first settled with that class 
of men who were satisfied to eke out a living 
by raising stock, disdaining anything like work, 
unless they could do it on horseback. Men 
kept hundreds and sometimes thousands of 
cattle and rarely had milk or butter on their 
tables. Such men rarely made any substan- 
tial improvements on land; seldom owned a 
farm, and if they did, you rarely see anything 
like home comforts about them. Our mer- 
chants imported flour and bacon, and to-day 
we have Bodega potatoes and New York butter 
in our town. 

I am glad to say that within the last few 
years we are improving; a better class of men 
are coming among us, our slow coaches are giv- 
ing way, and the railroad has been a great benefit 
to us in that particular. We are now beginning 
to farm in earnest; last year we had a surplus 
of grain, but the tariff on freight was so high 
that thus far we are kept out of the market; but 
with God's blessing we intend to double our 
diligence; we have been blessed with an abund- 
ance of rain for the present and we in- 
tend to enlarge our farms, sow more 
acres, cultivate our land better, and will 
no doubt diversify our crops more. 

It is now generally believed that we 
can grow cotton successfully; some ex- 
periments are being made with the silk- 
worm, |and ere long the ramie plant will 
be tested, no doubt. At present we know 
that our fruits are not excelled for rich- 
ness or quantity by any other portion of 
the State, and more, we intend to have 
a narrow gauge railroad from Stockton 
to Visalia, when we expect to be able to 
put our products into market at a living 
rate, both to our farmers and the railroad 
too. I say we intend to have it; I mean 
what I say; we don't intend to sit still 
and see all the rest of the Pacific coast 
prospering and growing rich, and we 
kept back by extoitionate prices of 
freight; we intend to come into the 
market with our grain, wool, wine, fruits 
and vegetables, as well as with our beef, 
mutton and pork. 

We intend ere long to organize our 
agricultural societies, hold our valley 
Fairs, and organize farmers' clubs; in 
fact, we intend to come face to face with 
the rest of mankind at no very distant 
day. But lest I weary you I will close. 
G. f. p. 

Visalia, Jan. 6th, 1873. 

We shall be pleased to hearfrom G. F. 
P. whenever he can find time to commu- 
nicate, and we hope others in Tulare 
Valley and all the great valleys and all 
the little valleys of the State, will let us 
hear from them on every subject con- 
nected with the agricultural interests of their 
respective localities. 

The Farming Prospect. 

We can hardly go back to the year within the 
twenty last past, and find a season which prom- 
ised to be more propitious at this time in Jan- 
nary than the present. In the first place the 
early fall rains were not of that drenching and 
bleaching nature that spoils the dried grass, 
and puts the animals on thousands of Califor- 
nia farms on short allowance or innutritious 

When the rains finally came in copious abun- 
dance, it was so warm and genial that with or 
without sunshine the green grass sprang with 
magical cprickness from the warm earth and in 
ten days clothed the hills in every direction 
with a fair bite for grazing animals; and now, 
the 14th of January, we feel that our winter 
is passed; and we noticed yesterday a flock of 
blackbirds on their return, took posession of 
the trees of Clay and Washington street plaza 
for a full half hour and then started to the 
northward . 

In a few localities the almonds and apricots 
are in blossom, oranges of the new crop are 
just being picked from the trees, vegetables of 
every kind are fresh from the gardens, the 
grain-fields are being spread out over surfaces 
never eqalled before, and with later rains as 
copious as have been the earlier, a season of 
prosperity will attend the efforts of the hus- 
bandman never before equalled in the history 
of the State. 

Fruits of California. No. I. — Eastern 
Apples Grown in California. 

King of Tompkins County. 

Written for the Pbebs. 

This splendid apple, supposed to have orig- 
inated in Tompkins county, New York, of 
which I give an outline drawing above from a 
specimen grown on Mr. J. Harmon's "Sunny 
Side" farm, Sonoma countv, Cal., and shows 
more than double the size of the same apple 
grown on its native [heath. Here, it measures 
15x14 inches in circumference, and weighs 19 
to 20 ozs. In New York State, taking Down- 
ing 's drawing, now before me, it measures 
about 8x9% inches. 

The specimen from which I made the above 
outline drawing was of a beautiful deep red 
color, the ground slightly relieved by a mellow 
shade of fawn, giving it a very rich appear- 
ance. It is a fine-flavored, delicious apple 
here, as in the Empire State; but does not keep 
as long here as there. 

Downing, in speaking of this apple, says its 
origin is uncertain; it ismuch grown in Tomp- 
kins and the adjoining counties; said to be a 
valuable market fruit. Tree, very vigorous, 
spreading, an abundant bearer annually. Fruit 
large, globular, inclining to conic, sometimes ob- 
late, angular. Skin, yellowii-h, mostly shaded 
with red, striped and splashed with crimson. 
Stalk, rather stout and short, inserted in a large, 
somewhat irregular cavity. Calyx, small ancl 
closed, set in a medium, slightly corrugated 

Freeport, 111., Beet Sugar Factory. 

Mr. C. H. Rosenstil, who became interested 
in the beet sugar factory established by the gen- 
tlemen Gennert, at Chattsworth, 111., on its re- 
moval to Freeport, in a private note to one of 
the editors of this paper, says: — "I have had a 
great deal of trouble in getting started, to break 
in about a hundred hands, all inexperienced. 
A great deal has been wasted in consequence; 
but I think I have overcome all difficulties 
now. The works are getting along nicely. 
Sugar is coming out now satisfactorily, and 
you will find that sugar manufacturing inter- 
ests will take the lead in this Northwestern 
country; for you know we have as good soil 
and climate as there is in the world; and since 
they build one beet sugar factory after another in 
Germany, Russia, France, and other countries, 
and make them pay where they must pay $14 
per ton for coal, while we pay here but $3; and 
where a factory like ours, with the capacity to 
work up fifty tons of beets per day, has to pay 
to the Government $262.50 per day tax, and we, 
not anything, I can see no good reason why a 
factory should not pay here, where there is ev- 
erything in our favor. 

"I consider it a disgrace to this country that, 
while all other countries make their own sugar, 
and export beside, we should sit still and pay 
hundreds of millions of dollars for imported 
sugar. This is what prompted me to under- 
take to build a beet sugar factory. I thought if 
I could bring this industry into a state of per- 
fection here, and demonstrate its profit, I 


Shad for California. — A large number of 
shad eggs are to be sent from the Smithsonian 
Institute this month, to California to be depos- 
ted in our rivers. A quantity of " white fish" 
eggs are also to be sent. 

basin. Flesh, yellowish, rather coarse, juicy, 
tender, with an exceedingly agreeable, rich vin- 
ous flavor, delightfully aromatic, December to 

As before observed, this apple does not keep 
as long in California, as at the East. I have 
fine specimens of it now growing ou my old an- 
cestral homestead in Tompkins Co., N. Y., 
("the place where I was born' ') and can vouch 
for the accuracy of Mr. Downing's description, 
in the main, so far as relates to the apple grown 
in its native state. But its translation to Califor- 
nia, as will be seen, gives it quite a different ap- 
pearance, and disproves the very prevalent idea 
that the apple grown in this State is not equal 
in flavor and quality to the same fruit produced 
in the Eastern States. 

I have drawings of all the principal apples 
and pears grown in California, and shall fur- 
nish illustrations for the Rural Press of any 
that may be desired. T. Hart Hyatt. 

Home Cottage, Oakland, Jan., 1873. 

In order that the reader may be better able 
to form a correct idea of the difference between 
this apple as given here and at the East, we 
have copied the drawing from page 240 of 
"Downing's Fruits and Fruit Trees of Amer- 
ica" where it is given, in outline and size, just 
as it is found in New York — placing Down- 
ing's outline within that furnished us by Mr. 
Hyatt. We shall be pleased to receive further 
drawings of California fruit, as promised by 
our correspondent. — [Eds. Press. 

An Electrical Brake. — It is said that suc- 
cessful experiments have been recently made on 
the North London (England) railroad of a 
new brake worked by electricity. The inven- 
tion consists in the application of electro-mag- 
nets, exerting a force of 600 lbs. to pulleys on 
a swing shaft underneath the carriages. By 
merely pressing a key the guard is enabled to 
bring the train to a stand-still. 

should have accomplished a great deal for my 

"We have a splendid factory, built of stone 
and brick. The main building is 374 feet long, 
and from 50 to 66 feet wide; another building is 
142 feet long; the boiler house is 85 feet long 
and 55 feet wide; the smoke-stack is 120 feet 
high. The boiler house is so arranged that we 
can throw coal from the cars immediately in 
front of the boiler. Germans who have visited 
us, familiar with the business in Germany, say 
we have things as nicely arranged as they ever 
saw them in the factories in that country." 

We are glad to hear of the good prospect that 
Illinois is to demonstrate the practicability and 
profit of manufacturing beet sugar. We know 
no man in the West more likely to win success 
in this, his latest ambition, than Mr. Rosenstil; 
for he is not one of the sort of men who fail. 
As a farmer, stock breeder, horticulturist and 
manufacturer, he has proved himself to be one 
of the most successful in Northern Illinois. 
We are sorry to hear of his failing health. — 
Moore's Rural New Yorker. 

Walnuts, Olives, Etc. — As the olive and 
walnut are to become pre-eminently the fruit 
trees of this section of Southern California, we 
shall lose no chance for impressing upon the 
people here their importance, and publish all 
facts connected with them. The crop of fruit 
from the few trees growing here is unfailing, 
and to show what fine growths the trees make, 
we append measurements made this week in 
the Mission orchard by F. S. Leach, Wm. C. 
Carr and self: Walnut CO inches in circumfer- 
ence, five feet from the ground; palm, 96 
inches; olive, 102 inches, four feet from the 
ground, and 162 inches one foot from the 
ground; a pear tree, the property of J. B. Yso- 
ardy, 124 inches five feet from the roots. These 
trees were planted by the Mission Fathers 
many years ago, perhaps not less thrn 80 or 90, 
and are yet fresh and rigorous without cultiva- 
tion or irrigation. — Ventura Signel. 

Wool in New York. 

We like to keep our readers posted in regard 
to the value of a product that now figures so 
largely among the exports of our State. There 
is a considerable quantity of wool yet in first 
hands or their agents, and holders are desirous 
of realizing if possible, before another clip shall 
lap over upon the one now on hand. We extract 
from the Monthly Wool Circular of Jan. 2d, 1873 
of Walter Brown & Son, New Yoik, the follow- 

A review of the wool market, during the year 
just closed, reveals many peculiar and not al- 
together uninteresting features. The year 1872 
opened on an unusually active and buoyant 
market, with prices strongly tending towards 
war rates. This state of things continued 
through January and February, during which 
period manufacturers, most of them, laid in 
large supplies. High prices drew hither large 
supplies of raw material from all the markets of 
the world, and it was now seen that the defi- 
ciency in our own Domestic clip was more than 
made up. Consumers were however disappointed 
in sale of their productions, and suddenly with- 
drew from the markets, and prices as suddenly 
fell. The subsequent dullness, and the steady 
decline in values which followed, was nearly as 
great as the activity and high rates which had 
previously prevailed. 

For nearly six months the Trade labored un- 
der this depression; but during the interim 
the supplies in the seaboard markets, which 
had not been materially augmented, became re- 
duced, and a reaction set in, which by Novem- 
ber established an advance of five per cent. 
But manufacturers were not eager to take hold, 
and bought only as their needs required. 
The Boston fire gave an impetus to 
this advance, and prices rose rapidly; 
but it being found that losses by the fire 
bore heavily on many manufacturers, 
directly and through their commission 
houses, cash buyers were offered in- 
ducements in the way of concessions: 
and by this means, as much as by other, 
extreme values were not reached. 

It is, however quite noticeable that 
a firm feeling pervades the whole trade, 
with the general opinion that early in 
the New Year higher figures will be 
obtained; resulting probably from the 
fact that stocks of Domestic Wools in 
the Eastern Markets are very light, and 
such Wools as still remain in the West 
are mostly held by farmers and second 
hands at extreme rates, with no indica- 
tions of yieldingbefore the near appioach 
of the New Clip; also that few, if any, 
orders have gone abroad for Foreign 
Wools, owing to the unremunerative char- 
acter of last season's operations. 

The month just closed, usually a quiet 
one in the Wool Trade, was marked by 
many large transactions, and there was 
more or less activity throughout; but the 
stringency in the Money Market and 
very high rates ruling for all mercantile 
paper (wool and woolen paper being 
under a cloud since the Boston fire), 
and more closely scrutinized than any 
other, have probably prevented any 
speculative movement, which otherwise 
would have taken place. With relief 
from this quarter, such an event is not 
unlikely to occur during the present 
Stocks of all descriptions in the mar- 
kets are quite small, and holders are firm in an- 
ticipation of further improvement; and the facts 
we have stated seem to warrant the opinion that, 
should the machinery of the country continue 
to be actively employed, a short supply during 
the next few months is inevitable, except it be 
increased from abroad at necessarily higher 
values than now prevail. 

California Wools are without material change 
in values, a fair consumptive demand during 
the early part of the month, having lessened 
the supplies in first hands. 

Spring Clip, fine 43@47 

Spring Clip, medium 43(6)47 

Spring Clip, low grades and burry 88(5)40 

Fall Clip, A 1 28@30 

Fall Clip, low grades and burry 28@25 

A New Fire Escape. — We were present to 
witness the operation of a new " Fire Escape," 
in front of the Occidental Hotel on Wednesday. 
We did not learn who the inventor is, or but 
little in relation to it. It was evident however 
that with the aid of a line or cord and an ex- 
ceedingly small apparatus, which we did not 
get the chance of examining, that a person can 
let hjm or herself down from any hight of win- 
dows with safety and dispatch, requiring less 
than two miuutes to open the window, attach 
the rope and descend safely to the ground. We 
shall probably notice it further. 

Hand-book on tub Horse. — We have re- 
ceived a very neatly bound volume of 137 pages 
from A. Roman & Co., booksellers, 417 and 
419 Montgomery street, S. F., on the Treatment 
of the Horse, in the stable and on the road; or 
hints to horse owners; by Charles Wharton. 
The work is profusely illustrated with engrav- 
ings and the matters treated of, the use and 
management of the horse in health and sick - 
ness, seem to be well handled, making it an in- 
teresting and valuablo work for the horse 


®&mm® eiem &&B8& 

[January 18, 1873. 

Poor Farmer John. 


Old Farmer John is nore perplexed- 
Nay. Farmer John is really vexed; 
He labors early, labors late, 
Yf t ever talks of adverse fate; 
For all his toilings scarce suffice. 
Of longed-for lands to pay the price. 

The summers come, the summers go. 
The spring showers waste the winter snows 
The while, from dawn till close of day, 
Receiving naught but f owns for pay; 
His good wife foils; and anxious caro 
Has faded lip and check and hair. 

Acres on acres stretch away' 
Of woodland, corn, of wheat and hay; 
His cattle roam o'er many a hill, 
His brooklet turns the groaning mill; 
Yet still he sighs and longs for more, 
And grumbles e'er that he is poor. 

Four sturdy sons, four daughters fair 
(lanced athis hands a father's care; 
He gave them labor without cud. 
And Strove their souls, like his, to bend 
Into the narrowing groove of thought- 
Gold to be earned, land to be bought. 

Yes, Farmer John is growing poor ! 
You see it as you pass his door. 
His old brown house is small and mean 
The roof is warped by crack and scam; 
The leaning bars, the half hinged door, 
Proclaim old John is very poor. 

No books, no pictures on the wall; 
Carpetless rooms and dreary hall; 
Why think it strange 6uch farmer's boys 
Should seek the city's pomp and noise? 
Should learn to loathe the sight of home, 
Where naught of joy or grace may come I 

Why think it strange his poor old wife, 
Who coined for him her very life, 
Should pause, at last, despite his frown, 
And lay her weary burden down 
In joy, to walk the streets of heaven, 
Where naught is sold, but all is given? 

Go where you will, search earth around. 
The poorest man that can be found 
Is he who toils through life to gain 
Widest extent of hill and plain: 
Forgetting all his soul's best needs, 
In counting o'er his title-deeds. 

— Christian Union. 

A Woman's Views on the Firewood 

Intelligent men and women seem to be 
aiming after a higher state of culture and 
refinement than ever before, and to 
work with brain as well as with hand. 
And I think that brains are needed on the 
farm in planning and managing one's work 
as anywhere else. How much inconve- 
nience and discomfort (to say nothing of 
poverty) is avoided to know how to plan 
and work. Take the wood pile for example, 
(and you, sisters, may read this to your 
" better halves," if you think they deserve 
it— for I am writing it for them). Some 
men seem to think if they get up a sup- 
ply of wood at the door or in the shed — 
just as they haul it from the woods — that 
is sufficient; they can fit it any time for 
the stove. But this any time does not 
come in a convenient time. They have to 
delay their teaming and other necessary 
work in the winter, making the short days 
shorter; and those who are waiting or em- 
ploying them are fractious and ungentle- 
manly by their neglecting to have their 
wood prepared beforehand. Such men, I 
think, work more with their hands than 
brains. The prudent housewife sees and 
feels all this, while her morning biscuit 
are often spoiled in the oven, her dinner 
partially cooked, and her supper drags 
along till a late hour, when the house 
ought to be quiet and still for enjoyment. 
And who can tell the discomfort and dis- 
cord it causes in the home circle? 

The wife and mother, who would have 
her meals prepared in due season, and 
her house neat and tidy, is often obliged 
to call her husband from an important en- 
gagement, or leave her pastry and take the 
ax or saw herself and fit her own fuel. 
She has friends or strangers come to visit 
her, whose presence and company she 
would like to enjoy; but she must neglect 
them, and with chattering teeth and ach- 
ing fingers go to the wood pile and find 
something dry, if she can, to start the fire. 
Perhaps the children, or the husband him- 
self, may be sick, and it may be necessary 
to keep a fire all night. Then, in the time 
of great need, there is not wood enough 
cut to keep a fire one night. I am well 
aware that this is not the way with all men; 
but there are many I know to whom this 
will apply. 

I can now call to mind a well-to do 

farmer past the meridian 'of life who boasts 
of broad fields of fifty acres of woodland; 
but his family is compelled to burn green 
wood in the winter through his negligence. 
On conversing with such men they say they 
would be glad to have their wood prepared 
beforehand, but they have no time — if they 
had as much time as their wealthy neigh- 
bors, they would surely do it. As though 
the thrifty man's calendar had more days 
in it than theirs; and as though it would 
take more time to fit it in a few weeks than 
it would to be about it three hundred and 
sixty-five days. Yet these men have time 
for loafing at the village store, or leaning 
over the line fence, looking at a neigh- 
bor's garden, or to talk with a passer-by. 

These men think their wives and chil- 
dren must always be pleasant and cheer- 
ful, kind and loving — not realizing that the 
sadness on their faces, the sigh that es- 
capes their lips, is caused by their neglect 
and want of proper management. For the 
man who is careless about the firewood is 
apt to be so about other things. When I see 
a lot of wood all fitted for the stove, sea- 
soned and under cover, I think that man 
loves his wife, loves domestic happiness, 
and knows how to work with brains as well 
as hands. Our lives are short at the most. 
Then let us manage all our affairs to se- 
cure to ourselves and children the greatest 
amount of enjoyment and happiness. — Cor. 
Maine Farmer. 

To Distinguish Good Calico. 

The cost of a yard of calico is a matter of con- 
siderable importance to the consumer who 
studies economy; but unfortunately there are 
those who in wishing to practice frugality de- 
ceive themselves into the idea that because an 
article is low in price it must necessarily be 
cheap. The result of this is a demand upon 
the manufacturer for low priced goods, and he, 
to keep pace with the wants of his customers, 
introduces into his wares, when practicaple, 
certain preparations calculated to hide the flim- 
siness of the products he is thus called upon to 

This system of "dressing and finishing, " as 
it is called, is practiced at the present time to a 
greater extent than it ever was before, owing to 
the enormous advance in the price of cotton 
of late years. The most common calicoes are 
"dressed" with flour, china clay, etc., and are 
generally so artfully "filled" with one or other 
preparations as to be very deceptive to the in- 
experienced eye. 

When, however, such a dressed fabric comes 
to be washed, the "extra fine finished," as it is 
not unfrequently called, disappears, leaving a 
soft, flabby and loosely woven texture in the 
hand, while the water in which it has been 
soaked is almost thick enough for bill sticking 
purposes. The finest 'makes," on the con- 
trary, contain scarcely any flour, and should 
never appear any worse for a soaking in the 
wash tub. 

In order to ascertain to what extent a plain 
calico is finished, we have but to rub a small 
portion of the piece to be tested sharply be- 
tween the finger and thumb of each hand, for 
this "makes the powder fly," as the Man- 
chester men say. If it be of the most common 
quality, a quantity of "dress" will be extract- 
ed, and we shall soon see that the threads are 
left as far apart as those in a sieve, crossing 
each other unevenly, and on places going off, 
as it were, in tangents. Then, if we draw out 
a single thread and pull it asunder, it will bo 
found to break with a snapping. If, on the 
contrary, the calico is a good one, scarcely any 
dressing will come out of it on rubbing it; the 
threads will appear closely woven together; a 
single thread drawn out will rather burst than 
snap when pulled asunder, and the separate 
ends of such thread will present a fluffy appear- 
ance, while the whole piece will be firm and 
elastic to the touch. — Ohio Farmer. 

Home Conversation. 

Children hunger perpetually for new ideas, 
and the most pleasant way of reception is by 
the voice and ear, not the eye and tho printed 
page. The one mode is natural, the other ar- 
tificial. Who would not rather listen than 
read? An audience will listen closely from the 
beginning to the end of an address which not 
one in twenty of those present would read with 
the same attention. This is emphatically true 
of children. They will learn with pleasure 
from the lips of parents what they deem it 
drudgery to study in the books; and even if 
they have the misfortune to be deprived of the 
educational advantages which they desire, they 
cannot fail to grow up intelligent if they enjoy 
in childhood and youth the privilege of listen- 
ing daily to the conversation of intelligent peo- 

Let parents, then, talk much and talk well at 
home. A father who is habitually silent in his 
own house may be, in many respects, a wise 
man; but he is not wise in his silence. We 
sometimes see parents who are the life of every 
company which they enter, dull, silent, unin- 
teresting at home among their children. If 
they have not mental activity and mental 
stores sufficient for both, let them first provide 
for their own household.— Ohio Farmer. 

Fitting a Boy for Manhood. 

One of the best ways of fitting a boy for 
the career of manhood and of ensuring 
his success in it, is to enlist his young, 
eager, and irrepressible activities in some- 
thing practical. The restless energy which 
bursts out into all kinds of mischievous 
pranks, if it has no other outlet, is just 
what he will need in the hard work of life. 
It does not want curbing, but directing. 
Responsibility is an excellent balance- 

Give the boy this balance-wheel. Give 
him an interest in your own business, if 
possible — in your farm or in your store; 
let him him have a share in the labor and 
the profits; or, if he shows a decided taste 
for some other employment, encourage it. 
Give him every opportunity to study agri- 
culture, or engineering, or art. Let him 
feel that he is going to be a man, and is 
preparing for a man's work and position. 
Make him your friend and companion. 
We know no better means of making a 
boy manly, and of keeping him " out of 
mischief," than such a course. 

The history of bad boys and bad men is, 
in a large majority of cases, written in 
these words: "They had not the proper 
training and incentive. Many are the 
prison occupants of to-day who can blame 
their parents for the lack of proper gov- 
ernment and discretion in directing their 
children's mind and forming their habits. 
And many a child, now a bright promising 
boy, will look out from a grated window a 
few years hence, less a victim to his own 
bad heart than to his bad bringing up. 

Take warning in time, O anixous parent, 
to give your boys every incentive to indus- 
try and good habits; even to early enlist- 
ing them as partners in your business, 
whatever that may be; and O boys, take 
warning in the sad solemn histories of 
those youths who have perished before 
you, by sad associations and indifference 
to the future. 

The Courage to Live. 

We need not preach the courage to die — 
that is common enough — but the courage 
to live, to be honest in spite of poverty 
and neglect; to be true, though all is dark 
except where God shines in; to be faith- 
ful, though heavens fall and hearts break, 
and friendships turn to gall. Yes, we 
must teach men to dare to be unpopular, 
to be misapprehended, to be ahead of the 
times, to follow the voice of God though 
it leads into the wilderness, to tell the 
devil to his very face that belies, and also 
to give him his dues — an act which re- 
quires the supremest courage at times. 

I wouldn't give a farthing for the tri- 
umphant faith of the death hour, unless 
it comes from that triumphant faith that 
makes our life full of noblest daring, that 
is ready to fling aside honor, wealth, the 
praise of friends, rather than impair for 
one moment the soul's integrity. Oh, for 
such a courage — the courage to think, to 
act, to tell the harsh truths, to overthrow 
splendid falsehoods, to disown sweet lies 
and to banish tenderest associations rather 
than check in the least the free movement 
of the sovereign soul. We all must die 
with more or less equanimity, but we can- 
not live in the full splendor of our being 
except by courage and determined exer- 
tion. The coward, under certain circum- 
stances, may die grandly; but never under 
any circumstances, can he live grandly. — 
Liberal Christian. 

The Husband. — The ladies sometimes 
do not value their husbands as they ought. 
They not unfrequently learn the value of 
a good husband by the los3 of him. Yet 
the husband is the very roof-tree of the 
house, the corner-stone of the edifice, the 
keystone to the arch called home. He is 
the bread-winner of the family, the de- 
fence, and its glory, the beginning and the 
ending of the golden chain of life which 
surrounds it, its consoler, its law-giver 
and king. And yet we see how frail that 
life is on which so much depends! How 
frail is the life of a husband or father! 
When he is taken away, who shall fill his 
place? When he is ill, what gloomy 
clouds hover over his place! When he is 
dead what darkness, weeping, agony! 
Then poverty, like the murderous assassin, 
breaks in at the windows; starvation, like 
a famished wolf, howls at the door. 
Widowhood is too often an associate of 
sackcloth and ashes. Orphanhood, too, 
means desolation and woe. 

Bubbles look well while they last, but they 
cannot stand pressure. 

YoJplQ F OLK s' GoLJpij*. 

Going Home to be Forgiven. 

Some boys were playing at ball in a retired 
place one afternoon when they should have 
been at school. They absented themselves 
without leave, intending to go home at the usual 
hour. Thus they thought their absence would 
not be noticed by their parents and friends. 

While thus engaged Mr. Amos came along. 
"What are you doing here?" said he. "Your 
parents think you are at school. I shall let 
them know where you are and what you are 

He passed on and the boys stopped playing. 
What was to be done? He would be sure to 
tell their parents. It was too late to go to 
school and too early to go home. Their 
consultations came to no comfortable con- 
clusion; the probabilities of punishment were 
talked of. Some thought they might escape, but 
the prospects of most of them were not promis- 
ing. At length John Eoberts rose up and said: 
"I'm going home." 

"What for? To get a flogging and have it 
over?" said one. 

"No; I'm going home to be forgiven, " and 
away he went. 

John had never played truant before. He had 
very kind parents and they would deny him 
nothing that was for his good, and he felt that 
he had treated them very ungratefullvby acting 
contrary to their known wishes. He resolved 
to go home and make a full confession of his 
fault and ask their forgiveness. 

On reaching home he met his sister, several 
years younger than himself, to whom he told 
his resolution, and like the loving sister she 
was, she agreed to go with her brother and ask 
mother to forgive. 

As they came into the house they met their 
parents j ust starting out to make some purchases 
for the house, but when the mother saw the 
anxious look on the children's faces she willing- 
ly waited until John had told the story of his 
playing truant, and then asked to be forgiven, 
found as in the case of the Prodigal Son, the 
parent as willing if not more so, to forgive, than 
the son was to be forgiven. John was right; it 
was a good thing to go home for — to be forgiven. 

A Manly Answer. — All honor to the boy who 
can not be laughed out of doing right. Five 
boys, pupils in a boarding-school, were in a 
room. Four of them, contrary to the rules, en- 
gaged in a game of cards. The fifth was not 
standing and looking on to see how the game 
would go, but was engaged in a work of his 
own. It so happened that one of the players 
was called from the room. 

''Come!" said the others to their companion. 
' 'It is too bad to have the game stop here in the 
middle. Come and take his place." 

"I do not know one card from another." 

"That makes no difference — we will teach 
you. Come now; do not let our sport be 

The boy perceived that this was the decisive 
moment. Ah! just such are the critical points 
which are sometimes the turning points in life. 
His resolution was immediately taken. He 
made no more excuses, but at once planted 
himself square upon principle. 

"My father does not wish me to play cards, 
and I shall not act contrary to his wishes." 

This ended the matter. It established his 
position among his companions. It compelled 
their respect, and preserved him from tempta- 
tion in the future. 

A Dignified Boy. — Col. Samuel Colt was in 
his lifetime disposed sometimes to be rather 
pompous. When he was building dwelling- 
houses for the workmen employed in his great 
pistol factory, he one day encountered a boy 
picking up chips on his grounds. 

"What are you doing here ?" he asked gruffly. 
"Picking up chips, sir," replied the youngster 
evidently unawed by the great presence. 

"Perhaps," exclaimed the Colonel, drawing 
himself up with swelling dignity, "you don't 
know who I am. I'm Colonel Samuel Colt, 
and I live in that big house up yonder." 

The boy straightened up and swelled out and 
answered: "Perhaps you don't know who / 
am. I'm Patrick Murphy, and I live in that 
little shanty down yonder," pointing in the di- 

"Sonny," said the Colonel, blandly, patting 
the boy on the head, " go on and pick up afl 
the chips you want, and when you get out 
comeback for more." 

The Spoiled Day. — It was just one little 
word that did it all. Madge had sprung out of 
bed that morning, determined to try to be good; 
but when Ned happened to spill his coffee on 
her new dress, she forget her good resolutions, 
and declared that he was the most provoking 
fellow in the -world. Then Ned grew angry and 
"answered back," and after that everything 
went wrong all day, for never a day goes pleas- 
antly that begins with angry words.— Hearth 
and Home. 

How to Have Fcn.— A young lady writes to 
an exchange giving a receipt for having fun. 
She says, invite half a dozen boys and girls to 
your house when your pa and ma are away; 
put a half-dollar silver piece in a dish of mo- 
lasses an inch deep in it, and offer it to the boy 
who gets it with his mouth. The more the 
boys try to get it, the more fun will there be. 
That girl surely deserves a diploma. 

January 18, 1873.] 


New York Seed Warehouse. 

Established nt 1852. 

427 Sansome street, near Clay San Francisco. 


[Suocessor to 0. L. Kellogg] 
Wholesale and Retail Dealer in 

A Splendid Stock of Grass Seed, Embracing-, 

Mesquit, Kentucky Blue Grass, Orchard, Red Top, 

Bye and Timothy; Fine Mixed Seed for Lawns; 

White and Red Clover Seed; California and Chile Alfalfa. 

Dutch Bulbous Roots, imported from the best 
Flower Nurseries of Holland. 

Agent for the Genuine Lang-uedoc Almond 
Tree— By the 100, at from $12.60 to $25.00. 1OO.00U 
Eucalyptus or Australian Gdm Trees, at from $15 to 
$25 per 100. California and Australian Seeds. Gar- 
den Hardware, Etc. Seeds Warranted Fresh and Pure. 

Catalogues free on application. 


23v25-3m 427 Sansome street, SanFrancisco. 


W liolesale or Retail. 

Vegetable, Field and Flower Seeds, 

California and Australian Evergreen Seeds, 

Etc., Etc. 

Pure Kentucky Blue Grass, Bed Top, Rye Grasses, 
Orchard Grass, Timothy, Alfalfa, White, 
and Red Clover Seed, 
Mosqult Grass Seed. 
Hyacinths, Tulips, Crocus, Lilies, fine clumps of Lily 
of the Valley, new Gladiolus, Etc. 
Ramie Seed and Plants. 


Greenhouse Plants, Evergreens, Etc. 

Rustic and WraE Baskets, Flower Stands, Fruit and 

Ornamental Trees, Etc., 


Send for Catalogues. 



425 Washington street, 
San Francisco, Cal. 


Pacific Oil and Lead Works, 

Are prepared to 

Furnish Seed and Contract for Next 

Year's Crop of Flax Seed and Castor Beans at rates 

that, with proper cultivation on suitable 

land, will make them among the most 

profitable Crops grown. 

For further particulars address 


3 and 5 Front Street SAN FRANCISCO. 



1,500 to 2,000 lbs. for sale in chaff at 

Orders by mail promptly filled by 

14v4-3m Sebastapol, Sonoma County. 


hould be ordered now. W. F. HEIKES, Dayton, Ohio. 

Kelsey's Nurseries, 


Alameda County Cal. 


San Francisco. 

[established in 185 2.] 

Containing- the Largest and Best Assorted 
Stock of 

Trees and Plants 

On the Pacific Coast. 

Embracing— FRUIT TREES AND PLANTS of all and 
BULBS, Etc. Etc. 

Send for Catalogues and Price Lists— Free on Appli- 
cation. lv5-3m 


Maple Leaf Nursery. 

Has constant- 
varieties of 
GREEN and 
SHRUBS; also 
ment of Choice 
merous to 
Green House 
era and Bulbs 

ly on hand all 
a large assort- 
Plants, Flow- 
Garden, Grass 

and Flower Seeds of all kinds, are for sale by 

L. M. NEWSOM, Proprietor, 
12v3-tt Washington strwt, Brooklyn, Cal 

Los Angeles Nursery and Fruit 


O. W. CHILDS, Proprietor. 

Desires to call attention to his large and desirable 
assortment of 

Orange, Lemon, Lime and 
Citron Trees, 


Including a limited quantity of ORANGE, Grafted and 
Budded on Lemon Stock. 


50,000 Choice English "Walnut Trees, 

From 2 to 10 feet high. Price, $10 per hundred. And 
a very superior lot of 

Italian and Spanish Chestnut Trees, 
1 to 6 feet high, at very low rates. 


Main street, Los Angeles, Cal. 

Trees and Plants for Sale 

— AT THE — 


I now offer for sale a large and 
well selected stock of 

Fruit and Ornamental Trees, 

Hardy Evergreen Shrubbery 

and Greenhouse Plants. 

Send for Catalogue and List of Prices. 


Petaluma, Sonoma County, Cal. 






Dealers and Nurserymen Supplied at Low 

Catalogues furnished on application 


San Jose, Cal. 

Mulberry Trees for Sale 

I. N. HOAG, Sacramento. 


For the Yard, for the Sidewalk, or the Roadside. 
— ALSO — 

Fruiting Mulberry, 

Of all varieties, and for Silk Culture. 


Of every kind— grown in the best Nurseries 

in the State— for sale at the 

Lowest PriceB. 


All orders promptly attended to. 26v4-3m 


Presidio Road, near U. S. Reservation (on the line of 
the Sutter street Cars) , SAN FRANCISCO. 

A Large and Well Selected Stock of New and 
Rare Plants for the 

Greenhouse and Open Air. 

Evergreen Trees.Geraniums, Pelargoniums, 
Boses, Fuschias, Pinks, Gladiolas, Lilies, 
Coleus, Pansies, Primroses, in great va- 
riety. Also, Tuberroses, Verbenas, Cac- 
tus, Heliotropes, etc. 
Orders from the country carefully attended to. 
Address, through P. O., 
25v4-3m F. LTJDEMAN & CO., 

Grape Vines and Cuttings for Sale 

—AT THE — 

"Vineland. Vineyards, 

The undersigned can furnish Grape Cuttings of the 
Choicest Varieties of Wine and Table Grapes. 

Many of the Choicest Wine Grapes can be furnished 
in large quantities, at from $5 to $7 per thousand. 

Rooted Vines, $2 per hundred or $15 per thousand, 
delivered at the Railroad Station. 

Send all orders in early to 



St. Helena, Napa County, Cal. 

1,000,000 FRUIT TREES, 

And an immense stock of 


EVERGREENS, Etc.— 200 Acres. 

Send us your address and get our Descriptive Cata 

logues and Price Lists. AddreBS 

Star Nurseries, 

2Cvi-3m Illinois. 

Fruit, Shade and Ornamental 

Plants for Sale, 

At the old stand, corner Oregon and Battery streets, 
Directly opposite Post Office, San Francisco. 


The Larg-est and Best Collection of Fruit, 
Shade and Evergreen Trees and Plants 

Ever offered in this market, and at Reduced Prices. 

Persons laying out new grounds would do well to call 
and examine our stock before purchasing elsewhere. 


Promptly attended to and packed with care. 
Send for Price Catalogue. 


516 Battery Street, 

San Francisco. 
P. O. Box 722. 25v4-2m 



Shade and Ornamental 
Trees, Plants, Etc. 


Having a very large Nursery 

Stock, I can furnish Trees and 

Plants of all kinds cheap. Fruits 
guaranteed true to name. Send stamp 
tor printed Price List, Catalogue, and in- 
structions for hedge-growing. A large stock of Osags 
Orange Hedge Plants for Bale. Letters of enquiry 
promptly responded to. Office and Main Tree Depot, 
U street, between Fifteenth and Sixteenth, Sacramento. 
Branch Yards, Sayles & Williamson, J street, Sacra- 
mento; Burney & Williamson, Modesto; and W. T. 
Wright, Agent at Colu6a. 

25v4-3m Proprietor. 

Bay Nursery, 

[Established 1852.] OAKLAND, CAL. 

Office and Depot Broadway and Thirteenth. 

NurBery and Greenhouses, Telegraph Avenue, East Side. 


Evergreen Trees, Ornamental Shrubs and 
Flowering Plants 

On this Coast. Comprising in part Cape Jasamincs, 
Camellias, Azaleas, Magnolias, Araucarius, 
Weeping Cedars, Golden Arbor 
VitiBs, etc., etc. 
My collection of Fuschias, Carnations and Roses are 
unrivalled. Many new and rare Plants recently intro- 
duced of rare merit. Tube Roses, Dalilias and Bulbs in 
great variety. Choice Flower Seeds, Garden and Lawn 
Seeds, fresh and genuine. 


Twenty Years in the Nursery Business in 

A. ». PRYAL, 

Nurseryman and Florist, 

Near Temascal Creek. 

Offers for sale a good assortment of Forest 
Trees suitable for windbreck or ornamental belts; 
50,000 Monterey Cypress and Monterey Pine, from 
six inches to Bix feet in night; 100,000 Blue Gums, mall, 
fit for forest culture; Oak Seedling, Orange and Lemon 
Trees. English Gooseberry, Blackberry and Currant. 
A beautiful assortment of Roses and Lilacs; also Aspar- 
agus RootB. 
All orders will receive prompt attention. Address 

26v4tf Oakland, Alameda County, Cal. 


— AT THE — 



I offer at moderate prices a general 
assortment of 



Deciduous Flowering' Shrubs, Roses, Etc. 

Green House and Bedding Plants in great variety. 

Send for Descriptive Catalogue and Price List. 


15v4 6m 

Petaluma, Sonoma County, Cal. 

While Muscat of Alexandria. 

I have a large lot of two-year-old, well rooted WHITE 
$6 per 100, or $50 per 1000. This is the Very Best 
Raisin Grape, bears shipping the best, and is the most 
popular Grape for the general market everywhere. Also, 
two-year old English Walnuts at $12 per 100, or $100 per 
1000. Choice lot of AlmoudB and Prunes at 25 to 50 cts. 
each. Large amount of W. Muscat Grape Cuttings, low. 
Orders may be left with A. Lukk & Co., San Francisco, 
or sent by mail to the subscriber, San Jose, P. O Box 
No. 404. 

2v5-2m G. W. McGREW. 


Australian Gum Trees, 

Including all the desirable varieties, at from $5 to $10 
per 100, in the best condition for transplanting and 
transportation. For sale at the Gum Tree Nurseries, 
Haywards, Alameda Co., Cal. 

Address- J4.S. T. STRATTON, 

23v4-5m Brooklyn, Cal. 

Ornament Your Grounds. 



Or a Fine assortment of 

Ornamental Shrubs'? 

Then call at the 


Telegraph Road OAKLAND. 

2v5-3m S. NOLAN, Proprietor. 

60,000 Evergreen and Flowering Shrubs 

Those intending to embellish their grounds will find 
it to their advantage to examine my stock and ascertain 


Golden Gate Nursery, corner of Folsom and Twentieth 

Streets, San Francisco. 




First-Class $9.00 per thousand 

Second-Class Jfi.OO per thousand 

Third-Cla6S $4.00 per thousand 

Ten per cent, discount made for any thing over 5,000 . 

Orders promptly filled. Address 


23v25-3m Vaca Station, Solano County, Cal. 


Nurseryman and Florist. 

The undersigned has continually on hand a large 
assortment of finest FRUIT, SHADE AND ORNA- 
etc., of the most varied and choice description, which 
he sells at lowest rates. Trees and Plants securely 
packed to travel any distance. The undersigned, being 
a practical Nurseryman, offers his services for laying 
out of gardens, plots, etc. T. CORLEY, 

2v5-3m No. 315 Washington St., San Francisco. 

5,000 BLUE GUM, 
3,000 ROSES (Choice Varieties), 

And a general assortment of Nursery Stock. 

E. <■ 1 1. 1., Twent.v-eii<htb street 
2v. r >-3m Near San Pablo Road, OAKLAND. 

The Guide is now published Quarterly. 25 cents 
pays for the year, four numbers, which is not half the 
cost. Those who afterwards order seeds to the amount 
of One Dollar may deduct what they paid for the 
Guide, as I present it to customers. The January 
Number is Beautiful, Riving plans for making Rural 
Homes, Designs for Dining 1 Table Decorations, 
Window Gardens, et-.,and containing a masB of in- 
formation invaluable to the lover of flowers. One Hun- 
dred and Fifty Pages, on fine tinted paper, some Five 
Hundred Engravings, and a superb Colored Plate 
and Chromo Cover. The First Edition of Two Hun- 
dred Thousand just printed in English and German, 
and ready to send out. 

I8v4-3m-ea JAMES VICE, Rochester, N. Y. 





Wholesale Fruit and Produce Commission 


415 and 417 Davis street, cor. of Oregon, San Francisco. 

Our business being exclusively Commission, we have 

ao interests that will conflict with those of the producer. 


Blood Will Tell." 

agr* "In breeding grade animals on either side, you 
breed backwards! With full-blood and thorough 
bred on either side you breed forwards." — Alexander 
"You get no FIGS (rom thistles. "—Old Proverb. 

I have 20 head of full-blood, thoroughbred, "Short- 
Horn" Durham Cattle— Weanlings, one, two and three 
years old— embracing three of the best and most fash- 
ionable strains (including the milking) from several of 
the finest herds in Kentucky. Also 300 head of pure- 
bred Spanish Merinos from Vermont and New York, 
and Cotswolds from Kentucky. All my cattle are 
"American Herd Book," registered, and all my sheep 
are perfectly certified. Address 

Mission St. Stables, cor. 22d and Mission Sts., 

24v4-tf San Francisco, Cal. 

Oftico and Rooms, in Webb's Building, 37 Second St., 
opposite the Grand Hotel. 



625 Sansome street, corner Jackson, SAN FRANCISCO. 

Receive Consignments of Wool, Sheep 
Skins, Hides, eto. Liberal advonceB made to 
consignors. Keep on hand the best quality of 
Wool Sacks, Twines, and other supplies. 

40 Thoroughbred Angora Goats for Pale I 

Imported by a native of Angora, direct irom Asia Minor. 
For specimens see the flock of Thomas & Shirland, 
Sacramento, Cal. Address A. EUTYCHIDES, Spout 
Spring, Appomattox County, V*. 10v4-ly 


[January 18, 1873. 

Forest Trees of Calaveras. 

A correspondent of the Calaveras Chronicle, 
says: No less than four hundred square miles 
of the territory of Calaveras county are timber 
lands, and their variety, immense growth and 
superior quality outrivals any county in the 
State. Two hundred square miles are of im- 
mense growth, making a dense forest covered 
with the best quality of sugar, white, yellow, 
and gum pines, and would be of great value 
and add much to the wealth of the county, 
were they not land-locked and standing be- 
yond the reach of transportation, occupying as 
they do, the central belt of the snow line of the 
western Sierras from an altitude of three to 
five thousand feet. 

These species of pine trees grow to a great 
hight, average from four to ten feet in diame- 
ter, and will make from eight to thirty thou- 
sand feet of one inch boards to a tree. The 
clear lumber of the sugar aud white pine read- 
ily brings fifty dollars per thousand feet in 
Stockton and Sacramento. A single tree, scaling 
twenty thousand feet, if transported to either 
of the above named cities, would bring five 
hundred dollars. 

But the quality of these immense forests is 
not confined to the softer and easily rifted 
pines. The red and yellow fir, balsam and black 
spruce, are equally valuable commercially, and 
largely predominate in many localities and more 
especially in the caiious on the south side of 
the hills and damp, moist flats throughout the 
snow belt. These species of forest trees are 
usually tall and straight, aud by their natural 
growth are particularly adapted for round or 
square timber and long heavy planks for build- 
ing docks, bridges and expensive wooden 

Another most valuable timber is found on 
the middle Summits, just below the rugged 
snow peaks. The hight and diameter of the 
trees fit them admirably for piling and their 
lasting quality for wood or timber has long 
been acknowledged by lumbermen as the most 
valuable timber found on the Sierras. 

The superiority of hackmatack over other 
forest trees is its component parts being nearly 
solid gum. When green it chops and saws eas- 
ily; when dry, very hard. For round or 
Bquare timber it is superior to any other kind 
and as a wood for making steam is equal to tar 

The white pine is of beautiful rift and a 
most choice quality of timber. These groves 
of pines are confined to the rough ridges in the 
higher levels of snow and form no considerable 
portion of the timbered belt. The sugar pine 
mingles to a certain extent throughout the tim- 
bered belt.f rom the alps to the foot-hiils, and is 
found far below the snow line. 

The Juniper is a most beautiful evergreen, 
and is seldom found except in high latitudes. 
In the Sierra Nevada mountains it is a tree 
from twenty to thirty feet high, from one to 
six feet in diameter at the ground, cone shaped 
and symmetrical, and would be admired as an 
ornamental tree. In the New England States 
and in Norway it is a low, flat shrub, and 
spreads out to twenty feet in diameter and is 
usually a prolific bearer of the juniper berry. 

This species of the forest forms the upper 
rim of the timbered belt, far above the perpetu- 
al snows, and often crowns the peaks of the 
great backbone. The Juniper has no value ex- 
cept for the immense quantity of berries that 
may some day become an article of commerce. 

The red and yellow fir, are similar in size 
and hight and quality of timber and are of 
great commercial value 

The oak, as a specialty, predominates. It 
extends from the high peaks down to the sea 
and is of several kinds. The White Oak is the 
principal shade tree on the plains and valleys 
throughout the State; has a short body, long 
spreading branches, and is admirably adapted 
for shade trees. The wood is coarse grained 
and valuable forfuel, furnishing the principal 
supply for all the valley towns and cities at the 
present time. 

The red oak is a hard, tight-grained wood, 
similar to the live oak, and grows in damp low- 
land swales along the banks of creeks aud river 
bottoms; is from four to six inches in diameter, 
from twenty to thirty feet high and commands 
the highest price in market for fuel. The 
Black Oak, or Iudian Bread tree, holds its 
place as a principal part of the Western forest 
and predominates throughout the length of Cal- 

It is a hard, tight-grained, beautiful wood 
for domestic use, and will eventually be of 
great commercial value. Its demand will in- 
crease as the more inferior woods are swept 
away from the valley foothills; but liko the 
valuable pine timber it is too far away from 
transportation and will wait the time of the 
next generation. 

The Live Oak is a chance tree; it is found 
here and there, isolated, confined to no partic- 
ular climate, soil or location; grows on the 
banks of rivers and streams; on the side of 
hills; ondtmp and dry lauds; on rocky and 
barren cliffs even from the arid plains to tha 
snow summits. As a useful wood it has little 
or no value, although sometimes used for wagon 

Australian farmers appreciate blooded stock. 
At a recent auction sale in Melbourne, one ram 
brought £225, and others brought prices rang- 
ing from £130, £110, down to £45 each. We 
have not heard of any of our California bred 
sheep having ever realized so high a price. 

Improvement of Soils by Mechanical 

For the purpose of testing the comparative 
value of the different depths of plowing, an 
experiment has been begun upon four plats of 
an acre each, to be cultivated through several 
years as follows; No. 1 to be plowed to the 
depth of five inches only. No. 2 to be plowed 
to the depth of twelve inches. No. 3 to be 
plowed twenty inches in depth by trench plow- 
ing. No. 4 to be plowed twenty inches iu 
depth by subsoiliug. In all respects, other 
than those named ; the cultivation is to be uniform 
on all. Nos. 1 and 2 were cultivated the past 
summer in the prescribed manner. No. 3 was 
plowed to the depth of twelve inches only. 
No. 4. was plowed twelve inches in depth, aud 
subsoiled four inches deeper. The four plats 
were planted May 15 to early yellow Dent corn, 
four feet apart each way, three grains to the hill. 
The following table shows the result of the first 
year's tri ils: 

Plat 1 yields 56.04 bushels 

Plat 2 yields 50.68 bushels 

Plat 3 yields 44.95 bushels 

Plat 4 yields 42.21 bushels 

The yield diminishes from one to four, a 
result that can not be attributed entirely to the 
method of cultivation, as for want of a suitable 
trench plow it was found impossible to plow 
No. 3 more than twelve inches in depth, so that 
in all respects the cultivation of No's. 2 and 3 
have been the same, and the plats are adjacent. 
Flats 3 and 4 will be deepened as fast as is prac- 
ticable. — Exchange. 

It is to be regretted that any.failure to plow 
to the proposed depth, plat No. 3 should 
have been made. Such experiments are ex- 
ceedingly interesting and useful, but a failure 
to prosecute them according to the programme 
proposed is simplj' unsatisfactory. 

Progress in Agriculture — What the 
Census Shows. 

Our increase in all the chief articles of agri- 
cultural produce during the lastdecade, as shown 
by the census report, is something enormous. 

Wine has increased fourteen-fold since 1850, 
and nearly doubled in the last tiecade, California 
being its chief producer. 

Hops have increased seven-fold in the same 
time, and more than doubled in the last ten 
years, New York growing two-thirds of the whole 

Barley has increased six-fold. 

Flax has increased six-fold, and flax seed 

Wheat trebled, and oats doubled. 

Irish potatoes have increased one-third, and 
sweet decreased one-half. 

Live stock have trebled in value, and now 
amount to the handsome total of fifteen hun- 
dred and twenty-five millions of dollars, or an 
average of nearly two hundred dollars for every 
family in the nation. 

Animals slaughtered have nearly quadrupled 
in value, now amounting to four hundrsd mill- 
ions of pounds. 

Wool has increased from sixty to one hundred 
millions of pounds. 

Cotton is half a million of bales above what it 
was in 1850, and three-fifths of its amount in 

In only one instance is there a decrease of an 
important product, and that is in Indian corn, 
which falls short of the amount in I860 by 
seventy-eight million bushels,or ten per cent, cf 
the whole. 

In some of the lesser products, however, the 
decrease is considerable. Silk cocoons are only 
a third of their former amount; hemp a sixth; 
peas, beans and rice about a third each. Buck- 
wheat has decreased from seventeen million 
bushels to nine million, and rye from twenty- 
one million bushels to sixteen millions. 

A Scourge in the French Vineyards. — M. 
Armand writes very despondingly to the French 
Academic des Sciences as to the disastrous in- 
crease in the ravages m ide by the philloxera 
among the French vineyards. He feels per- 
suaded that in a few years time the whole of 
the vines in Provence will have disappeared, 
unless some means of destroying the insect is 
discovered. M. Cornu, who has been despatch- 
ed into the Bordeaux country by the French 
Government, to report on the increasing dam- 
age caused by this scourge, declares that in 
nearly all the vineyards which run down to 
the river banks the plants seem to have dried 
up, and that the vineyards in other situations 
have been attacked in such a way that the de- 
vastation is circular in shape; whence the ex- 
pressive name of "oil spots," which indicates 
that the malady has sprung from the center to 
the circumference. The philloxera has not 
confined its attacks to the vine, fruit trees 
everywhere in the neighborhood have suffered 
also. It is agreed that as no remedy for the 
evil has yet been discovered, the wisest plan 
would be to trace it back to its place of origin, 
with a view to investigating by what process its 
excessive multiplication may be prevented. 

Bouquets Now and Then — The Increasing 
Love for Flowers.- -Twenty years ago a bou- 
quet of exotics in mid-winter was a rarity that 
could scarcely be found or purchased. There 
were private hothouses where a few flowers 
could be raised daring the cold months, but the 
varieties were limited. Now, no ballroom is 
complete without flowers; they are so abundant 
and comparatively inexpensive in winter that 
they are within the reach of all. 

Olive Culture. 

The San Diego Union furnishes some inter- 
esting figures concerning the cultivation of 
olives in that vicinity. First, as to cost: 

Five acres of land at $2~> per acre $125 

Cost of erecting windmill and digging trench for 

irrigating 200 

Cost of setting out trees loo 

WageB of one man to attend trees six months of 

each of first two years after setting out 600 

Interest and contingent expenses 200 

Total cost of five-acre orchard $1,125 

The profits are shown thus: 

The average yield per annum of the Mission 
orchard trees is ninety gallons of green olives 
to each tree; with ninety trees to the acre 
(about this number are planted) an annual 
yield of 8,000 gallons is obtained. Allowing 
for one-third shrinkage in drying, there are left 
5,400 gallons of olives to be pressed, which will 
yield at the rate of one gallon of oil for every 
eight gallons of dried olives. At the present 
price of olive oil (from $4.50 to $5 per gallon), 
taking the lowest figure, tho annual income 
from an acre of olive trees is found to be 

Cross Beeedino of Fishes. — Mr. B. Hanson, 
of Stavanger, iu Norway, has, according to a 
correspondent of the London Anthmceum, ac- 
complished a novel feat in pisciculture by pro- 
ducing a new hybrid species, a cross between 
Salmo alpiwis and Salmo eriox, the former spe- 
cies spawning four weeks before the latter. 
Mr. Hanson's manner of bringing together the 
spawning maturity of the two species is inge- 
nious. When iS'ilmo alpinus has been spawn- 
ing for some time, Mr. Hanson secured a fe- 
male fish iu an interesting condition, and im- 
prisoned her in a perfectly dark tank, where he 
left her alone. In like manner Mr. Hanson, as 
soon a possible, secured the sire of the first 
couple of Salmo eriox he fot-nd in mature con- 
dition for spawning, and put him under a sim- 
ilar arrest, and kept a close watch over both un- 
til the time of the sire came. In this manner 
Mr. Hanson succeeded in rearing, with only a 
loss of one per cent, in his spawning boxes 
(supplied from a subterranean well which 
flows with a uniform temperature of -H>5£° 
Reaumur all the year round) a new species, 
which attains full development in four years, 
and is remarkable for its exeeeding vigor and 
wildness in water, and its palatableness on the 
table. Mr. Hanson entertains sanguine hopes 
of this species becoming self-productive in 
course of time, contrary to all experience of 
hybrid fish, because he has already caught in 
his pond several individuals with roc in them." 

Comb Manufacture. — An English journal 
states that the greatest comb manufactory in 
the world is in Aberdeen, Scotland. There are 
thirty-six furnaces for preparing horns and 
tortoise-shell for combs, and no less than one 
hundred and twenty iron screw presses are con- 
tinually going in stamping them. Steam- 
power is employed to cut the combs. The 
coarse combs are stamped or cut out, two being 
cut in one piece at a time. The fine dressing 
combs are cut by fine saws, some as fine as to 
cut forty teeth in the space of one inch, and 
revolving five thousand times in the space 
of one minute. There are some two thousand 
varieties of combs made, and the aggregate 
number produced, of all these different kinds, 
is 8,000,000 annually— a quantity that if laid 
together lengthwise would extend about seven 
hundred miles. The annual consumption of 
ox-horns is about 730,000, and the annual con- 
sumption of hoofs amounts to 4,000; the con- 
sumption of tortoise-shell and buffalo-horn, 
although not so large, is correspondingly valu- 
able. A hoof undergoes eleven distinct opera- 
tions before it becomes a finished comb. 

Butchering Young Trees. — Young shade 
trees on the outskirts of the city are being hor- 
ribly backed and butchered by parties who 
have the cheek to call the operation "pruning." 
If there is no provision made in the code for 
the severe punishment of parties guilty of such 
vandalism, the Commissioners have failed to 
fulfil their whole duty. The cork-barked elm, 
naturally a symmetrical tree of sturdy growth, 
needs but little trimming at any time, and to 
witness an unskillful operator slashing away 
right and left with knife and baw among its 
shapely branches promiscuously, is a species 
of barbarity and a sacrifice of tho beautiful 
which should be frowned down everywhere. 
This promiscuous, slashing process to which 
hand.-ome young trees are too frequently sub- 
jected, seems to be done with a view of produc- 
ing a tree to resemble as nearly as possible a 
gooseberry bush placed on the end of a long 
pole. The process is simply tree torture, and 
the parties executing the miserable work ap- 
pear to possess about as keen and delicate a 
sense and appreciation of ordinary good taste 
and useful art as a pack-mule might be expect- 
ed to manifest. — Han Joaquin Independent. 

Premiums for Development. — The Virginia 
Enterprise makes the suggestion to the Legisla- 
ture of Nevada, to offer a bonus of $10,000 to 
the man or company that produces the first one 
hundred tons of coal, and the same amount for 
the first one hundred flasks of quicksilver pro- 
duced in Nevada; which, it says, is meeting 
with general approval by the press and people 
of that State. 

Oranges. — The new crop is just coming into 
market from Los Angeles, but it is reported 
that the crop on the few trees in this city, 
Marysville, has been "going off" gradually for 
a month. 


A Los Angeles dispatch of the 7th says: 
The steamer to-day carried the first regular 
shipment of the season, of oranges, and was 
loaded with 150 tons of freight from San Pedro, 
including New York freight shipped to San 
Francisco, for the Panama steamer of the 17th. 

The grandest forest of pine lumber in Cali- 
fornia, containing white, yellow and sugar 
pine, cypress and arbor vitaa and other trees 
valuable for timber, lies between Susan valley 
and Pitt river. 

One hundred and nine bales of hops were 
raised this season by W. H. Haynie on his ranch 
on the north side of the American river near 
Sacramento, and shipped to San Francisco. 

A. F. Grlsby, of Yountville, has a Berkshire 
and Essex pig one year old, weighing 140 
pounds, which has five feet, one of its fore legs 
being divided at the knee into two perfect leet, 
which the animal uses as nimbly as the oth- 

A potato was left at the Alta office yesterday, 
grown by John Hayes, on the Cooper ranch, in 
Castroville, Monterey county, weighing threee 
pounds and six ounces. A sack of potatoes 
grown on this farm averages three pounds 

The Ventura Siynal says it is common in 
that vicinity to see grafts or buds inserted in 
thrifty stocks in February or March pioducing 
two or three large well-matured almonds the 
same season. 

It has been discovered by Minnesota farmers 
that two acres of sun flowers will supply a fam- 
ily with fuel through a long winter. The wood 
of the stalk and the oil of the seed, it is said, 
make roaring and cheerful fires. 

The Stockton Republican hears from Grayson 
that the rain has been abundant for present pur- 
poses in all that portion of the valley westDf 
the San Joaquin river. The farmers of that 
section are busy now, putting in large crops — 
a more extensive acreage being sown than ever 
before. With the ordinary late rains and abun- 
dant harvest is now insured without the aid of 
the irrigating canal. 

A field of 18 acres, planted with hops in 
1871, in the Merced bottom, yielded 1,500 
pounds to the acre last season, and will yield 
2,000 hereafter. The prices range from 20 to 
60 cents per pound, and are now from 35 to 40, 
making a total money yield of more than $500 
per acre. The expense is from 10 to 12 cents 
per pound, and as it is mainly in the picking 
and drying, need not be incurred if the price 
should fall very low. 

Large Granaries. — The Tehama Independent 
of the 16th says: 

"We are informed that Dr. Glenn, of Jacinto, 
is building two grant ries at that place. Each 
building will be 62x500 feet. This is necessary 
in order to protect the immense amount of 
grain raised in that vicinity, aud which, owing 
to the boats not coming up the river that far, 
Mill have to be stored until there is more water 
in the river. Dr. Glenn is the owner of sixty 
square miles of land and his crop of wheat this 
year amounted to $250,000 bushels." 

The Pacific Granary. — Under this caption 
the New York Independent says: 

"The Pacific Coast has now become the gran- 
ary of the country and the Egypt for the world. 
Tho wheat crop already exceeds in value the 
gold crop, and such are the capabilities of the 
Pacific States that an indefinite supply can be 
afforded. For years there has been a demand 
for vessels, which could not be supplied to 
transport that wheat to foreign countries. 

Loss of Wool. — We learn that a number of 
the wool-growers of Umatilla, Oregon, were 
heavy losers by the Boston fire, as it seems they 
had shipped their last year's wool to that city, 
where it was stored and was destroyed by the 
fire. Among the heaviest sufferers are Adams, 
La Grow, Purinton and Swaggart. We have 
not heard the exact loss of any of these, but we 
understand that some of them lost all their last 
years' clip. 

Fruit Trees Sproutino. — The fruit trees in 
Yuba Co. are taking an early start in conse- 
quence of the warm weather. New wood is 
pushing out, having already grown from one to 
three inches in length. Unless a change in the 
thermometer occurs soon the fruit buds will be- 
gin to put forth. Those who have trimming or 
transplanting to do will be forced to hurry 
their work on account of the unusual warm 

Plant Trees. — Plant trees in the garden, 
along the side- walks and roads. A few trees in 
the bleak pasture will improve the appearance 
of ranches, as well as serving in time for a 
grateful shade for the stock in the long, hot 
days of tho dry season. It is a well established 
fact that trees attract moisture, and everybody 
knows they add largely to the attractiveness of 
a place. This is a most favorable time for the 
work; the ground is warm and moist, and trees 
set out with ordinary care are bound to grow. 
Therefore plant trees; plant fruit trees, and in 
a few years you can raise your own fruit; plant 
trees for fuel, and your children that come after 
you will bless your thoughtfulness; plant trees 
along the highways, and in a few short years 
you can reap the reward of your industry by a 
bonus from the Board of Supervisors; plant 
also, shade trees, and when the infirmities of 
age come upon you, you can set under your 
own vine and fig tree, conscious of having done 
your duty, with none to molest or make you 
afraid. — Sutter Banner 

January 18, 1873.] 


Weekly Market Review. 

[By our own Reporter.] 

San Fbancisco, Wednesday, m. Jan. 15th, 1873. 

Wheat has declined a little since last week, but it is 
again evincing a firmness and only in milling wheat is 
there any decline from the price of last week. The great 
outpour noticed last week still continues. 

RECEIPTS.— Since last Monday receipts of Bay pro- 
duce have come in far more freely than at any other 
time during the past month — the weather is flue, and 
in general good prices are attainable. We have received 
about twice as much Flour as during the previons week, 
half as much more Wheat, three times as much Barley, 
Potatoes, and Peas, five times as much Bran, fifteen 
times ns much Onions, etc. At the same time the re- 
ceipts of Wine and Straw have fallen off. 

We summarize receipts of Bay produce to date as 
24,332 quarter sacks of Flour; 319,709 centals of Wheat; 
8.025 do. of Barley; 813 do. of Oats; 5,255 do. of Pota- 
toes; 1,497 do. of Middlings; 824 do. of Onions; 8GG do. 
of Beans; 24 do. of Peas; 1.017 Hides; 411 bales of Wool; 
135 barrels of Chickory; 687 tons of Hay; 65 do. of 
Straw; 7 centals of Com; 0,533 gallons of Wine; 125 cen- 
tals of Buckwheat; 127 tons of Salt; and 100 bags of 

Wheat receipts at Oakland Wharf have aggregated 
78,400 centals or 392 car loads. 

The coasting craft have been busy bringing us 5,909 
centals of Wheat; 2,156 do. of Barley; 638 do. of Oats; 
7,237 do. of Corn; 22,485 do. of Potatoes; 1,330 do of 
Beans; G40 Hides; 50 centals of Eye; 40 do. of Corn 
Meal; 20 do of Castor Beans; 287 do of Buckwheat; 93 
casks, 5 1 pipes, 3 barrels, and 1 keg of Wine, audi 
puncheon of Brandy. 

From Portland, the "Ajax" has brought us 1315 half 
sacks, and 14,084 quarter sacks of Flour, and 3,494 cen- 
tals of Oats. 

BARLEY. — Barley weakened a little during the week' 
but is again firm. We note sales of 2,500 sacks of Coast, 
at $1.27^; 450 do of Coast and Bay, at $1.30; 250 do of 
Coast, at $1.32^; 300 do of Bay, at $1.40, and 10,000 do 
of choice at $1.60, with storage free. 

FLOUR. — Flour has remained unchanged for the 
last two or three weeks. There has been an export of 
5,000 barrels per "Janet Ferguson" to Queenstown.on the 
13th inst. 

HAY.— Receipts have been a little in excess of last 
week. The market remains nearly the .same. We note 
sales of two cargoes of choice at $15.50. 

OATS. — There is no change to record in the price of 
Oats. A shipment of nearly 3,500 centals has arrived 
during the week from Oregon. We note sales of 1,400 
sacks of fair at $2.10; 200 do for Choice at $2.25, and 
177 do at $1. 27 H- 

POTATOES.— Humboldt begins to deluge our market 
again with Potatoes, and we have to chrouicle large re- 
eipts from the interior. The receipts last week aggre- 
gated 27,740 centals, three-fourths from Humboldt. We 
note sales of 1,200 sacks of Humboldt at $1.10 to $1.20; 
400 do of Monterey at $1.15 to $1.25, and 600 of Salinas 

WHEAT.— Over 40,000 centals were received last week 
in our city and at Oakland — a vast quantity, and one 
that would exhaust the Burplus remaining in the inte- 
rior in fifteen weeks. Prices have lowered about five 
eents on the highest grades since last week, but the 
market is firm. Wheat in Liverpool is for average 12s 
3d to 12s 5d. and for Club 12s 9d to 13s. This is a fall of 
10c on average Wheat. We note sales of 2,000 sacke of 
Choice Coast at $1.90; 600 do at $1.92 H; 1,300 do of 
good Shipping at $2; 8,000 do of Choice, with free stow 
age, at $2.05; 1,000 do of Choice Coast at $2.07)<i, and 
2,500 do at $2.12)4. 

I Exports have been even larger than the previous week, 
including per "Belvedere" to Cork, 40,408 centals; per 
"Pearl" to Queenstown, 15,571; per "Carrie Reed" to 
Cork, 42,873 centals; per the "Orina" to Liverpool, 28,- 
166 centals; per the "Johanna Maria" to Cork, 7,306 cen- 
tals; per the "Fortune" to Liverpool, 31,301 centals; per 
the "Oarrick" to Queenstown, 27,124 centals; per the 
"Janet Ferguson" to Queenstown, 28,800 centals; per 
the "Glory of the Seas" to Liverpool, 66,000 centals; per 
the "Frances" to Cork, 15,240 centals; per the "Royal 
Sovereign to Liverpool 44,817 centals; per "Che-^y Chase" 
to Bristol, 22,305 centals; per "The Solomon" to Queens- 
town, 22,592 centals; and per the "Velocity" to Cork, 
15,240 centals; being a grand total of fifteen cargoes of 
408,676 centals, worth $771,699. Freight has again 
risen, and is now quoted at £3 12s. 6d. per ton. 

During the six months, ending Dec. 31st, 1872, the re- 
ceipts of Wheat aggregated 8,604,779 centals, of which 
190 cargoes and 24 shipmerts were exported, aggregating 
5,150,512 centals, worth $8,820,013. About one-half of 
this was loaded at Vailejo and Oakland, half at the 
wharves of this city. 

WOOL.— Receipts of wool for the year just closed ag- 
gregate 28,972,483 lbs. of which 24,255,408 lbs. was Cali- 
ifor«ia,l,775,600 Oregon, and 3,541 ,415 bales foreign. From 
previous year there remained over 750,000 ft s. The export 
amounted to 24,278,980 lbs, or more than the whole pro- 
duction of California. This was worth $7,750,000, of this 
19,781,107 fts. left by rail, 2,575,000 was purchased by 
local factories, and there is now on hand 2,500,000 fts. 
We intend publishing a full review of the whole trade 
for 1872 next week. About 50,000 fts. changed hands in 
the city this week . 

Both our import and export trade have been active 
this week. Besides the usual arrivals from coast ports 
the following vessels have arrived, loaded with iron, 
chemicals, etc.; The "Loch Doon" from Glasgow, the 
"Pactolus" from Liverpool, and the "Colombo" from 
Glasgow; as well as "Ada May" from Mazatlan, the mail 
steamers "Constitution" and "Costa Rica" from Pana- 
majthe "Harvest Queen" from New York, and the "Co- 
loma" from Boston. From Hongkong has arrived the 
"Kelso" and the mail steamer "Colorado," loaded with 
Tea, Hemp, and Opium, besides numerous other vessels. 
Our imports have been carried away in 17 vessels which 

have principally taken Wheat to Great Britain and Ire- 
land. The value of the week's exports has been $751,- 
749, at which rate we would export to the value of $40,- 
000,000 in 1873. 


San Fbancisco, "Wednesday m., Jan. 15, 1873. 


Alviso Mills, bbl .4 25 @6 00 

California 4 25 @6 00 

Ciiy Mil's 4 50 @6 25 

Comme'l Mills.. 4 50 (§6 25 

Golden Gate 4 60 @6 24 

Golden Ag" 4 50 @6 25 

National Mills. . 4 50 faj6 25 
SantaClaiaMills 4 50 (ot6 25 
Genes e Mills... 4 50 <&6 25 

Oregon 4 50 §6 25 

Vailejo Star 4 50 (36 25 

Venus, Oakland. .4 50 g,G 25 
Stockton City. ..4 ftO @6 25 
Lombard. Sac... 4 50 ® — 

Beans sm'l w'ite3 % ® — 

do, butter 4-):i@ — 

do, Urge, do... 5 © — 

no, biyo 3>£® — 

uo, pink 3Jsfa) — 

Peas i%& — 


Per ton $40@120 


- @ - 

WheatCal. coastl 90 

do, shipping ..2 10 

do, milling 2 in 

do, Oregon.... — 
Barley, DarkO'stl 25 

do, Light — 

do, Brewing... 1 40 
Oats, Coast 2 00 

do, Bay 2 20 

Corn, White 1 35 

do, Yellow 1 25 

Buckwheat 2 00 

Rye 2 UO 

Butter,Cal. fresh 45 ® 

do, ordjnay roll 33 ® 

do, choice 40 ® 

do, new firkin 

do, packed. .... 

do, New York. 
Cheese, Oal. new 

do, Eastern . .. 
Eggs, Gal. fresh 

do, Oregon 

do, Eastern 


Bran per ton 25 

Middlings 27^l_ 

Hay 18 @ 

St. aw 1 ® 

Oil cake meal... 35 <a 


Beef, fr quality.. 

do, second do. . 

do. third do. ... 



Pork, undressed. 

do, dressed.... 

12 00 


ai 30 

§2 25 

4 ft 
6 ft 


8 fa) 



California, 1871, lb 20 @ 25 
do 1872,.. *~ l A® 45 
Beeswax. per lb.. 30 @ 35 

Honey 10 fa) I25£ 

Los Ang. Honey. 15 @ 20 

Onions 2!4(a) 3 

Flaxseed 3 (gl — 

anary do 4%fa) — 

Mustard do.wite 1%@ — 

"o, brown 3 fa) — 

Peas 3 50 fa) - 

Alfalfa 20 ® 

Ky. Blue Grass.. 50 @ 

I'imothy 18 @ - 

Italian Rye 35 fa) — 

Pirennial do ... 35 fa) — 

Peanuts per lb... 5 @ 7 

Pecan nuts 16 @ 18 

Hickory do 8 @ 10 

Brazil do 16 fa) 18 

Prince Almonds. 16 ® — 
Oocanuts,T910uO. 15 00 @ — 
Alm'dsh'rd shell 12)£to) 15 

do, Boft 23 fa) 25 


Sweet, per lb 1 @ — 

Humboldt 1 10.7,1 20 

Monterey 1 lOgtl 20 

Toroales 1 (0 — 

Live Turkeys ft. IS ® 17 
Hens, per dz.... 9 00 ta)10 00 

Roosters 9 50 fa)10 50 

Chickens 5 00 (a 6 00 

Ducks. tarne,dozl2 00 @14 00 

do, Mallard.... 4 GO 5)5 00 
Geese, per pair 2 75 @; 
Quail, perdoz...'2 25 
Hare, per doz. . .4 00 
Rabbits, per dozl 00 
Larks, per doz . . 75 
Doves, per. doz.. 75 
Plover, per doz. .2 00 
Curlew, per doz.l 50 

Teal, per doz 1 50 

Snipe, Ene., dozl 50 

do, small, doz.. 75 
Venison, per lb. 

Cal. Bacon, per lb 11 @ 
Eastern do 10'^fa) 

do sugared 13,'£@ 

Cal. Hams 15 @ 

Eastern do 16}£fa) 

Cal. Smoked Beef 11 @ 

Choice Northern 22 @ 




Hides, dly. . 

do green 


18 la) 
12 @ 


19 fa) 



The mail steamer brought large quantities of oranges 
and lemons. Apples come in but slowly; good app < s 
bring slightly huher prices. Good eating pears scarce. 
Dried fruits are not much in demand. Calilornia raisinsare 
selling well, and the prospect is that they will stop impor- 

Mex, Or. per 1U0045 00 @50 00 
Limes, * M....25 00 ® — 
Au'lnLemons.bx — fa) — 
Messine do.,bx...lO 00^0)15 00 
Bananas,* bucb3 U0 fa) g— 
Pineapples, * dz5 fcj,6'g, bx.l 00 faj2 00 

" Cooking 76 fail 00 

Pears, Eating ...1 50 faj:) 00 

Oooking.. 75 @1 00 

Pomegrnn's,*100 — none 

Grapes, Mis-iou. — none 

Rose of Peru.. — ® — 

Blk Hamburg. — @ — 

Black Prince.. — @ — 

Muscat of Al'r — ® — 

Flame Tokay .. — © — 

Black Morocco — @ — 

Wine Grapes.. — ® — 

Apples, * ft 7 @ 8 

Pears, * lb... 
Peaches, * ft 
Apricots, * ft 
Plums. * ft... 
Pitted, do * ft 
Kaisln«, * ft... 
Black Kigs, * lb 
White, do .. 


Cabbage, * dz 50@60 

Garlic, * ft 6 @— 

Green Peas 8 (g)IO 

Green Corn * doz.. — @— 
Marrowiat Squash 

per ton 10 00® — 

Artichokes, * ft. ...4 @5 
Tomatoes.L.A.*.. 12!£r*15 
Siring Beans,*ft ... — @— 

Lima Beans — @ 8 

Peppers dry 12)£@15 

Okra 35 fa)— 



15' B (* 



w 611 
fall llll 
la I 'J mi 
fa 3 25 
Mi 00 

(g)5 00 


Eng. stand. ffli't 1514® 
Flour Sacks Jis.. n, ,.. 

" x /ts. 
Stand. Gunnies.. 

" Wool Sacks. 

" Barlev do... 
Hessian 40-in gds 

Costa Bica per ft 18 @ 

Guutamala 18 ® 

Java 12 @ 

Manilla 16 (3 

Ri - fa) 

Ground in cs 22J£® 

Chicory 10 ® 


bundles. * lb .. — © 
Salmon in bbls. .7 50 fa) 

do H bbls) 75 @ 

do 2'iitb cans — @ 

do 2ft cans. .3 50 @ 

do 1 lb cans .2 50 (a) 

Pick. Cod. bbls.. 8 — @ 

do >£ b Is. — @ 

Pug. Sd. Smok'd — ® 

Herr'g,bx-$ ft — (a 
Mack'l.No.l.'ubla — 

" Extra — 

in kits.... 2 50 

*' mess — 

" ex. mess.. — 

Assorted size — @5 75 

Stand.Wh.Lead. — ® 10 



Paris White... 


Venetian Red... 

Red Lead 


China No. 1, $ ft 6)i@ 

do 2, do. 5'4,a) 

Japan 6 fa) 

Patna 7 @ 

Hawaiian 8}£(gl 

Pacific Oln« Co. 

Neat F't No. 1 25 08 @ — 

Pure — @ _ 

Cocoa Nut — © — 

Olive Plggniol.. — fa) — 

do Possel.... — @ — 
Pa m — (0 — 

do Bagicalupi. — @ — 

Linseed I 05 fa)I 10 

l bina nut in cs.. 75 @ — 
Sperm, crude. .,.1 25 (q) — 

do bleached.. 2 00 (q) — 
Coast Whales... 37)£fa) 42)4 

Polar, crude — (a) — 

Lard 95 (oil 10 

(oal, refined Pet 42>4fa) 45 

Olenpbine — @ — 

Devoe'sBril't... 45 fa) — 

- (3> 

- (3) 

- ® 


Long Island 42!^@ — 

Kureka 4^'^ts) — 

Downer Keiose'e 55 fa) — 

Gas Light Oil.... 45 (a) — 

COAL— Jobbing. 

Australian 14 00 @ — 

Coose<t Bel. Bay. 12 till @ — 

Seattle 13 OP fa) — 

Cumberl'd,cks.,28 00 w) — 

do bulk.. .23 00 fa) — 

Chile — g — 

Lehigh 22 00 fa) — 

Liverpool -- @ — 

West Hartley... .22 00 @ — 

Scotch 16 00 (a) — 

Scranton 20 00 fa) — 

Vancouver's Isl..l3 (0 @ — 

Charcoal i 00 (a) — 


Castile,?* lb W4@ 13 

Local brands 6 

»* fcPICES. 

Allspice, per ft.. 17 

Cloves 23 

C ssia 3u . 

Nutmeg 97)^i 

Whole Pepper... 18 

Ground Allspice — 
do Cassia.. 35 
do Cloves.. 22 
do Mustard 25 
do Gmger.. 11% 
do Pepper.. 22)i(^ 
do Mace....l 20 fa)l 

SUGAR, ElO. 30 

Cal. Cube per ft. — @ 12 

Circle Acrushed — fa) 12 

do granulated — fa) \\% 

Golden C — (2 10*i 

do Extra — ffl 10)3 

Hawaiian 20 (5 22)£ 

Cal. Syrup in bis. 82)£@ 35 ~ 

do in li bis. 35 w) 37)i 

do in kegs.. 40 fa) 45 


Cal. Bav.per ton. 6 50 @15 00 

Carmen island.. 14 00 (a) 1 5 00 

Liverpool fine... 24 (a) — 
do coarse 19 00 W20 00 

Oolong, Canton.. 19 ftj 25 

do Amoy... 2< @ 50 

do Kormnsa 40 fa) 80 

Imperial Canton 25 @ 35 

do P ngsuey 45 (S SO 

do Moyune . 60 @1 00 

Gunpo'der.C'ant. 30 @ 42 

do Pingsuey 50 fcj) 00 

do Moyune. 65 fa)l 25 

Y'ngHy..(.'anton 2« (a) 40 

do Pingsuey 40 fa) 78 

do Moyune.. 65 fa) 50)$ 

Japan, )<> chests, 

bulk SO @ 75 

Japan, lacquered 

bxs,4kand5fts 45 @ 67 

Japan do,3 ft bxs 45 @ 90 
dopl'nbx,4)£ft 35 

t\t\ ':.X'.\ it, rtn [ice 30 

do /i<tl lb paper 30 



Rough, $ M $20 00 

Rouuh refuse, f, M 16 00 

Rough clear, f, M 32 50 

Rough clear refuse, M.. 22 50 

Ruslic, "$ M 3500 

Ru-iic. refuse. $ M 24 00 

Surfaced, ifl M 32 50 

Surfaced refuse, <P M. .. 22 50 

Flooring, $» M 30 00 

Flooring refuse, '# M.. 20 00 
Beaned flooring, $M... 31 50 
Beaded flonr reim.e, M. 22 50 

Haif-incli Siding M 22 50 

Half-inch siding, ref, M. 16 00 
Hilf inch, Suriac.d.M. 25 00 
Half inch Surf. ret.. M . 18 00 
Half inch Battens, M... 22 50 
Pickets, rough, <$ M.... 14 On 
Pickets, rounh, p'ntd. .. 16 00 

Pickeis. fancy, p'ntd 22 50 

Shingles, $1 M 3 00 

tail Price. 

Rough, ?IM $25 00 

Flooring and Step, ^ M 37 50 
Flooring, narrow, ^ ,\1.. 40 00 
Flooring, 2d quality M..30 00 

Laihs,#M 3 50 

Furring. %) lineal ft lc 

Rough, $ M $25 00 

Rougn reiuse, $ M 20 00 

REUWOOD-R»tail Price. 
Rough Pickets. -J! M.... 18 00 
Rough Pickets, p'd, M.. 20 UO 

Fancy Pickets, $ M 30 00 

Siding, $ M 27 50 

Tongued and Grooved, 

surfaced, y, M 40 00 

Do do refuse, f, M 27 50 

Hal'-lneh surfaced, M.. 40 00 

Rustic, <jf» M 42 Gil 

Battens, ty lineai toot . . lc 
shingles,^* M 3 50 

San Francisco Retail Market Rates. 

Wed *esday Noon. Jan. 15, 1873 

Apples and pears remain the same, apple-, being the mos 
plentiful. Pears are going out. I'he tomatoes in the 
maiketare from Los Angeles. Bulleti A Selnj have re- 
ceived tour packages, aunut 350 to 40n pounds, Italian dies - 
nuts by rail, but all have been frosted. Vegetables are still 
plentiful; the supply is sufficient lor our demand. Cauli 
tlower is better now than ever. 

Apples, pr lb 5 

Pears, per lb 5 


fa) 25 


Apricots, ft....'. . — 
PineAppIes.each 50 (<wl 00 
Bananas, ^ doz. . 75 @ — 

Canteleups — fa) — 

Watermelons... — fa) — 
Cal. Walnnts.ft. 15 fa) 20 
Cranberries, ^ g — @ 75 
Strawberries, ft, — @ — 
Raspberries, ft.. — (<a — 
Gooseberries*. . . — @ — 
Cherries, ^ ft,.. — 
Oranges, $ doz.. 75 
Limes, per doz . . 50 
Figs, fresh Cal. * 15 
Figs, Smyrna, ft 25 
Asparagus, ft.* 50 
Artichokes, doz. 50 
Brussel's sprts, * 

Beets, $ldo/. 25 

Potatoes.New $ft 5 
Potatoes, sweet,* 2 
Broccoli, ^ pc. 15 
Cauliflower, t .. 10 „ 
Cabbage, 4?!doz.. 75 fa)l 00 

Carrots, $ doz... 




Celery, $i doz 




3ucumbers,t... . 


Tomatoes, ^E... 






String Beans... 




Cress, ^ doz bun 
Dried Herbs, lb.. 









Green Corn, doz. 




Lettuce, ^4 doz.. 




Mushrooms,;© ft> 




Horseradish, f* lb 




Okra, dried, $ tt> 

do fresh, % lb. 

Pumpkins. ^ lb. 







Parsnips, doz.... 







Pickles, $ gal... 
Radishes, aoz.. 






Summer Squash 




Marrowfat, do. 




Hubbard, do. . 




Dry Lima, shl... 



Spinage, # bskt. 25 
Salsify, % bunch 10 
Turnips, ^ doz.. — 


The new hams are beginning to arrive, and are sold a 
couple of cents cheaper than the old ones. Poultry is 
scarce and getting somewhat dearer. Turkeys are in plen- 
tiful supply. Game is rather .scarce. In fish, herrings and 
terrapin are plenty, all other kinds scarce. 
Chickens, apiece 87!4Sil 25 
Turkeys, * ft.. 25 S — 
Mai diSCanv'sBkl 00 ' 

Tame, do 1 00 fa)l '25 

Teal, V, doz — " 

Geese, wild, pair — 

Tame. $ pair.. — 
Snipe, f»doz....3 50 
Quads, V doz --.2 60 
Pigeons, dom. do3 00 

Wild, do — 

Hares, each ... — 
Rabbits, tamet. 

Wild, do, f» dz. 
Beef, tend, & ft. 

Corned, W ft.. 8 

Smoked,^ ft . 15 

Pork, rib, etc., ft — 

Chops, do, $ ft 15 
Veal, % ft. .. .. 

Outlet, do 20 @ 20 

Mutton chops,* 10 fej) 15 

Leg, $ ft — @ 12;$ 

Lamb, ifl ft 18 @ 20 

Tongues, beef, ea 6;,S@1 00 

Tongues, pig, ea 75 ml 00 

Bacon, Cal., $ ft — @ 18 

Oregon, do . 18 fc^ — 

Hams, Cal, * ft. 18 @ — 

Hams. Cross' s o 20 (S 2i 

Choice D'ffield 20 (§ 23 

Whittaker's . . 20 % 23 

Johnson's Or.. 20 @ 22'^ 

Flounder, ft ft... @ 3Tj| 

Salmon, « ft — @ 20 

Smoked, new,* — @ — 

Pickled, W ft.. 6 fcj) — 

Rock Cod, & ft.. 12V«>E15 

Cod Fish, dry, tb I2' 2 @ — 

Perch, s water, ft 12 K 2 a) — 

Fresh water.ft 15 fa) 18 

Lake Big. Trout* 30 fa) — 

Smelts,laige$t!b 15 @ 18 

Small do 12>2fa) — 

Silver Smelts... — tgl — 

Soles, $ ft 37^fa) — 

Herring, fresh * 4 ($ 5 

Sm'kd, per 100 — @1 00 

Tomcod, % lb.... 15 @ — 

Terrapin, ty doz.5 00 (37 00 

Mackerel, p'k, ea 12!^(a) 15 

Fresh, do ft ... — tgl — 

Sea Bass, $ ft... — <g — 

Halibut 50 @ 65 

Sturgeon,^ ft.. 4 (3 5 

Oysters, W 100... 1 00 @ — 

Chesp. %4 doz.. 75 © — 

Turbot 50 @ — 

Crabs W doz 1 00 @ 

Soft Shell 37)^a — 

Shrimps 10 faj — 

Prawns — @1 10 

Sardines 8 @ 10 

Corrected weekly by B. Sbaiiboro ,1 Bko., Crocers, No. 531 

Washington street, San Fnncisco. 
Butter, Cal. pr ft 60 @ 65 
Cheese, < al.. ft.. 17 @ 23 
Lard. Cal., lb.... 12,'i'g) 15 
Flour, ex.fum. bl6 00 fa)6 26 
Corn Meal. ».... S fa) 3,'4 
Sugar, wn.crsh'd 12 fa) 13 
do lt.brown.ft 9 fa) \\% 

Coffee, Sb trboro's 

family gr'nd, ft 27J$ 
O'ttTee, green, tb.. 18 @ 22 
Tea, fine blk, 50, 65,75 @1 00 
Tea finst Jap.55.75, 90 fa)l 00 
Candles, Admant'eU @ 25 
Soap, Cal., lb.... to) 10 
Can dOysters dz.2 50 fa)3 75 
* Per lb. t Per dozen. *i Per gallon. 

Syrup.S.F.Gol'n. 45 @ 50 

Dried Apples.... 7^fa) 10 

Dr'd Ger.Prunes 9 to) 10 

Dr'd Figs, Oal... 9 fa) 10 

Dr'd Peaches.... 8 to) 10 

Oils, Kerosene .. © 5'l 

Eggs — fa) 70 

Wines. Old Port 3 50 @5 00 

do Fr. Claret.. 1 00 fall 25 

do i al 3 00 fall 50 

Whisky,O.B,gal.3 50 (u>5 00 

Fr. Brandy 4 00 fallO 00 

Rice, ft 10 (a) W/i 

Yeast Powders, dz.l B0@2 00 

Leather Market Report. 

[Reported for the Press bv Dolliver & Co.] 

San Francisco, Wednesday, Jan. 15. 1873. 
All kinds of Leather continue firm, French stock hav- 
ing advauced a little, and is still advancing. Local 
trade still quiet but more promising. 

City Tanned Leather,* ft 2fifa'») 

Santa Cruz Leather, f. ft 2(iS'j|i 

Country Leather, W ft iv: ^h 

Stockton Leather, \> ft 2ivu :') 

Jodot,8 Kil., per doz ...SbO OOfa) 

Jodot, 11 to 19 Kil perdoz Mi OOigi 85 00 

Jodot, second choice, 11 to 16 Kil.* doz 55 00(a) 70 00 

Lemoine. 16 to 18 Kil ,* doz 75 00(g) 77 50 

Levin, 12 and 13 Kil., perdoz 68 00(g) 70 Oil 

Cornellian, 16 to 19 Kil., per doz 63 00(g) 65 U0 

Cornellian, 12 to 14 Kil., per doz 56 DOGS Wl mi 

Cornell an Females, 14 to 16 Kil 65 i 0@ 70 00 

Ogerau Calf, * doz 54 00(g) 

Simon, 18 Kil.,* doz 60 00 

Simon, 20 Kil. » doz.. 65 00 

Simon. 24 Kil. * doz 72 00 

Robert Calf, 7 and 8 Kil 35 00® 40 00 

French Kips. * ft 1(0® 130 

California Kip, W doz 55 00 to 70 00 

French Sheep, all colors,* doz 8 00(g) 15 00 

Eastern Calf for Backs, * lb fa) 1 26 

Sheep Roans for Topping, all colors, * doz 9 00(g) 13 Oil 

Sheep Roans for Linings,* doz 5 50@ 10 .511 

California Russett Sheep Linings 1 75(g) 5 50 

Best Jodot Cai f Boot Legs, * pair 5 25 

Oood French Calf Boot Legs, * pair 4.50(g) 5 00 

French Calf Boot Legs,* pair 4 00 

Harness Leather. * ft 30® il'A 

Fair Bridle Leather,* doz 48 00® 72 00 

Skirting Leather, * lb 34® Ti'A 

Welt Leather, * doz 30 Q0@ 50 00 

Buff Leather, * foot 18® 23 

Wax Side Leather. * foot 20® 2 

Eastern Wax Leather 26 

Notice to Farmers and Others.— Skilled 
plowmen, general farmers, teamsters, laborers, me- 
chanics, servant girls, etc., can be obtained by applying 
by lotter or personally, at California Labor and Em- Exchange, 637 Clay street, extending to 030 
Commercial street, San Francisco. 20v4-3m 

Extra Choice Early Rose Potatoes— For Seed.— 
Acknowledged by all to be the best Early Potato. Se- 
lected and put up in new, double-sewed gunnies, in fine 
order for shipping. For sale in lots to suit. Address 
orders or apply to H. DUTARD, 217 Clay street, Sau 
Francisco. di.-21-lm 

Agents Wanted. — The new Revolver Trap winds up 
like a clock. Kills Rats, Gophers, Squirrels, etc. 
Throws them away and sets itself. One Trap, by Ex- 
press, for $1; or postpaid, by mall, $1.50. Combtna- 
tion Tool Co., 124 Nassau street, New York. de!4-8t 

San Francisco Metal Market. 


fobbing ■prices rule from ten to fifteen per cent, higher than the 
following quotations. 

Wednesday, Jan. 15, 1873. 


Scotch Pig Iron, * ton $50 00 @ 55 00 

White Pig, * ton 50 00 @ 55 no 

Refined Bar, bad assortment, * ft ® — 06 

Refined Bar, good assortment, *ft @ — 06>£ 

Boiler, No. 1 to 4 — 05!4@ — 06 

Plate, No. 5 to 9 — 0fi)i® — 07 

Sheet, No. 10 to 13 — 07'i@ 

Sheet, No. 14 to 20 — 08 fa) — 08>« 

Sheet, No. 24 to 27 — 08 @ — 09 

Horse Shoes 9 00 fa) 

Nail Rod 10^@ 

Norway Iron 9 

Rolled Iron — 

Other Irons for Blacksmiths, Miners, etc. 5^@ &A 


Braziers — 45 @ — 48 

Copper Tin'd —60 & 

O.Nie "s Pat — 55 @ 

Sheathing, *lb la) — 45 

Sheathing, Yellow — 38 <a — 40 

Sheathing, Old Yellow f® — 13 

Composition Nails — 28 — 30 

Composition Bolts — 28 — 30 

Tin Plates.— 

Plates, Charcoal, IX* box 17 00 @ 

Plates, I C Charcoal 15 00 

Roofing Plates 14 00 

BancaTin, Slabs,* ft — 45 

Steel.— English Cast,* lb — 20 — 22 

Drill 20 

FlatBar 20 

Plough Points 16 —17 

Russia (for mould boards) 12}£ 15 

Zinc 10 \\% 

Annual Meeting 1 .— The Annual Meeting of the 
State Agricultural Society for the election of officers 
for the ensuing year, and for the transaction of other 
business, will be held at Agricultural Hall, corner of 
Sixth and M streets, Sacramento, on the 22d day of 
January, at 12 o'clock, noon. A general atttendance is 
.requested. By order of the Board. 

ill ROBERT BECK, Secretary. 

Altogether the Best.— It is curious, but true, that 
J. A. Shaber, 707 Market street, near Third, should sell 
Furniture and Bedding cheaper than any other dealer In 
this city. Try him and you will be convinced. 3v5-3m 

Groceries and Provisions.— Wines and Liquors are 
shipped to country orders with dispatch, carefully 
marked and packed, free of extra charge, by B. Sbar- 
boro & Bro., 531 Washington street, S. F. This long 
established firm now import their goods from the four 
parts of the world, and consequently undersell all other 
grocers in San Francisco. All orders from the State 
and coast are promptly attended to. Address B. Bbar- 
boro & Bro., Lock Box 1126, San Francisco. dl4-3m 

There is nothing like leather Shoes with a SILVER 
TIP fur children. Try them. They never wear through 
at the Toe, 

For Sale by all Dealers. * 

Farmers, everywhere, write for your paper. 

CF7. 4a fl*OAr" rd ^vt Arentswftr.tclt Allcl«f>"*oi wrtrklnnpeo- 
tj>-) l0<>j"pIe,of'eltUerBfX,jouiiioroliI,limtein<ii-8liii>ney«t 
-worttlornslati.ilr uparemnments or ell I'to tlino tlmnutnn y tiling 
elite. Partlculatsfiee. Addr.,sa«. BtiDeoo&C.>.,l*orlUnd, Maine. 


The Little Giant 

shells four bushels of 
corn per hour. It 
weighs only twelve et»;; 
ounces, and can be 
carried in the pocket. 
It answers equally well 
for shelling large or 
small ears. 

Will send simple by 
mail or express to any 
address, free of charge, on receipt of two dollars, 
currency. WIESTER & CO., 

fal8-lt] 17 New Montg ornery St., San Irancisco, Cal. 

King's Nursery, 

ELM Street, between TelegTaph Avenue and Br-tcdway, 

Green House Plants, V j 

Evergreen Trees, ■*-* 5J 

Shrubs, Roses, etc. 
100,000 Monterey Cypress. 

A superior stock of lsrge 
sized Australian Gum trees, 
including : — Eucalyptus 
Globolus (Blue Gum) — ex- 
tra fine street and shade 
tree. Eucalyptus Vime- 
nalis— both sorts very p >p- 
ular. Acactas in variety. 
Monterey Pines, Lawson's 
Cypress, etc., etc. Orders 
attended to. Address 

3v5-2m M. KING, Nurseryman, Oakland. 

Polishing and Fluting Iron. 

This new Invontion takes the place of two articles 
needed in nearly every house. As a I'OLISHING IRON 
It has no superior. The part used for Fluting is made 
of brass, and highly polished. The Polishing Iron and 
Fluter, being in one, are both heated at the tame time. 

We are now prepared to furnish them in quantities to 



17 New Montgomery street, San Francisco, 
General Agents for Pacific Coast. 

Purchasers please say advertised in Pacific Rural Press. 


[January 18, 1873. 



English View of Vegetables and 

The Gardeners' Chronicle, speaking of vege- 
tables for culinary use, truly says: Neither 
the one nor the other should be washed until 
they are just about to be cooked or eaten. 
Even potatoes lose flavor quickly after being 
washed; so do carrots and turnips; while water 
will quickly become tainted in summer in con- 
tact with cauliflowers and cabbages, and thus 
destroy their freshness and flavor. The case is 
still worse with salads. If washed at all, it 
should be only just before they are dressed, and 
they should be dried and dressed immediately. 
Nothing ruins the flavor of vegetables, and 
renders good salading uneatable, sooner than 
water hanging about them. If lettuces are 
quite clean, they make the best salad unwash- 
ed; but if washed, the operation should be 
done quickly, the water instantly shaken out, 
and leaves dried with a clean cloth. But, alas! 
how often are thev cut and washed in the gar- 
den in the morning, and pitched into water in 
the scullery sink until wanted. Then we are 
gravely assured that our gardener cannot grow 
salading like the French! But what French 
"artiste" would be mad enough to rinse out his 
salad juice, then recharge his lettuces and his 
endives with semi-putrid water ? The best 
practice is simply to remove all superfluous 
earth by scraping or rubbing, and all rough 
tops of leaves by cutting. Enough tender 
leaves may bo still left on cauliflowers 
and broccoli to overlap the flowers. Salad 
should be sent in from the garden with most 
of the outside leaves and main root on. The 
tender leaves are easily tainted and injured by 
exposure, and if the chief root is cut off sharp, 
much of the juice oozes out at the wound. 
Where vegetables and salading have to be 
bought from a town green grocer, the con- 
ditions are altogether different. Not only wash- 
ing, but soaking often becomes requisite to 
restore something like pristine crispness. 

Washing Coffee. 

A correspondent of Seffell's News alludes as 
follows to the washing of coffee, and the neces- 
sity thereof: "I am well aware of the use of 
machinery for cleaning off the shells, mucilage 
and other substances, but that is clean dirt. 
The pulp surrounding the coffee proper, or 
pericarp, in which the coffee is borne, is rotted 
off in mass, and various modes are resorted to 
for separating the coffee from the mucilaginous 
hulls, etc. Such washing is not, however, 
what I refer to at the present time. 

I now refer to the washing of dirty dirt; for 
instance, supposing a vessel loading in a for- 
eign port with bales of dry hides, skins.boxes, 
crates, baskets, etc., and the chinking is done 
with coffee in bulk, and at the same time bales 
of clean coffee sacks are taken into the hold; 
also, when the vessel arrives at its destination 
for discharge, the crew walk ashore and the 
stevedores go on board. The packages are 
then taken out, the chinking, or coffee, rattles 
down, and when accumulating sufficient to 
shovel up, the bales of new sacks are opened 
and filled, and the clerk of the consignees, with 
the ink pot. puts in the initial or sign. Then 
it comes to the eyes of the consumer in style. 
Now then, many of the crew in the foreign 
port, in stowing, use tobacco — many stevedores 

do the same, and are often worse. 
I wash coffee. 

That's why 

IIow to Pluck Poultby.— A Tribune corres- 
pondent having learned how to pluck poultry 
easily without scalding— which practice he says 
is now vetoed by city chicken dealers — gives 
the following as his plan : 

Hang the fowl by the feet by a small cord, 
then, with a small knife, give one cut across 
the upper jaw, opposite the corners of the 
mouth; after the blood has stopped running a 
stream, place the point of the knife in the groove 
in the upper part of the mouth, run the blade 
up into the hack part of the head, which will 
cause a quivering and twitching of the muscles; 
now is your time, for ever feather yields as if by 
magic, and there is no danger of tearing the 
most tender chick; before he attempts to flap, 
you can have him as bare as the day he came 
out of the egg. The wise ones may discuss the 
reasons — I only know the effects. 

Cider Vinegar. — We have often been sur- 
prised at the great haste exhibited by many or- 
chardists to dispose of their cider as soon as it 
comes from the mill, when there is no product 
of the farm that so increases in value with age 
as cider. In the fall of 1870 we bought a bar- 
rel of cider for three dollars and put it into a 
dry cellar with the bung open. There it lay a 
year, and on examining it, it proved to be good 
vinegar, and we sold it to a trader for ten dol- 
lars. There was a net profit of more than three 
hundred per cent. Hundreds of barrels of cider 
were sold from the town that year at ten cents 
per gallon, all of which would have sold readily 
in a year at thirty cents per gallon.— Maine 

Use of Bones for Soup. 

If the stock meat happen to be devoid of 
bone, it is necessary to supply the deficiency; 
but with the exercise of common forethought 
there ought to be plenty of bone liquor in every 
kitchen. It is not simply for its gelatinous 
quality that bone liquor is desirable, neither is 
it economical, although in the latter view the 
saving is not inconsiderable. But bones con- 
tain mineral substances that are as essential 
to the strength of the frame as any other 
description of nourishment. Without these 
babies get rickets, young ladies get crooked 
spines, fathers get gouty, and mothers have 
palpitations — a sad chapter of accidents truly, 
and all because it is easier to throw bones into 
the dust hole, or supposed to be more profita- 
ble to sell them to the rag man. In order to ex- 
tract the full amount of value from bones, 
they should be broken into as many pieces as 
practicable, and boiled in a digester for nine 

Again, with regard to vegetables. Some- 
thing beyond an agreeable flavor is given to soup 
by their addition. Carrots, turnips, etc., con- 
tiin a large quantity of potash, by the exclusion 
of which from our food it would be easy to 
create unsightly skin complaints. On this ac- 
count the water in which such vegetables are 
boiled should not be thrown down the sink. — 
Ohio Farmer. 


Fbied Sweet Potatoes. — Take as many sweet 
potatoes of moderate size as will be required 
for a meal, pare them, and cut them length- 
wise, into say six or eight pieces. Have a pan 
of boiling lard ready into which put the sliced 
potatoes raw. When brown, turn them into a 
colander, and place in a hot oven to drain. The 
lard must be kept fully up to the boiling point, 
in order to have the slices nicely browned. 
Serve up hot and eat with butter. They are 
superlatively good. The same method can be 
used for Irish potatoes. 

How to Prepabe Tdbnips for Dinner. — Take 
of good turnips and potatoes enough to make 
two quarts of each, after being pealed and cut. 
Two or three pounds of fresh beef or pork of 
medium fatness, should be boiled for an hour, 
to which the turnips and potatoes are to be 
added; boil the whole half an hour longer, then 
add half a teacup of both sugar and flour, and 
boil five minutes longer. When done they 
ought to be mashed same as usual. Mrs. S. 

Custard Pie. — Take the yolks of three eggs, 
two tablespoonfuls of sugar and one of flour, 
beat hard; then flavor, and add two teacupfuls 
of milk, and bake. To the whites of three 
eggs, btaten to a stiff froth, add two tablespoon- 
fuls of sugar, and flavor. When the pie is 
done, spread evenly over it and set in the oven 
for a few minutes. 

Corn Griddle-Cakes.— Take two cups corn 
meal and one cup wheat flour, mix with sour 
milk or buttermilk till it is a thin batter; add 
soda sufficient to neutralize the acid of the 
milk, a little salt, and three well-beaten eggs. 
Very much of the excellence of corn bread and 
cakes depends on the freshness of the meal; if 
immediately from the grist-mill it is much 
sweeter than after it has stood awhile. 

To Fby Mush. — Have a pan of boiling lard 
ready, slice your mush half an inch thick, flour 
it on both sides and put it into the boiling lard. 
By this means the slices will be browned evenly 
all over; and besides, if allowed to drain in a 
colander placed in a warm oven, will come to 
the table entirely free from the disagreeable 
fatty taste peculiar to this dish when fried in 
the usual way. Serve up hot. 

To Pbepare Celery.— Cut off the leaves, and 
cut the stock into pieces two inches long; boil 
it in a little water ten minutes, and then add a 
piece of butter rolled in flour. Add salt and 
pepper. If you wish it richer, boil the celery 
in a little veal gravy, add cream, beaten eggs, 
nutmeg and a bit of butter. 

Potato Custard fob Pastry. — A cupful of 
mashed potatoes, four eggs, as much sugar as 
you like, enough milk to mix it, and flavor with 
essence of lemon. 

How the Fuchsia Acquired Celebrity. 

The New York Tribune relates the following 
pleasant story about the first fuchsia: 

Old Mr. Lee, a nurseryman and 'gardener 
near London, well known fifty or sixty years 
ago, was one day showing his variegated treas- 
ures to a friend, who suddenly turned to him 
and declared, "Well, you have not in your col- 
lection a prettier flower than I saw this morn- 
ing at Wapping." "No, and pray what was 
this phoenix like ?" "Why, the plant was ele- 
gant, and the flowers hung in rows like tassels 
from the pendant branches, their colors the 
richest crimson ; in the center a fold of deep 
purple," and so forth. Particular directions 
being demanded and given, Mr. Lee posted off 
to the place, where he at once perceived that 
the plant was new in this part of the world. He 
saw and admired. Entering the house, he 
said, "My good woman, this is a nice plant, I 
should like to buy it." "Ah, sir, I could not 
sell it for no money, for it was brought me 
from the West Indies by my husband, who has 
now left again, and I must keep it for his sake." 
"But I must have it." "No, sir!" "Here," 
emptying his pockets, "here is gold, Bilver, 
copper;" (hisstock was something more than 
eight guineas). "Well-a-day, but this is a 
power of money, sure and sure!" " 'Tis yours, 
and the plant is mine; and, my good dame, you 
shall have one of the first young ones I rear, 
to keep for your husband's sake." 

A coach was called, in which was safely de- 
posited our florist and his seemingly dear pur- 
chase. His first work was to pull off and ut- 
terly destroy every vestige of blossom and blos- 
som-bud; it was divided into cuttings, which 
were forced into bark-beds and hot-beds, were 
re-divided and sub-divided. Every effort was 
used to multiply the plant. By the commence- 
ment of the next flowering season Mr. Lee was 
the delighted possessor of three hundred fuch- 
sia plants, all giving promise of blossom. The 
two which opened first were removed into his 
show-house. A lady. came: "Why, Mr. Lee, 
where did you get this charming flower?" " 'tis 
a new thing, my lady — pretty, is it not ?" 
"Pretty! 'tis lovely. Its price ?" "A guinea. 
Thank your ladyship;" and one of the two 
plants stood proudly in her ladyship's boudoir. 
"My dear Charlotte ! where did you get that 
elegant flower ?" "Oh, 'tis a new thing; Isaw 
it at old Lee's; pretty, is it not ?" "Pretty! 'tis 
beautiful! Its price V" "A guinea; there was 
another left." The visitors' horses smoked off to 
the suburb; a third flowering plant stood on the 
spot whence the first had been taken. The sec- 
ond guinea was paid, and the second chosen 
fuchsia adorned the drawing-room of her sec- 
ond ladyship. 

The scene was repeated, as new comers saw 
and were attracted by the beauty of the plant. 
New chariots flew to the gates of old Lee's nur- 
sery ground. Two fuchias, young, graceful, 
and bursting into healthful flower, were con- 
stantly seen on the same spot in his repository 
He neglected not to gladden the faithful sailor's 
wife by the promised gift; but ere the flower 
season closed 300 golden guineas clinked in his 
purse, the produce of the single shrub from 
the window in Wapping; the reward of the 
taste, decision, skill and perseverance of old 
Mr. Lee. 

Winter in the Scnny South. — It was not 
only in the Northern states of the Republic 
that the recent touch of winter was severely 
felt. North of the Potomac and Ohio the ther- 
mometer ranged from ten to forty degrees be- 
low zero for several days last week and most 
portions of that region were visited by severe 
snow storms that impeded all travel whether 
by common conveyance or by railroad; but the 
semi-tropical portion of the country also got a 
rough touch of winter such as it seldom experi- 
ences. So severe was the cold that the Mis- 
sissippi was frozen over at Memphis; and in 
many of the Southern cities rides were enjoyed 
upon improvised sleighs and sleds. But when 
the ice broke up in the Ohio and Mississippi 
and came rushing down the swift current in ac- 
cumulated masses, it swept the shores with 
terrible effect, crushing steam boats, wharves, 
warehouses and other structures in its course, 
damaging and destroying property to the 
amount of millions. — Contra Costa Gazette. 

Bees do not like bad breaths, especially 
whisky breaths. Those having whisky on the 
breath, who do not believe this, should go near 
a hive of bees and see how it is for them- 

How the Rose of Sharon is Propagated. — 
The Rose of Sharon is one of the most ex- 
quisite flowers in shape and hue. Its blossoms 
are bell-shaped, of many mingled hues and 
dyes, and its history is romantic in the highest 
degree. In the East, throughout Syria, Judea 
and Arabia, it is regarded with the profoundest 
reverence. The leaves that encircle the round 
blossom dry, and close tight together, when the 
season of blossom is over, and the stock with- 
ering completely away from the stem, the 
flower is blown away at last from the bush on 
which it grew, having dried up in the shape of 
a ball, which is carried by the sports of the 
breeze to great distances. In this way it is 
borne over the sandy wastes and deserts, un- 
til at last, touching some moist place, it clings 
to the soil, where it immediately takes fresh 
roots and springs to life and beauty. For this 
very reason the Orientals have adopted it as 
the emblem of the resurrection. The dried 
dowers are placed by the Judeans in a vase 
of water beside the bedside of the si .k, and if it 
expands by moisture, the omen is considered 
favorable. If it does not, the worst at all 
times is feared. 

Cut Flowers. — In cutting flowers for vases 
or bouquets it is never well to break them 
abruptly from the stems, but cut them off with 
scissors or a knife — the latter being the best, as 
it is less likely to injure the minute pores or 
tubes of the stems which draw up the moisture 
needed to nourish the flower. H they are 
gathered while wtt with dew, they will keep 
longer than if cut when the sun shines hotly 
upon them. If it is desired to keep them a 
great while, a pinch of saltpetre and of com- 
mon salt added to the water will prevent their 
decay, and also remove all unpleasant odors 
from the stems. Boiling water turned upon the 
stemsof faded flower and allowed to stand upon 
them until completely cool, will frequently re- 
store them to freshness. Out off the stalks for 
half an inch or so before putting them into cool 
water, which should not be icy cold. 

Everlasting Flowers. 

The immortelles of the east (Ilelichrysum 
orientales.) This plant, a native of Asia, has 
been known in Europe since 1629, but was 
only first cultivated in gardens about 1815. 
Its flowers, the symbols of friendship, or tri- 
bute to talent and genius, serve to make the 
garlands of immortelles which ornament the 
tombs of the dead in Roman Catholic coun- 
tries. It is cultivated in France, in the com- 
munes of Lower Provence, where the soil 
slopes towards the Mediterranean. It succeeds 
very well in the slopes of Bandols and Ciota, 
which are exposed to the south and enclosed 
by walls of stone. It blossoms about the month 
of June. It suffers from heavy and continu- 
ous rains and strong dews, and only vegetates 
well on light soils, stony and permeable. It 
is propagated by offsets, which are separated 
from the old stocks. The gathering of the 
flowers is made in the first daj s of June, before 
the bursting of the buds. As the flowers which 
are insufficiently formed or too full blown are 
rejected by the trade, it is important not to cut 
the stems either too soon or too late. The 
collection is made by women, who tie them in 
small bundles, which are ordinarily dried on 
the walls of the enclosure. Finally, young 
girls are employed to remove the down which 
covers the ramifications. A kilogramme by 
weight of these plants contains about 400 
stems, each one containing about 20 flowers. 
Each growing tuft of immortelles produces 60 
or 70 stems, bearing from 20 to 30 flowers. A 
hectare will contain 40,000 tufts, producing 
annually 2,400,000 to 2,800,000 stems, yielding 
16,000 to 20,000 bundles, or 5,000 to 6,000 kilo- 
grammes in weight of immortelles. A piece of 
ground well laid out and attended to will pro- 
duce for eight or ten years. The flowers are 
sold in packets or by weight. The bundle 
sells at from l%d to 3d; the 100 kilogrammes 
for from 30 to 45 francs. The immortelles are 
sent off in cases containing 100 bunches or 
packages systematically arranged. They are 
sometimes sold dyed black, green or crimson 
red. The last shade is very handsome, and 
most in vogue in the southern countries. It 
is obtained by a solution of borax. The natu- 
ral flowers and those dyed black are used for 
coronals for tombs. Those dyed crimson or 
green are associated with natural flowers in 
bouquets, or worn at the button-hole. — (xustave 

A Floral Curiosity. — A wonderful flower is 
described as existing at Constantinople, belong- 
ing to the narcissus family of bulbs. There 
were three naked flowers on the stalk hanging 
on one side; the underneath one was fading, 
while the two others were in all their beauty. 
They represented a perfect humming bird. The 
breast of bright emerald green, is a complete 
copy of this bird, and the throat, head, beak, 
and eyes, are a most perfect imitation. The 
binder part of the body and the two outstretch- 
ed wings are a bright rose color, one might al- 
most say flesh colored. On the abdomen rests 
the propagation apparatus, of a deep, dark 
brown tint, in form like a two-winged gad-fly. 

The Diadem Pinks. — No flower novelty in- 
troduced in the past ten years has given so 
much delight as the diadem pink. At first 
some trouble was experienced from mixed 
seeds and sorts untrue to name, but now propa- 
cators have obtained a strain of true character, 
and the bloom of perfect plants is unequaled 
for its brilliancy by any other plant in the 
flower-garden. The diadem pink is a flower 
that is so eminently worthy of culture in every 
garden, we can recommend it for general trial. 
With us it has done exceedingly well on light, 
warm soil. They will bear considerable manure, 
applied well-rotted in either the fall or spring. 
The same treatment given to sweet-williams 
will produce good blooms of this also. — Ex. 

How to Train Fuchsias.— When a slip has 
grown six or eight inches high, pinch out the 
top down to the last set of leaves. It will then 
throw out branches on each side. Let these 
grow eight or ten inches, then pinch out as be- 
lore; again pinch the tops of each branch, when 
grown the same hight as the others. Procure 
a stick the size of your finger, eighteen inches 
in length ; take a hoopskirt wire, twine back and 
forth alternately through holes made in the 
stick equal distances apart; place this firmly 
in the pot bark of the plant, tie the branches to 
it, and you will have, when in flower, a beau- 
tiful and very graceful plant. 

The Rose on the Lawn. — An English jour- 
nal says: Few persons are aware of the magni- 
tude to which the rose may be grown, or the 
splendid effect it may be made to produce on a 
lawn or pleasure ground; yet with a sufficiently 
strong stem, and a system of patient and care- 
ful training, there can be no reasonable doubt 
but that the standard roses can be grown to the 
size and form of the ordinary examples of the 
weeping ash, baring the branches all produced 
from the top of a single stem, and flowing 
downward upon all sides — a very ornamental 
object for the lawn. 

Cellar Gardening — Curious Results. — The 
Florist and Pomologist says that from some ex- 
periments recently made by Dr. R. McDonald, 
of Dublin, it was ascertained that, of a series 
of hyacinths flowered in a perfectly dark cel- 
lar, the green leaves were thoroughly blanched; 
while the flowers of the red variety became quite 
white, those of the yellow partially so, but 
violet-blue sorts were unaffected. 

January 18, 1873.] 

CO E1E4& 


Ready's Patent Gang Plow. 

This Plow was awarded the First Premium and Gold 
Medal at the great Plowing Match at the State Fair, 1872. 
Fifteen Gangs entered, including the Eureka, American 
Chief, Sweepstake, and others of notoriety. It has 
■Wrought Iron Beams, Iron Wheels, Cast Steel Moulds 
and Shears. It is neat, simple, strong and durable, and 
warranted to run light, and liils out of the ground 
easier than any other Gang known to the trade. Extras 
furnished and warranted to fit. 


301 J street, SACRAMENTO, Cal.. 
17v4-6m Sole Maker and Patentee. 

Hill's Patent Eureka Gang Plow. 

The following are some of the reasons why these 
Plows, are entitled to preference over any other Plow 
in use. They are made of the best material, and every 
Plow warranted. They are of light draught, easily 
adapted to any depth, and are very easily handled. 

They will plow any kind of soil, and leave the ground 
In perfect order. 


TheBe Plows have taken First Premiums at the State 
Fair, at the Northern Distrit t Fair, at the Upper Sacra- 
mento Valley Fair, and the State Agricultural Society 
Premium of $40 for the best Gang Plow, after a fair test 
and competition with the leading Plows of the State. 

Champion Deep-Tilling Stubble Plow, 

Took the First Premium over all competitors at the 
State Fair, 1871. It furrows 14 in. deep and 24 wide. 
This Gang Plow combines durability with cheapness, 

being made entirely of iron by experienced workmen, of 

the best material. Over three hundred are now in use, 

aDd all have given entire satisfaction. 
Manufactured and for sale by the 


At SAN LEANDRO, CAL., under the personal superin- 
tendance of the Patentee, F. A. Hnx, 

And also by most leading Agricultural Dealers in the 
State. Send at once for Circulars, priceB, etc. 21v3 


Took the Premium over all at the great Plowing 
Match in Stockton, in 1870. 

This Plow is thoroughly made by practical men who 
have been long in the business and know what is re- 
quired in the construction of Gang Plows. It is quickly 
adjusted. Sufficient play is given so that the tongue will 
pass over cradle knolls without changing the working 
position of the shares. It is so constructed that the 
wheels themselves govern the action of the Plow cor- 
rectly. It has various points of superiority, and can be 
relied upon as the Best and Most Desirable Gang Plow 
In the world. Send for circular to 

Stockton, Cal. 

Merchants and Farmers, 

Examine oar 

Hobse Collars. 

Adopted by 


All Grades. 
No complaints. 

No repairing. 

Don't believe 


Coppeb Riveted 

Pat. Nov., 1864. 

U. S. Army. 

18,000 SOLD. 

Heavy t Light. 

No ripping. 

Examine for 

prejud'd parties. 


Manufactured only by 

J. <J. JOH1NSON «& CO,, 

Dealers in llarneaa, SADDLERY, Leather, etc. 

I iberal discount to the Trade. 19v4-3m 



With neither Engine, PiBton, or Plunger. 

The moBt Simple , Durable, and In al 
irespects the most Economical of all 
I Steam Pumps. Uses the same steam 
twice instead of once. Any person can 
run it. They are used on the Central 
and Western Pacific R. R. from Oakland 
__. to Ogden. They are used for Water 
Works, Mining, Irrigation, and all other ordinary pump- 
ing. Send for Descriptive Circular and Price List. Ad- 
dress ALLEN WILCOX, No. 21 Fremont street, San 
Francisco. !Gv2-3m 



Iron Doors and Shutters, 

Wrought Iron Girders, 

Prison Cells, 

Bank Vaults, and 

Bank Locks. 





Nos. 18 and 20 Fremont Street, Near Market, SAN FRANCISCO. 

Send for Descriptive Circulars and Price List. 7v4-lam5mbp 


Nos. 3 and 5 Front Street SAN FRANCISCO. 




Wostenholme's Pocket Cutlery, 

Blacksmith and Mining Tools, 

Rope, Iron, Steel, Ammunition, 

Powder and Fuse, 

Sole Agents for 


*y These Plows are Deep Tillers, and are Just what the farmers need. They can be run by a small boy, as the 
lifting out of the ground is done by horse instead of hand power. Farmers should examine these Plows before 




Orders respectfully solicited. Catalogues and prices furnished on application. 18v4-6m 



For Farm use and Custom work. The only Practioa 
Farm Feed Mill ever invented. Can be used with from one 
to eight-horse power, and grinds from 250 lbs. to one ton of 
barley per hour. Price of Mills from $75 to $100, according 
to size. Adapted to Wind, Water. Steam, or Horse Power. 
The grinding surface ib adjustable, and can be replaced in 
fifteen minutes at an expense of one dollar to one doltarand 
a quarter. Over 3,000 now in use. Every Mill warranted to 
give satisfaction. For sale by all leading agricultural Hrms 
on the coast. For further particulars send for circular. 
M. S. BOWDISH, General Agent, 
With Hawloy & Co.. cor. California and Battery sts., 

16v4-3m San Francisco. 

Those in want of 
do well to call at the 
old stand. 113 Com- 
mercial street, San 
Francisco, between 
Davis and Drumm, 
and examine our im- . 
provements before ^ 
purchasing e 1 s e - 

The undersigned is the pioneer in this line, having 
manufactured them for the last ten years in this city. 

«W" Patent applied for. 

14v22-3m H. G. PRATT. 



Manufacturers of and Dealers in 

Monuments, Headstones, Tombs, 


421 Pine street, between Montgomery and | 

Kearny, San Francisco. 

ITive Cents J?a.icl Oixt for a 



Adds more to their value titan one dollar expended in 
any other way. 





And also a superior Iron Axle Wagon. 



Jolxu. Deer Moline I?1otv. 

Also COLLINS' PLOW (Smith's Patent). 




13" Please call and examine. 



Having the Agencv for the sale of these v\ atrons, made 
at Fon du Lac, Wis., by Farnswonh Bros., Knapp A Co., we 
a re prepared to furnish them, '•ingle or in any number, light 
medium or heavy 2-horse and 4-horse [Thimble-skeins and 
boxes I, and warrant them to stand well, and to be equal in 
all respects 10 the best Eastern-made Wagcns sold here. 

Orders from the Country will receive i rompt attention, 
and Frice Lists sent on application. 

S. E. Cor. California and Davis streets, San Francisco. 
Address P. O Box 654, only. Iv5-lm 

FIRST PREMIUM AWARDED at the State Fair of 
1870; also First Premium at Mechanics' Fair, San Fran- 
cisco, 1871; and Silver Medal and First Premium for 
best Farm Wagon, and First Premium for the best im- 
proved Thimble Skein at State Fair, 1871. Also State 
Fair GOLD MEDAL for 1871. 



San Quentin, Cal. 



New Style Florence Sewing Machines ? 
New Style Florence Sewing Machines? 

They are the Latest Thing Out. 
Run the Work to the LEFT of Operator. L 
Run the Work to the RIGHT of Operator. 
Run the Work TOWARDS the Operator. 
Run the Work FROM the Operator. 

The New Fasfcniags are Patented, and used solely by 
the Florence Sewing Machine Co. 

19 New Montgomery street, 
jall-2t Grand Hotel Building, San Francisco. 


Chemists and Apothecaries, 

521 Montgomery street, 

Between Commercial and Clay, San Francisoo, Cal. 



Oonuine Patent Medicines. Trusses, Colognes. Perfumes 
Soaps. Hair Oils, Pomades, Fancy Goods, Sponges, Brusnos, 
Combs, etc. , , - A _ _ . ,,.. 

Those Goods are new and fre«h. of the best qualities, 
and will be sold at very low prices. Please call and ex- 
amine ihc stock, before purchasing elsewhere. 

Physicians' Prescriptions comnoiin<!od with great care 
and accuracv, at nil hours of ine dav and night, and 
none but the'btst articlos used in their preparation. Prices 
moderate. , ,, . .. 

SS- Our frlendsand customers residing in the country 
will fiml it for their advantage lo order from us. Goods 
sent by Express to any part of the United Slates. 

Los Angeles County Lands. 

Farming Lands in Los Angeles County for sale, in 
sections and quarter sections, at reasonable prices and 
on accommodating terms— say, one-fourth cash and 
balance in one, two and three years, with interest at 10 
per cent., payable annually. Apply at the office of the 
Company, No. 642, corner Market and Montgomery 
streets, over the Hibernia Bank, San Francisco, or tc 
the agent, W. R. OLDEN, Anaheim. 12v3if 



[January 18, 1873. 

Business Cards. 

Luke G Sresovich & Co., Importers, 

Wh'le^aleDJalfrsand Commis ion Merchantsin 1 

and Domestic Fruits. 519 Sansotuo street, S. F. All 

orders promptly attended to. 3v5 

Wm. J. Heney & Co., Importers and Man- 

nfac'urer* of Rich. Medium ami romroon Furniture. 
Beddlnjf ani Uphobicrv Goods. No. 725 Market slreet 
(Bancroft', Building). San Francisco. 3v5 

Jacob Schreiber, Dealer in Live Geese 

F'eatners. Furniture Springs. Curled Hair, etc. The 
Cheapest House in the northern part of the city. no. 
MO Washington street, San Francisco. 3v5 

A. Giorgiani, Importer and Dealer in 

Tropic il aid Dry Fruits also California Wines, Bay Sal', 
and Lime Juioe in ten-gallon kegs. Ho*. 419 and 421 
Washington street, S;in Francisco. 3v5 

J. Ivancovih & Co., Wholesale Dealers 

and Commission Merchants in Foreign snd D me-tie 
fruits. No-. 5.0 and 52'2 Sansome street, San Franci-e >. 
All orJers promptly attended to. 3v5 

Charles Brown, Dealer in Ranges, Stoves. 

Tiaivr", Ki'chen utensils, Woodenware, etc. Plnmbmff 
an, I Water Pi, ing. Attention na <1 t" connecting Hot and 
0> Id water to Stoves, Ranges, etc. 72* Market »t., 8. F. 

A. Greenebaum & Co. (Successors to 

Herman Heuckl. Mantlf^cu-ers. Importers and Dealers 
in Hivana ant D unesilc Cigars, Tobaccos, Snttrls, Pines. 
Matches, etc. 233 Kearny steet. Oh e them a call. ja!8 

Lewis & Pander, Dealers in Stoves, 

Ringes, Tin»are, and all kinds of Kitchen Uten- 
sils. The best ant the cheapest. No. 3J Geary 
St., between Kearny and Dupont, S. F. 3v5-3ra 


I X L Plating Works, 715 Mission street, 

San Franci-co. Table Ware re-plated to look like new. 
Table Spoon**, Forks and Knives three dollars per dozen. 

II sent by Express, will be returned C. O. D. 3v5-3m 

Mrs. Curtis' First Premium Models, for 

sale, wholesale and retail, by Mrs Bnrringer, 54 Fourth 
Street, S. F. fattens cut and Teacher of her system of 
Cutting all kinds of Garments in the latest styles. 3v5 

Brittan, Holbrook & Co., Importers of 

Stoves and Metals, Tinners' Goods, Tor Is and Machine", 

III and 113 California, 17 and 19 Divis streets, San Fran- 
cisco, and 178 J street, Sacramento. 2v5-ly 


Descended from Btock weighing 62 lbs. to the pair- 
Premium Birds of N. Y. State Poultry Society. 
Address W. CLIFT, Mystic Bridge, Connecticut. 

Bend, post-paid, an Almanac giving every Year, Month, 
Week and Day of the Century; also a Pocket Calendar 
f or 1873. Extra inducements to Agents. Address 

GEOHGE A. HEARD k CO., Boston, Mass. 

Agents Wanted for the New Book, 

Underground Treasures- How and Where 
to Find Them, 


Of all the Useful Minerals within the United States. 


t&~ A work of rare value to every person, and worth 
en times its cost. Price only $1.50. 
Send for full descriptive circular to 



542 California street, San Francisco. 


— AND- 

Wine and Brandy Manufacturers' 


Will meet in Masonic Hall, corner K and Sixth streets, 

Sacramento, Monday, January 20th, 1873 

at 2 o'clock p. M. 

Duplicates of Wines and Brandies exhibited at last 
Fair will be examined, the Premiums then awarded an- 
nounced and paid, the Premium List for next year 
agreed on, provision made for exhibition of our grape 
products at Vienna, steps taken to secure proper re- 
duction of National Taxes, Essays read on various sub- 
jects of interest to the industry, and such other business 
as may come before the meeting transacted. The meet- 
ing will be continued from day to day so long as neces- 
sary. By order. 

I. N. HOAG, Secretary. 

Valuable Premiums for Subscriptions. 

[Publishers' Business Notice.] 

Machine Given Free, with $40 Worth 



THE PACIFIC RURAL PRESS has the largest circula- 
tion of any weekly Journal published west of the 
Rocky Mountains, independent of a daily issue. Its 
readers are prominent among the most intelligent, in- 
dustrious and thrifty classes throughout the Pacific 
States and Territories. 


Our object in giving an illustration of this 
machine is partly to secure the attention of 
the reader to the following facts: First, that it is 
in its way the best sewing machine in existence; 
and secondly, because we propose to offer it at 
a very low rate to the public as an inducement 
to subscribe to the Prkss. 

In proof of the high estimation in which this 
machine is held at the East, we copy the follow- 
ing from the Scientific American: 

"To make a very cheap sewing machine has 
been the aim of many inventors. To make a 
very cheap and also a good one has been sought 
by some, but few have been successful in com- 
bining the two advantages of small cost and 
great utility. We, however, exhibit in the 
accompanying engraving one that possesses the 
utility of more costly machines, while it is fur- 
nished at a price below anything we have had 
of the kind that can perform the same work in 
as complete a manner. It is capable, as we have 
proved by operating it, of doing plain seaming, 
hemming, stitching, embroidering, and in short, 
most of the sewing done in families. 

The American Agriculturist in speaking of 
this machine says: 

We are prepared to indorse the Beckwith 
Sewing Machine as one worthy of being at 
once secured by all who cannot pur- 
chase the expensive machines ; and, as 
will be seen below, many of those who have 
the larger machines will want this one in addi- 
tion. Here are some of the advantages of the 
Beckwith machine: 

1st. It is well and strongly made, and 
thoroughly electro-plated with nickel through- 
out, by the new process, which is decidedly su- 
perior to the usual thin silver-plating, as it is 
far more durable, and does not tarnish. It is 
simple in its parts, and its use quickly learned, 
and runs so easily that a child can work it. 

2d. It is easily attached to any table or stand 
having a leaf or edge projecting an inch or so, 

and can thus be used in any part of the house, 
near a window, etc. It is so light and portable 
that a lady can carry it with her in a reticule 
when visiting or on a journey, ready for use at 
any moment. It is so convenient in this respect 
that it will be a useful addition where other 
machines are used, either for carrying to differ- 
ent rooms, or when two wish to sew at the 
same time. It is applicable for almost all kinds 
of family sewing. 

3d. It makes the elastic loop stitch (the same 
as the Wilcox & Gibbs and some other good 
machines), which with a little care in making 
the closing stitch, is abundantly strong for 
nearly all kinds of sewing, and less liable to 
break in washing and wearing, owing to its 
elasticity. It has the advantage that the stitch 
can be removed when desired. Those who have 
lock-stitch machines, will find this stitch more 
convenient for many kinds of sewing, for em- 
broidering, etc. Many contend that the elastic 
loop-stitch is more durable. — Pacific Rural 
Press, Dec. 28, 1872. 

The foregoing Should be satisfactory evidence of the 
value of the machine and the work it ran do. And now 
we have made sueh arrangements with SfessrS. All, Han 
& Fitch, (Jem ral Agents, Alameda, fa],, that wi 
bled to offer to patrons of the Press a really desirabli 
premium for their subscriptions, in the way of this lit 
tie wonder worker and saver of time, labor and money 
It may be seen and operated at the Press office, 838 
Montgomery street, between 10 and 11 a. m. an. 
r. m. The lowest retail price of the Improved Beckwith 
Sewing Machine is $12. Now 

For $12, a Machine and the Illustrated Press, 1 year. 
For $12, a Machine and the Mining & Scientific Pre-s, (linos. 
For $12. a Machine and the Pacific Rural Press. 6 mos. 
For $13. .10. a Machine and (ho Mining A Sc ant fie Pres-*, 1 yr. 
For $13.50, a Machine and the Pacific Kural Press. 1 year. 
For $40, we will grive a Machine and $40 

worth of subscriptions to either paper or 

all jointly. 

Express charges must be paid bv the purchaser. Ad- 
dress, for further particulars, the PUBLISHERS OF 



Grass and Clover Seeds 


Trees, Plants, Roots, Etc., 

For Sale at Wholesale or Retail by 


No. 317 Washington Street, 

•7* Send for a Catalogue. 


100 Barrels Guano for Sale, 

Choirs, Musical Classes, Conventions, 


To the following Choice List of 

New Cantatas! Oratorios 1 Anthems! 
New and attractive Cantatas. 

Forty-Sixth Psalm Dudley Buck. $1.00 

Festival Cantata Eugene Thayer. $1.25 

Gounod's Choral Music 50 

Well worthy of careful study. 

Musical Enthusiast Hewitt. .50 

An amusing and very melodious musical extravaganza. 


St. Peter J. K. Paine. $1.75 

Prodigal Son Arthur Sullivan. $1 .00 

Fine effective compositions. 


Sabbath Guest Emerson & Morey. $1.60 

Buck's New Motette Collection $2 50 

Baumbach's Sacred Quartettes [New] $2.50 


Strauss's Dance Music. Violin and Piano $1.00 

The above books sent, post-paid, for retail price. 

CHAS. H. DITSON & CO., New York. 


In Harrison's Nursery, one Mile below Sut- 
terville, on the Riverside Road. 

My stock of Trees is of the most desirable varieties, 
well grown, and cannot fail to please PLANTERS and 
DEALEK8, both as to STYLE and PRICE. Trees care- 
fully packed and delivered to the cars and boats, also to 
all parts of the city, without additional charge. Ex- 
amine Trees at Nursery, or addreBS 

J. S. HARRISON, Ninth Street. 
janl8-lm Between M and N, Sacramento. 


I have a lot of choice HOP ROOTS, and also healthy 
Orders may be addressed through Dewey ft Co., of the 
Rural Press, Drake ft Emerson, No. 521 Sansome street, 
San Francisco, Robt. Williamson, Capital Norserles, 
Sacramento, or to me, CALVERT T. BiRD, 

3v5-2m San Jose, Cal. 


The California Short Horn Durham Breeders' Con- 
volition will meet, pursuant to adjournment, at the 
GRAND HUTLL, in the city of San Francisco, on the 
Evening of the first Monday of February, lKoi. 
o'clock, for the completion of their organisati n, and 
other business. All breeders of ihcee cattle and their 
grades are respectfully invited to attend. 
jal8 at G. N. SWEZY, Secretary. 


Including all varieties— OUT-DOOR grown, healthy 
and strong. In go d condition lor transplanting and 
transportation. For sale at $5 to $10 per- 100. Grown 
at Fitchburg, between Alameda and San Leandro. 

Address, HENRY S. FITCH, 

3v5-2m °06 Montgomery Street. 

Seeds! Seeds!! 


8 and lO J St., SACRAMENTO. 

My stock of Seeds this season is larger and in greater 
variety than can be fuund elsewhere on the Pacific 
Slope, and of the last season's growth. 

Garden, Flower and Field Seeds ; 



Trees and TnEE Seedlings, Feutt, Timber and 
Ornamental, supplied at the very lowest rates, from 
the largest and best nurseries here and in the Eastern 
States. " The Evergreen and Forest Tree Grower,'' 
published at the East, will be mailed free for one year 
to all purchasers of seedB, etc., to the amount of five 
dollars and over, who wish it. 

Vick's Flower Seeds, Bulbs, Chromos and catalogues 
on hand and supplied at strictly his rates. 

Seeds and small seedlings forwarded by mail to any 
part of the United States. My catalogues are now 
ready, and furnished free on application. |3v5-2ni 


Glen Gardens, one Mile east of Sacramento, 

My stock embraces all the most desirable varieties 
known, including several new Retches imported from 
England, among which are the Early Beatrice, Early 
Louise and Early Rivers— all earlier than Halen the 
Beatrice undoubtedly reaching the practical limit to 
earliness, being twenty dajs earlier than Hale's. 

For late varieties 1 have the Salway (the premium 
Peach at the State Fair) , and the Freemason, the most 
valuable late Peaches in cultivation. 

Blackberry, Raspberry and Strawberry Plants, all at 
the lowest market priceB for cash. 
jal8-lm ED. F. AIKEN, Proprietor. 

In quantities to suit purchasers. 




Impor'er and Breeder of 

Angora or Cashmere 

— or — 


— AM) — 

VI. 1^ (iUAI)ES, 

For sale In lots to suit purchasers. Location, fou 
miles from Railroad Station, connecting with all part 
of the State. For particulars address 


El Dorado, El Dorado county. 


Breeders and Importers of the 
Cotswold, Lincoln, Leicester, Texel and 
Jtf| South Down 

WKF S H J3 K £» 


— ALBO— 



Now offer for sale the Pure Bred and High Grades. 
We have a good lot of Bucks of crosses 1 'tween the 
Cotswold and South Down, between the Lincoln and 
Leicester, and the Lincoln and Merino. 


19\ 4-tf Hollister, Monterey County, Cal. 





thsags, having ample opportunities to disp- se of farms 
or business places to the many immigrants who daily 
irrive in California, and whose first steps are Invariably 
directed toward this institution, has opened a Land De- 
partment in connection with its Labor and Employment 

Parties having farms or business places for sale will 
do well to send the fullest particulars to 

California Labor & Employment Exchange. 


San Francisco. 

„Male and Female Labor sent to all parts of the 
country." 17v4-2ani3m 





cbasge, having ample opportunities to fisposo of farms 
or business places to the many immigrants who daily 
arrive in California, and whose first steps are invariably 
directed toward this institution, has opened a Land De- 
partment in connection wiih its Labor and Employment 

Parties having farms or business places for sale will 
do well to send the fullest particulars to 

California Labor & Employment Exchange, 


San Francisco. 

" Male and Female Labor sent to all parts of the 
country." 17vi-2am3m 


FARMERS AND DAIRYMEN— Send us your orders. 
We have constantly on hand Male and Female I 
all kinds; Lumbermen, Woodchnppers. Milkers, and 
Men and Women for all ktiuls of work, await your 
orders. All orders from the country receive our p r- 
sonal attention, and will be filled promptly and as de- 
sired. Real estate bought and sold at short notice. All 
sales of land or property negotiated satisfactorily. 

GATES ft CO., 
jalS.lm 116 Kearny St., San Francisco, Cal. 

Volume V.] 


[Number 4. 

Fish Culture. 

In our last week's issue we placed the trout 
at the head of the list of fresh water fishes for 
domestication and profit to the fish culturist. 
In continuing the subject it may be well to 
state that, however pleasing the prospect of 
successful trout culture may be to those de- 
sirous of engaging in it for pastime or profit, 
the result will depend upon the fitness of lo- 
cality and quality of water at command for 
the purpose; for to attempt the business with- 
out this requisite is a loss of time and money. 

In our directions we are guided by the in- 
structions of that veteran 
trout culturist Livingston 
Stone and not by any ex- 
perience of our own. He 
says be sure there will 
always be water enough for 
your purpose. To decide 
upon this, you must be 
guided by the amount of 
water flowing in the hot- 
test week of the dryest 
time in summer. This is 
your guide: The stream 
or spring is worth no 
more than what it will 
do at its very warmest and 
lowest time. 

Therefore, when you 
select your brook, either 
see it yourself in its dry- 
est state or take the testi- 
mony of some person who 
has seen it thus, and if 
from what you see or hear 
you are led to believe that 
it is possible for the sup- 
ply of water to become 
insufficient, have nothing 
to do with it. Be sure 
that no freshets which 
can carry away or over- 
flow your works are 

Brooks subject to mod- 
erate freshets that can 
be controlled are not necessarily objectionable; 
but a brook where the freshet cannot be wholly 
guarded against is a delusion and a snare and 
ought to be utterly avoided. Be sure that the 
water does not heat up in the summer to an un- 
wholesome point. Many brooks which have 
the appearance of perfect trout streams are 
worthless from becoming too warm in summer. 
Here also the test should be the hottest day of the 
dryest time. For it should be remembered that 
one day of freshet, drouth, or intense heat 
may do as much mischief, in taking away your 
trout, as six months of the same might do. 

Waters otherwise suitable, which are most to 
be dreaded, are outlets of shallow ponds or 
lakes. These waters though perennial and of 
even flow, and fed by springs, may yet, from 
too much exposure to sun or air, be wholly un- 
fit to keep trout alive, by reason of their tem- 
perature rising too high. It is safe to say that 
slugglish, flat water at 70° is dangerous, if not 
fatal to trout; while they will live in vigorous, 
rapid water which occasionally runs up to 80° ; 
but 850 is fatal to them in all kinds of water. 

Be sure that the water you select is intrinsi- 
cally favorable to trout. Be very careful about 
using any brook or spring which oan possibly 
receive the discharge of a tannery or mill or 
drainage discharging any poisonous substance. 
A very good guide is this; if it is not a natural 
trout brook, or has not been one, be very shy 

of it; for there is some good cause why trout 
do not inhabit it, and the cause is probably to 
be found in the unsuitableness of the water. 

It is no objection to a stream where trout are 
raised that it is occasionally turbid or even 
muddy. Such water, though injurious to eggs, 
is wholesome and beneficial to the fully formed 
fish of all ages. It is always a good precaution, 
where a stream is to be used which has no 
trout in it naturally, to put in a few and keep 
them there the year round and see how it suits 
them, before adopting it fully as a trout-breed- 
ing water. 

There is some conflict of opinion about the 

Ocean Casualties. 

While in California we are basking in the 
sunshine of an almost cloudless and frostless 
winter, without one flake of snow in all her 
great valleys, and the ocean that laves our 
western border is hardly ruffled by a breeze, 
the papei's from abroad are teeming with ac- 
counts of terrible suffering from the frost and 
snow and storm and tempest around the East- 
ern homes of our people, and of disaster by 
shipwreck all along the European shores of the 
Atlantic, accompanied by loss of life and 
property almost unprecedented. 


comparative value of spring and brook water 
for raising trout. All things considered, spring 
water is the best for hatching, and brook water 
is the best for raising trout. We think we have 
said sufficiently on this head to deter many 
from the pursuit to which they have perhaps 
given considerable thought, with a view of 
engaging in it; finding that their water supply 
is inadequate, or its quality quite unsuited to 
the purpose; whilst others may have had their 
hopes of a successful culture of trout strength- 
ened by finding that they possess fully the first 
indispensable requisite. The subject will be 

In striking contrast with the pleasures of 
home in our happy and beautiful land and 
climate, we introduce the accompanying en- 
graving, simply as a fancy sketch, illustrative 
of some of the sufferings of those who make 
their homes upon the ocean — 

" For who would dwell on the rolling sea 
When he might live on land, on solid land 1" 

The Potato Disease. — Should the disease 
that has for many years been so destructive to 
the potato crop in the Atlantic States and Eu- 
rope, ever reach us to our injury, it is said that 
the tan-waste — the residue of the bark which 
tanners take out of the tan-pits after it has lost 
its efficiency as a tanning material — is a perfect 
antidote. A small quantity put in each hill, 
when the potato is planted, entirely prevents 
the appearance of the disease. 

Golden Gate Pabk. — As showing the appre- 
ciation of our citizens in the improvements in 
progress in our Golden Gate Park, we state 
from positive and reliable information, that over 
fifteen hundred carriages occupied by from one 
to six persons each, visited the grounds during 
last Sunday, Jan. 19th. 

Floral and Vegetable Essences fob Per- 
fume. — Nearly all the essences employed in 
perfumery are of European production; and 
yet there are men in obscure plaoes in the 
United States who have made modest fortunes 
producing these essences. It will come to pass 
that we shall pay more attention to such pro- 
ductions when we learn that there is profit in 
something else beside vegetables, fruits, and 
grains. This is the way the manufacture of 
these essences are distributed in Europe: — En- 
glund produces lavender and peppermint large- 
ly. At Nismes attention is given to rosemary, 
thyme and lavender. Nice, makes violet its 
specialty. Cannes extracts the essences of the 
rose, the yellow acacia, the jasmino, andneroli. 
Sicily furnishes citron and orange; Italy, iris 
and bergamot. 

A substance called "naphaline" occurs in 
large quantities in the waste of gas-works, and 
has always been rejected as worthless. Prof. 
Asa Gray has discovered that it is an admirable 
substitute for camphor as a protection against 
I moths and other inseota. 

Profitable Farming. 

There is a science in farming as well as in 
every other pursuit. To make farming profita- 
ble, the science of farming ought to be under- 
stood. There are very many that cultivate the 
soil who find itunremunerative, simply because 
they do notpractioe a scientific agriculture; in 
other words they lack system in their general 
management. The pursuit of agriculture is a 
noble one when rightly practiced; but to make 
it such requires the exercise of mind as well as 

Anybody can hold a plow or drive a herd of 
cattle from one pasture to 
another; but to attain to 
scientific and systematic 
farming we must read, 
study and reduce to prac- 
tice, the experience and 
practice of others, study- 
ing to avoid their errors. 
Show us a man who has 
risen to eminence in his 
profession, and makes 
that profession pay, and 
we will show you a man 
who has made study and 
deep research a business, 
and that these have earn- 
ed him his high reputa- 
tion and well rilled coffers. 
The same with the suc- 
cessful merchant; his 
earnest attention to busi- 
ness, his systematic man- 
agement and prudent 
forethought, have made 
him rich. The skillful 
mechanic, who commands 
high wages and steady 
employment, will tell you 
that it is simply the re- 
sult of years of scientific 
and careful application of 
labor and thought during 
his apprenticeship or term 
of service at low wages. 
It is evident from these 
comparisons that knowledge is necessary in 
order to conduct any business with honor and 

Look around among those who say that 
"farming don't pay," and you will find them of 
that class who think that money paid for an ag- 
ricultural paper is only thrown away, and that 
to devote a few hours to studying the nature of 
the soil they profess to till is so much time lost; 
because say they, the ideas and suggestions of 
books and papers are only theoretioal, and can- 
not be put in practice. 

To all those farmers whose ideas are so con- 
tracted, whose reasoning powers are so rusted, 
we would say, you can make it profitable to cul- 
tivate your minds as well as your fields, for in 
so doing you can cultivate your fields all the 
better; you will find true worldly wisdom in it, 
for it will enable you to conduct your farms 
more systematically and profitably; become 
members of Farmers' Clubs, take part in the 
discussions, or if only listening to the opinions 
of others you will find it a source of interest 
and profit, that will eventually make your farm- 
ing profitable. 

California Leatheb in England.— In Octo- 
ber last, Gray, Jones & Co., of the Santa Cruz 
Tannery, shipped 1,300 sides of sole leather 
to London for the purpose of inaugurating a 
new feature of their business. Now oomes the 
report from their European agent that the leath- 
er has been sold at the rate of 20 oents per 
pound which is a very fair and satisfactory price. 
The result of thii shipment is encouraging. 


«P HFL33S! 

[January 25, 1873. 


Ventura County. 

Editors Press:— Seven miles from San Buen- 
aventura, just above the residence of T. R. 
Bard, the first visible indications appear of the 
scare left by the "lie" distemper as it swept 
over the Pacific Slope, in the shape of vast re- 
torts, iron pipe, distilling and condensing appa- 
ratus scattered about in disorder and neglect. 
Again at the head of the valley the asphaltum 
appears in a black, ugly stream that has flown 
half a mile down the valley from the springs 
that are on a slope near the divide between the 
Ojai and Santa Pacla canon. 

The oil itself has ceased to flow from 
most of these springs, leaving the residuum of 
solid asphaltum in terraces, mounds, frozen 
cataracts and any hideous shape imaginable. 
It is only in summer that these places are dan- 
gerous; many cattle are lost here when the heat 
of the sun softens these great pitchy springs. 

Dessicated beef, preserved in this manner is 
plenty at certain seasons. It is something of 
a surprise to be surrounded on all sides by 
streams of coal tar, or petroleum, and at the 
same time find limpid and fair flavored drinking 
water within a few feet of each. The moun- 
tains are torn and scarred as though all the el- 
ements had combined to rend such chasms and 
cliffs as one peers down into or from the shad- 
ows of which glances of foaming torrents are 
sending out the welcome noise ot the waters. 

For Si ven miles the trail w iuds up and down the 
sinuosities of this Canon, and se\ en times seven 
of crevices and cramped foot-way, it is possible, 
may be traversed if one is desirous of imperil- 
ing life and limb, lor the privilege ot looking at 
a desertt d derrick, or stumbling into a block of 
raisi d boulders. 

Half way down this gaping wound on the 
faje of Natuie, and when one is the hast ex- 
pecting it, a cottage surrounded by a flower 
garden and shrubbery conies like a pleasant 
dream. A tartuer surprise awaits upon enteiiug 
to find it the abode ot cultivated folks of the le- 
male peisuasiou. 

The climate, however, accounts for the im- 
portations of these fair inhabitants into this 
banishinont. To bring the roses back to the 
cheek of wan valetudinarians is a common feat 
hereabouts; and not many years hence every 
nook and cranny of thebe torloised mountains 
will twinkle with these humamtaiian adorn- 

Ouce settle definitely the grant question, and 
in a few ytars the higher valieys ot Southern 
California w ill be densely pop ulous w ith glad and 
happy lugiuves fioui every quarteroi the globe. 
Tneie is sufficient water at all limes lu this 
canon for power to grind wheat or drive ttie 
busy whet Is ot many a lubricator of any food 
orciothing material required. 

Al ibe loot oi this great gash in Mother 
Earth is already one little machine that wor- 
ries wheal and coin, so ttiat n makes moie 
wholesome food than many of the mills of 
greater pretentions; but the timber is on the 
ground loi a good mill, which will soon be up 
una ready to turn oui supiinne and ot course 
unwholesome biead stuffs. 

tue tarry waters ot the St. Paular mingle 
with the limpid .Santa Clara tilweu miles noui 
th., und althougu theie Is a larger body 
01 water, 1,1, -±OU inches miners' measure) al Ibis 
poilii lhan in any slieuin howhg lulo the Pa- 
cific between San Fiunciseo and San Diego, 
no Water appears in the beds of the Sania 
Clara at or near its mouth. 

ill vnliev ..1 .he ftauta Clara expands first 
below the mouth ol the Saniu Paular Caiiou, 
and presently we come on to a wide open plain 
thai slietches to the north, south and west, 
nearly tweniy miles in iis greatest expanse, 
containing probaoly a greater proportion ol 
good laud than any like area south ot the north 
line ol Monterey county in the tate, and most- 
ly owned by speculators. 'Wherever the car- 
cuss is there the vultures will be gathered," 
holds must essentially good in these Southern 
counties, as one sees few spider webs in a 
desei 1 lor the reason that there is nothing to 
draw the flies. 

ihe tangled web of the human spider is 
woven most intricately about all the desirable 
lands of our Sunny South, for the simple rea- 
son that the poor human flies are bound to 
swarm thither sooner or later. 

The tarry ebullitions must not be passed by 
without recording that, one well is affording 
six barrels per diem, which goes to the Gas 
Works ot San Francisco. It is stated that there 
is too large a proportion of residuum lelt after dis- 
tillation, and that fuel is too expensive to make 
illuminating oils from the petroleum of San 
Buenaventura. If asphaltum can be exten- 
sively utilized, there is untold quantities of it 
in the vicinity of the Paular Cuuon. The boils 
and eruptions of this dark substance upon the 
cuticle of Mother Earth hereabout indicates 
that her system is overcharged with carbon, 
or it may be that she has taken a bad cold, 
lungs hepatised and don't oxygenate her blood 
sufficiently; will some of the doctors explain '( 
At all events, if the earth's system has been 
terribly shaken up by disease and physic, in 
this vicinity, it is a most healthy spot for the 
human kind that have been subject to the same 
kind of inflictions. f. m. s. 

Hueneme, Ventura Co., Deo. 26th., 1872. 

The Valley of Los Angeles. 

Editors Phess:— The Valley of Los Angeles 
is only just beginning to develop its capacity, 
and if the defect in the titles (wuich defect is 
so necessary to the tinkers that have the benefit 
of ill made wares) was removed — with a sim- 
ultaneous equalization of taxation — this broad 
and fertile plain would furnish pleasant occu- 
pation, and profitable, to thousands, where 
now are a score only eking out a subsistence. 
That is to say a hundred fold can be added. 

The elevations of the mouutains give un- 
usual advantages in point of diversity of cli- 
mate, the plain stretehiug from the sea in 
nearly an air-line to their base, attains an alti- 
tude of 210 feet at the city 'ind 1,500 feet at the 
foot of the highest range. Up to this point the 
orange thrives, and in favored localities at 
much greater altitudes. 

Peaceful are the sentiments which a dispas- 
sionate observer will naturally imbibe in feast- 
ing every sense in this matchless climate. 
Let one wander wherever impulse or fancy 
may dictate, whether over the fresh green plain, 
in the orange aud walnut groves, or climbing 
the rugged mountains, a lover of the human 
species could not imagine a better picture than 
the rural life possible in these localities by 
combining in a great co-operative union, to do 
for ourselves and others all that is necessary to 
make life desirable. 

That long life is quite the natural result of 
the pacific tendencies hereabout, is exemplified 
in several instances; the most notable is that 
of Evlalie Parriss, a native California woman, 
now residing at the old Mission of San Gabriel, 
or more properly the Mission, as rebuilt 90 
yerre ago. This woman is 131 years of age; her 
great-grand-daui^hter is gi own and two of her 
daughters are eighty and ninety years old re- 
spectively. Mrs. White, the wife of a sub- 
scriber to the Rural, is a daughter of Evlalie, 
and has grandchildren well grown. Evlalie 
has the full possession of her faculties, aud 
produced a good piece of Spanish ornamental 
needlework lor exhibition at the late fair. 

Another case of vigorous longevity among 
these peaceful aud temperate people is that of 
an old man near San Juori Capistrano, who 
had a desire to see the races last year, and sad- 
dled his horse to ride fifty miles before day, in 
order to be in time for the first race. This 
fellow is only one hundred and thirty, a year 
younger than Evlalie. They both relate from 
their own recollection the incidents cotempo- 
rary with the building of the mission ninety 
years ago. 

Your correspondent saw and conversed with 
these people, and has no doubt of their entire 
veracity. Probably there are many more of 
nearly quite the same age living in this favored 
clime; there is no good reason, at least, why 
th. re should not be many people of all nation- 
alities that should reach this advanced age. 
by a proper observance of the laws ot life and 
health, in a laud blessed with such climate and 

In spite of the legal disabilities thrown in 
the way of advancement, land is held al fabu- 
lous prices; from fclUO to $500 pel acre in the 
mure desirable localities, and $8 to $60 in any- 
place at all accessible; what could be expected 
with perfect security of title and reasonable 
facilities of transportation and communica- 
tion. *• m. s. 
Los Angeles, Jan. 12th, 1873. 

Cotate Raiich. 

This is a ranch of neaily 10,000 acres, lo- 
cated half way between Petaluma aud Santa 
Rosa. Here is where Page Bios, kept that 
nice herd of Durhams lately import) d from the 
East, and noticed in the Rural Pans. These 
are not the only fine Short-horns th it they 
have, for we see that their hird has b en n.,ted 
as prize-takers for some time, and the cow Lady 
Jane is hard to beat for an animal 11 years old. 
We think they had five thoroughbreds before 
the last importation of nine. Of the last im- 
portation Caroline Airdrie took no less than 
sixteen different prizes at the east last year, 
either single or as a member of a herd. Two 
of these were sweepstakes. She is one of the 
finest animals we have s. en in tire State. Ma- 
zourka's Royal Oxfoid, Ophi- Piinceand Nomi 
Richardson are all famous animal . 

This herd of thoroughbreds is being very 
wisely used in grading up the stock of their 
large dairy. Here the marked result of im- 
proved blood can already be seen. 

The Dairy House 
Is in many respects modelled after that of Capt. 
Allen. They had the advantage of having built 
last and of plenty of means to carry out their 
ideas. The building cost 81,000, aud is veiy 
nicely finished throughout. A special feature 
is the ventilating apparatus overhead. We 
presume this is to be taken as an indication of 
what the other farm buildings are to be. We 
think a visitor would labor under a great mis- 
take who supposed that Page Bros, do not 
think it pays to give all stock good shelter in 
the climate of Sonoma. 

They have a very fine two year old colt 
weighing 1,200 pounds — a cross between the 
Hambletonian and draft stock. The yeurling 
mare Anita is very fine and already known as a 
prize taker. 


They have 100 thoroughbred French Mer- 
inos and 300 Southdowus. The grade lambs 
sold this year at $2.50 per head to the butcher. 
Where mutton sheep are used this sale of 
graded lambs to the butcher is a very profitable 
feature of the sheep business. 

They have 600 sheep, 600 cattle, and a good 
supply of horses, swine aud poultry. Their 
ranch is about half adobe and half gtntly roll- 
ing oak forest. They do a general farming 
business, devoting special attention to the dairy 
aud sheep departments. 

Their office is at 321 Front St. Mr. McDow- 
ell is the foreman in charge of the ranch. We 
hope to have cuts of some of their animals for 
illustration in future numbers. c. 

©di-Tny P*®T ES . 

Soils and their Adaptation. 

Editors Press : — California possesses as 
varied soils as climates, and both the finest in 
the world. Visit her mountain and hill slopes, 
you find gravel, limestone and volcanic mix- 
tures; in her valleys soils of redj adobe and 
black alluvial textures. 

In our extensive valleys are varied soils situ- 
ated not far distant from each other, but if we 
did not see the products, compare, taste and 
handle, the half would not be known. We 
find along the bottom lands of the Sacramento 
rich black alluvial soil; the American varia- 
tion of black aud sandy sediments; the up- 
lands, adobe mixed with blue clay; the high- 
lands, red with mixture of sand; loothills, red 
aud gravelly, each contains parts of different 
elements of ingredients, which, if analyzed by a 
chemist, will show what best suits their varied 
composition.and show what parts are required, 
if wanting, to make good soil, but all farmer-, 
are not chemists nor passed through her halls 
of agriculture. Still those who by close obser- 
vation and attention, experience, self-will and 
culture, find and adopt the most beneficial to 
their judgment and use. 

Fruits Along the Sacramento Bottom. 

For fine peaches and pears we find along the 
river banks soil which has no equal. Iu years 
gone by where orchards planted with care in 
the selection and setting out, have grown 
to a large size, yielding each year large quan- 
tities of Iubcious fiuit of extraordinary size. 
Those who'visitedthe Fruit Festival held at East 
park by the Sac. Farmers' Club, in August 
last, stw the magnificent pears aud apples 
weighing over a pound each, with grapes, 
plums and other products Iroin the soils ol the 
low and high lands approximating the city 
limits. Previous to the openiug of the rail- 
10 nl large shipments were made by vts-els 
owned by the producers, to the San Francisco 
market and adjacent thereto, and are still car- 
ried on with l.uitthat will not bear long trans- 
portation. Thousands of dollars have nee . 
made in the enterprise, enriching those who 
i in it. At the opening of new points 
along the railroad, the selection of fruits that 
would c rty and remunerate the shipper, opened 
a new epoch in the disposing of vast quantities 

that were annually raised in our State, tor our 

ma. ke s were glutted with all kinds of (mil, 
and the puces low, aid a new outlet had to 
be attained; ihe railroad to the East gave us 
a vabt country to supply. 

The Standard Variety of P ars. 

The Bartlett is par excellence the Fl mish 
Beauli s, Glout M .rcea i and Winter Nellies 
are the four best varie ies cultivated. This 
hist summer, each week daring the fruit sea- 
son, car loads were Bbipp d by various firms to 
different sections along ihe line of the railroad 
in this Slate, Nevada and Utah, also to Chicago, 
St. Louis and New York. The pears are 
picked while hard, but matured iii size, each 
wrapped separate in papers aud paoki d firm in 
box. s in regular succession till full, nailed 
tight and reversed the bottom for top. The 
peach is also wrapped and sent short distances. 
Care should be taken in selecting none but 
perfect ones; boxes so constructed as to give 
them sufficient air; packed firm they generally 
arrive in good order. I predict a large ship- 
ment of fruit will be made this year if the 
carrying of freight is anyways reasonable. 

o. B. 

Sacramento, Jan. 18, 1873. 

Petaluma Correspondence. 

Editors Rural Press :— The weather here 
now is delightful, and the crops are looking 
fine. In fact, the season, so far, has been very 
favorable with us for cropping. We now have 
a farmer's Club, and all the produeiug commu- 
nity seem to be awake to their interest in the 
matter; and there is no doubt but that we will 
have one of the most thriving clubs in the 
State. Having had a very open fall, the farmers 
succeeded iu getting off all their crops of pota- 
toes, and are now generally busy plowing for 
their grain crops. If you should not send your 
traveling agent around again in the spring, I 
wish you to continue my paper, anyhow; and 
should my time of subscription run out, you 
have only to inform me of it, and do not dis- 
continue until I give you notice. Really, I 
consider it one of my greatest sources of pleas- 
ure to spend a few quiet hours reading your 
valuable paper, and I think that no farmer or 
stock-grower should be without it. I have 
taken it from the first number until now, and, 
if possible, it seems as though every number 
was growing better. Yours truly, a. p. b. 

Petaluma, Jan. 13, 1873. 

How to Fatten Chickens. 

We clip the following on fattening fowls from 
the Boston Journal of Chemistry: It is hopeless 
to attempt to fatten chickens while they are at 
liberty. They must be put in a proper coop ; and 
this, like most outher poultry appurtenances, 
need not be expensive. To fatten twelve 
fowls, a coop may be three feet long, eighteen 
inches high, and eighteen inches deep, made 
entirely of burs. No part solid— neither top 
sides nor bottom. Discretion must be used, 
according to the size of chickens put up. They 
do not want room; indeed, the closer they are 
the better — provided they all can stand up at 
the same time. Care must be taken to put 
up such as have been accustomed to be together, 
or they will fight. If one is quarrelsome, it is 
better to remove it at once, as, like other bad 
examples, it soon finds imitators. A diseased 
chicken should not be put up. 

The food should be ground oats; and may 
either be put up in a trough or on a flat board 
ruuning along the front of the coop. It may 
be mixed with water or milk — the latter is the 
better. It should be well soaked, forming a 
pulp as loose as can be, provided it does not 
run off the board. They must be well fed three 
or four times a day — the first time as soon af- 
ter daybreak as may be possible or convenient, 
and then at intervals of four hours. Each 
meal should be as much and no more than they 
can eat up clean. When they have done feed- 
ing, the board should be wiped, and some 
gravel may be spread. It causes them to feed 
and thrive. 

After a fortnight of this treatment you will 
have good fat fowls. If, however, there are 
but five or six to be fatted they must not have 
as much room as though there were twelve. 
Nothing is easier than to allow them the proper 
space; as it is only necessary to have two or 
three pieces of wood to pass between the bars 
and form a partition. This may also serve when 
fowls arc put up at different degrees of fatness, 
i'his requires attention, or fowls will not keep 
fat and healthy. 

As soon as the fowl is sufficiently fatted, it 
must be killed; otherwise it will not get fatter, 
but will lose flesh, if fowls are intended for 
the maiket, of course they are or may be all fat- 
ted at once; but it lor home consumption, it is 
better to put them up at such intervals as will 
suit the time when they will be required for 
the table. 

When the time arrives for killing, whether 
they are meant for market or otherwise, they 
should be lasted without food or wuter for 
twelve or fifteen hours. This enables them to 
be kept for some time after being killed, even 
iu hot weather. 

Chickens that Have Catarrh. — James Doh- 
erty, of N. J., writes to the Am. Farmers' Club 
that his chickens have "some kind ot a disease 
in the throat or gullet." A little clear water 
runs at times from the mouth; throat swells 
pretty bad; tongue aud roof of mouth much in- 
tlamed; queer rattling or gurgling as the breath 
is drawn. He has used a little aluui water, but 
that don't save life. What is the cause and the 
cure ! 

Answer. — The trouble is catanh. Remedy: 
A lotion grain of chloride of zinc in an 
otinc • of water, with which the throat should 
n • washt d by means of a sofi feather. If chloride 
of ziuc is not readily procured, chlorate of pot- 
ash may be substituted. Keep the fowls in a 
dry, cool, airy place; give them boiled meat to 
tat, as warm as they will take it, with a little 
ground giuger mixed in; and a small quantity 
of copperas in the water they drink. 

Ordinary Death-rate Among Poultry. We 
are satisfied that the ordinary loss of fowls by 
disease upon farms will average eight or ten 
per cent, yearly, even when destructive epi- 
demics such as croup and cholera are left out 
of account This rate is much greater than iu 
ease of quadrupeds, but it need not and should 
not be so. By making a rigorous selection of 
the strongest breeds, and paying strict atten- 
tion to feeding and affording comfortable 
quarters aud especially by never keeping fowls 
till they are so old as to be past their prime, 
the ordinary rate of mortality (of course we are 
speaking of adult birds) will not be more than 
three or tour per cent, auuually. No amount 
of skill aud care is sufficient to prevent all 
losses. — Ohio Farmer. 

Evkboreens for Poultry Roosts. — A corres- 
pondent of the Practical Farmer truthfully 
says: — "Turkeys and hensprefer roosting upon 
evergreen trees, to being shut up in filthy coops 
all night: — the branches are arranged to suit 
fowls to roost upon; they are sheltered and are 
beyond the reach of foxes and other animals 
that prey upon them; they keep free of vermin, 
enjoy good health, and are generally more profit- 
able. In the heat of summer they get under 
the trees for shade, and the lower branches be- 
ing near the ground and widely spread out af- 
ford large, shady and airy coops." 

A Writer in the Poultry World says his plan 
for curing hens of a desire to sit, is to put them 
in an open yard, where there are no nests or 
roosting places, and differing as much as possi- 
ble in appearance from their regular quarters 
and feed them liberally with soft feed made 
rather hot with cayenne; give them plenty of 
{ cooked meat and all the milk they will drink. 

January 25. 1873/J 



A New Idea in Wine Manufacture. 

Dr. E. W. Sylvester, of New York, read a 
very interesting and suggestive paper be- 
fore the American Institute Farmers' Club on 
the 24th ult., wherein he endeavored to show 
the existence of an entirely new principle in 
the manufacture of wine — that the substance 
which we call alcohol is not produced by fer- 
mentation, but only by the after process of dis- 
tillation. In other words that no alcohol, 
whatever, exists in pure, fermented wine until 
it is placed there by mixing therewith the pro- 
ducts of distillation. He calls the fluid pro- 
duced by the fermentive action of sugar on 
the juice of the grape, "fermentine" and we 
suppose, by parity of reasoning the rule holds 
good in the fermentive changes of all other 
saccharine liquids. This fermentine becomes 
alcohol only on the application of heat suffici- 
ent to produce evaporation. Natural tempera- 
ture, when high enough to cause a somewhat 
active evaporation, is sufficient to effect the 
change when in vessels not entirely filled. It 
is claimed that this new product — fermentine — 
is essentially different from alcohol in its effects 
on the human system and upon various sub- 
stances in nature. 

The Doctor compared the relative actions of 
fermentine and alcohol to the moderate eating 
of cloves, which only acts as a gentle stimulant, 
while the oil which may be obtained from the 
same quantity of cloves by distillation would 
produce almost instant death. The change 
takes place in the act of distillation — changing 
a harmless stimulant to a deadly poison. This 
gentle stimulating principle in cloves cannot 
be separated by any means now known to chem- 
ists. When it is sought for, it is converted in- 
to an entirely different substance, as is known 
from its effects. So it is with fermentine, 
which has never yet been seen pure and un- 
mixed. But confidence is expressed that since 
the existence of the principle'is now known and 
recognized, chemistry will eventually be able 
to isolate it. 

It is well known to chemists that the same 
combination of elements does not always lead 
to the same results. Common illumiuating 
gas, when pure, is identical with the ottar ot 
roses; yet it does not require a chemist to dis- 
tinguish the flavor of the one from the other. 

Fermentine, as taken moderately in pure 
wine, gently and healthfully excites the sys- 
tem, and has the power to restore the victim of 
a burning fever to natural action and vigorous 
health; while alcohol spends its whole force 
on the nervous system — breaking down and 
shattering instead ot building up. Hence the 
Doctor concludes that no wines should be used 
which have had alcohol added to their bulk. 


The earliest horseshoe makers appear to 
have been Vandals and German tribes, in the 
graves of some of whoin they have been found. 
They seem to have been totally unknown to 
the ancients. The first mention of them in 
literature is in the works of the Byzantine 
Emperor Leo, about a thousand years ago, by 
the nane of "selenaia" — half moons, or cres- 
cents. Th-y are thus among the most modern 
of our everyday appliances. Before Leo's 
time, cavalry horses were often disabled by the 
wearing out of their hoofs. The war horses 
mentioned by Job and other Scriptural writers 
were unshod. Receipts were given by Xeno- 
phen, Vegetius, and other writers, for harden- 
ing the hoof. The Japanese have for ceuturii s 
used straw socks or shoes for the feet of horses 
traveling on stony roads. They wear out quick- 
ly but cost almost nothing, and can easily be 

Horse shoeing was probably introduced into 
England by William the Conquerer. Henry 
de Ferres (or Ferrers), who came with him, 
had six horseshoes quartered in his coat of arms, 
and is believed to have been superintendent of 

The superstition which attributed a power 
over evil spirits to horseshoes, and which at 
one time prevailed so largely that most of the 
houses in the west of London had them nailed 
over the entrances, yet lingers. In many 
houses of the more ignorant classes in several 
countries they may be still be seen thus dis- 
played . 

It was reserved for an American, Henry 
Burden, of Troy, to contrive machinery where- 
by this most useful article could be prepared 
by machinery instead of by the tedious and 
laborious hand process that all nations up to 
the middle of this century employed. 

Determination of Sex. — Professor Agassiz, 
who has given more new ideas, and furnished 
more food for the mind, more practical know- 
ledge to the people of " these United States," 
and all served up in the choicest and most in- 
teresting and easily-understood words and sen- 
tences, than any other man in the same years, 
recently made an address before the Am. Insti- 
tute Farmers' Club at New York, in which he 
said he would confine himself to one branch 
only, which should be the various functions 

connected with breeding. He startled his hear- 
ers by declaring that the time would come, 
though far in the future, when sex would be 
regulated and determined before birth. There 
were but two classes, the oviparous and vivi- 
parous, and in both cases the germ sprang 
from an egg, though in the latter the young 
were brought forth alive. His illustrations and 
delineations on the blackboard of the egg in 
the process of incubation were not less inter- 
esting than the developing changes in its in- 
cipient stages, previous to its becoming a germ. 
An egg is a live being struggling into its de- 
velopment, he said. The world needed observ- 

The Sand Blast. 

The interest in the sand blast seems to be 
constantly increasing, as the sphere of its use- 
fulness becomes more and more extended. 
Since the original patent was obtained by Mr. 
Tiligman in Oct. 1870, numerous devices have 
been patented ou various contrivances for apply- 
ing it to practical uses. 

We give herewith a representation of one of the 
most simple ones, which is shown in operation 
upon an engraver's table. A pattern or stencil 
has been prepared and placed upon the plate 
to be engraved, the plate being moved about 
on the "cushion" the exposed portions thereof 
are cut away by the falling sand, while that in- 
tended to stand in relief is protected from wear 
by the pattern. 

Sometimes the tube, which conveys the blast 
is made flexible, in which case the stream of 
sand is guided over a fixed surface. The article 
to be engraved may be a silver cup, a watch 


mkSSaving "b i y the sand blast. 

case, a goblet or other articles. The sand con- 
sists of a mixture of corundum and emery. It 
is simply placed in a hupper a few feet over- 
head, and as fast as it runs down may be re- 
placed in the hopper by hand. All the work, 
after the pattern is placed upon the article to 
be engraved, may be done by boys or girls. 

A current of steam is sometimes introduced 
into the sand tube, which drives it with great 
force for cutting rock, etc. With 100 lb pressure 
of steam, and a supply equal to 1% horse 
power the cutting eflVct is found to be about 1% 
in. of granite, i in. of maible, or 10 in. of solt 
sandstone per minute. The sandis intro- 
duced by acentral tube of % lu - bore, the steam 
issuing from an annular pussage surrounding 
the sand tube. 

An Important Application 
Of the blast has been lately directed upon a 
block of brittle pitch or resin, on whtcha picture 
has been produced by photography, in gelan- 
tiue, or drawn by hand in oil or gum. The bare 
surface of the resin is quickly cut away, leav 
ing that portion covered by gelatine undis- 
turbed. The material may be so cut away to a 
depth, which will allow of its being used as a 
matrix for an electotype, which can then be 
printed from an ordinary letter press. The lines 
left in relief will be well supported, their base 
being broader than their top, and there being 
no under cutting, as occurs in zincography, 
where the etching is done by acid. 

The variety of uses to which the sand blast 
may be applied is constantly multiplying. 

Lubbication without Fatty Mattee. — It has 
been a long time the practice, with horologists 
to use graphite as a reducer of friction, in even 
the most delicate pieces of mechanism. In 
blowing engines, also, if the gearing is copper, 
graphite is the only lubrication used. These 
facts have led to the simple experiment of as- 
certaining the effect of a mixture of graphite — 
prepared by decantation — and hog's lard, first 
in the stuffing-box of a pumping engine, and 
subsequently upon a steam engine. The result 
proved to be very satisfactory in the case, the 
only especial care requisite being to keep up the 
necessary quantity of graphite in the mixture, 
as otherwise it becomes too fluid. In another 
experiment, in which a paste of graphite and 
water was employed, the result proved equally 
effective; the slight escape of steam into the 
stuffing-box was sufficient to keep the graphite 
in a moist condition, and the lubrication seemed 
quite perfect, although there was no fatty mat- 
ter present. 

Good Walkers. 

Eds. Press: — From the time when the horse 
first entered the service of man, unceasing ef- 
forts, prompted by various motives, have been 
made to develop his capacity for running, and 
during the present century he has been trans- 
ferred from the running to the trotting course; 
achieving results that would have been consid- 
ered impossible by the owners of his ancestors. 
But in his walking gait, that in which he is 
really most servicable to the world, his educa- 
tion has been neglected to a degree almost un- 

In walking, horses vary as much in their speed 
as in running or trotting; while the substantial 
reasons that exist for this variance in these lat- 
ter gaits are not to be found in connection with 
the former. Any horse may become a goud 
walker, while only a few have the u.ake-up es- 
sential to what is considered speed on the road 
or race-course. The stout-limbed, deep-ortasted 
Canadian draught horse may be brought up to 
a good walking gait, as well as the light, spare 
members of the horse family. In fact, good 
runners or trotters are rarely good walkers. A 
horse soon becomes aware of what is expected 
of him. His ambition, whether it be great or 
otherwise, will all be centered in the task set 
betore him. It is while walking that the racer 
obtains rest. He is now oil' duty, and nothing 
is required of him. But of the working horse 
little is, or should be, required, as regards speed, 
above a good walking gait. In the held nothing 
else is expected; and even on the road, if he 
were conuued to this gait, though hauling noth- 
ing but the empty wagon, he would travel over 
as inuoh ground as when urged to trot short 
distances, which invariably end in a slow walk. 

Before the plow or harrow the impoitance of 
having the team more at a good walidug gait is 
scarcely realized. A much larger surtace might 
be worked without any more urging than is nec- 
essary to keep poor walkers up to even their 
slow gait. When a horse has once acquired a 
good walk it is no punishment to him to keep 
him at it thioughout the working day. It is, 
in iact, easier for a good walker to move at his 
habitual rate of speed, than for the ordinary 
work horse to continue all day in his slow un- 
satistactory wa.k, for he is not stiffened with 
previous over-driving. 

Experimental teamsters declare that the 
draught is lighter when the horses are walking 
at a last gait than at a slow, diagging one — the 
wagon losing in sell -propelling power as the 
wheels move slower. The public will scarcely 
demand further proof of the truth ot this asser- 
tion than their own observations will supply. 
A large portion of the loaded wi.gon.-, that we 
meet or pass on the road are dr.ig^ed along by 
teams that need constant uigmg to keep the 
wagon in motion. The trace-, ^cem never to 
slacken, and their necks si em nt ver to be re- 
lieved of the galling pr s»ure of the collar. 
Valuable time is thus lost by horses and diiver; 
and if either of these parties is not actually 
lazy, there is a manifest irritability that is mori 
exhaustive of vital power than real work. The 
whole establishment conveys to the beholder 
a realising sense of the punishment of labor. 

As a welcome relief to this annoying sight, 
we occasionally meet a good walking team out- 
stripping their moody, slow-gomg companion 
of the road, at a rate, probably, oi one mile in 
four — the gain in comfort being apparently still 
greater. Both horses and driver seem to be 
masters of the situation. 

No one admiies fancy horses more than the 
writer; and we would not wish to see agn. ul- 
tural societies cease to encourage the dispiay 
ot trotting speed at their fairs; but, at the same. 
time, we are well aware that no more benefits 
accrue to agriculture, proper, from the achieve 
ments of tho-e horses on the race-tracks at 
these fairs than troni the tricks of the trained 
animals in the circus-ring. But, if the same 
encouragement were given to the development 
of walking capacity in our horses, results as 
beneficial, as interesting, would grow out of it 

Let us have our walking -mutches, in which 
horses are entered, both with loaded and empty 
wagons, being confined exclusively to this 
gait. Let those who have succeeded in devel- 
oping speed and easy motion in this branch 
of horse-training be properly rewarded. This 
point should be considered inplowiug-matches; 
and the movements of a horse while before the 
wagon, plow or harrow, should take a promin- 
ent place in the qualities required of a good 
farm-horse. h. b. 

Hereditary Disease in Animals. 

We often see it stated that certain diseases are 
hereditary, and when purchasing for the pur- 
pose of breeding, it becomes an important mat- 
ter to decide what diseases are hereditary, and, 
if possible, what are not. 

Youatt dodges the difficulty by the assertion 
"that there is scarcely a disease to which a 
horse is subject that is not hereditary." Since 
Youatt wrote the above, science and observation 
have done more to clear up that which was but 
doubtful, and if this writer was to re-write his 
assertion to make it suit our present knowledge 
on the question, he need only change "is not" 

to "may be," and his quotation would be cor- 

While all constitutional diseases are not nec- 
essarily hereditary, they are so often so that 
the exception seems only to prove the rule, 
rather than to prove it incorrect. Nor can we, 
stop here, for all know that in horses a bad 
kicking, or biting mare, is almost certain to 
h.ive colts practicing her bad habits. We also 
well know that diseases, or malformations, 
such as spavin, ringbone, heaves and crib-biting, 
are all, in the first case, the result of accideut, 
or improper management, are handed down 
from generation to geueiation, with almost as 
much certainty as constitutional dis< ases. 

As we proceed in this way, we begin to see 
that the assertion of Youatt. though seemingly 
sweepiug. is no more than true, and that any 
disease to which the horse is liable may be her- 

To complicate the matter still further, the 
investigations of the last ten years prove even 
accidental iujuries may be transmitted from 
sire to son through a succession of generations. 
Mr. Scott, of Dry den, N. Y., had a mare with 
foal permanently injured in one eye by a bur- 
dock burr, and her ioal had the lelt eye unde- 
veloped, and represented only by a small round 
black object. Dr. Lucas mentions the case of 
a cow having one horn knocked off, and after- 
wards having three calves hornless on the same 

From these and other cases which could be 
mentioned, it will be seen that accidental in- 
juries, though not always hereditary, are often 
so, and if any great interest is involved, should 
be avoided entirely in the selection of breeding 
stock, and in illustrating one point, we have 
carelully avoided mentioning any cases where- 
in the descent of the evil could in any way be 
traced to the imagination of the animal. 

Hints to Hoisamen. 

[For the Pbes9.] 

In the first place his pedigree should be known, 
that the stock he descended from should be free 
from hereditary diseases or formation, such as 
periodical opthalma (commonly called moon 
eye), gutta serena, ring bone, spavin, spongey, 
flatfoot, thick wind, curly hocks, etc. It is a 
well known fact among horse breeders of fine 
stock that the above are hereditary in disease 
or form. The horse shonld have a well devel- 
oped nostril the eyes of a bright hazel and set 
well apart and prominent, the ear should be 
thin and well pointed and nearly erect, good 
length of neck, the throat well cut up and a 
good width between the jaws underneath, 
withers well up, shoulder a gentle slope back, 
chtst deep, fore-arm well inu->oied, knee-pan 
broad and flat, cannon bone free lroin splints 
•ud not tied in under the knee, pastern joint 
not too long, feet full in the quarters, no water 
or sand cracks, as it shows a thin or weak 
shell. The back should be short to the coup- 
ling of the hip, the hip running out to the root 
of the tail well up, good length troni point of 
hip to root of tail, btifle low and thick, hocks 
tree from wind galls, curls or sprains, augle of 
the leg from hock to the fool nearly straight. 

In niany instances farmers cannot lollow the 
above rules as the horse is not in their vi- 
ciuny, but with a fine biood mare it 
will handsomely repay them to send abroad 
to breed lroin a pure horse. Having visited all 
tue principal breeding establishments in the 
United Staies and several in Euiope, andhaviug 
been in Oaliloiuia the past four months, 1 think 
there is no place in the wond where fine stock 
can be raised and developed better than here, and 
if breeders will breed judiciously 1 predict that in 
a few years California will luinish the Eastern 
cities with their fine coach and road horses. 

As I expect to visit some of your principal 
stock raisers, I will inform your readers from 
time to time of my observations. p. 

Tobacco Culture. —J. D. Culp, of Gilroy 
township, has demonstrated to the entire satis- 
faction of experienced tobacconists the feasi- 
bility of growing aud curing tobacco in this 
country, which is but little, if any, inferior in 
quality to that grown on the island of Cuba. 
In fact, cigars made from his tobacco have de- 
ceived the best experts in that line, as was dem- 
onstrated a few days since on the occasion of 
the visit of a number of San Francisco tobac- 
conists to his works. As we stated some time 
since, in describing Gulp's tobacco works, he 
claims, by his process of curing — for which he 
has obtained letters patent — to accomplish for 
the tobacco the same results as are produced 
by the hot, moist climate of Cuba. In other 
words, he holds that the only difference between 
the tobacco of California and that of Cuba, is 
the excess in the former of nicotine and other 
volatile oils; and that by this method of curing 
he expels these obnoxious oils. The results he 
has obtained fully confirm this theory. By this 
process of curing, the culture of tobacco can 
be made immensely profitable in this country, 
wherever the soil is adapted to its growth. Mr. 
Gulp's last year's crop — some twelve thousand 
pounds — for which he has been offered titty 
cents a pound, cost not to exceed three and one- 
half cents. The profit is so immense that the 
producer couid well afford to pay for the roy- 
alty. The whole secret of curing could be ac- 
quired in a short time by one of ordinary 
" gumption. "—Chlroy Advocate. 


[January 25, I873. 

p^RpfE^S Ifi Cod^CIL. 

Sonoma Farmers' Club. 

From the Sonoma Democrat, of Jan. 18, we 
copy the following: 

Important Report of Committee of Incorporating 
the Farmers' Club. 

To the President and Members of Sonoma County 
Farmers' Club: — Your Committee on incorpora- 
ting the Club beg respectfully to submit the 
following report : 

Your Committee have not discussed the ques- 
tion whether the Club should incorporate, be- 
cause it is manifest that the sense of the Club 
is favorable to such a movement, and the rea- 
sons therefor have heretofore been fully pre- 
sented to the Club, but have confined them- 
selves to the consideration whether the Club 
should mantain its present social character or 
should incorporate for profit upon the basis of 
capital stock. It is manifest that while the 
moral benefits of a mere association of farmers 
are apparent, and much good may be derived 
therefrom, yet in order to market our crops 
cheaply, control freights, make successful war 
on monopolists obnoxious to our interests, we 
need some more effective machinery than that 
afforded by a mere social organization. There 
must be a financial and commercial element in 
our organization to make our power felt. In a 
social organization we must needs each be 
equal, but where we use capital to effect our 
purposes, those whose wants are greatest and 
who contribute most of their means to effectu- 
ate our purpose should receive the benefits in 
proportion to their needs and capital involved. 

Tour Committee are also aware that on account of the 
extent of the geographical limits of the various coun- 
ties, and the sparse population, county clubs organized 
merely for popular purposes cannot command genera] 
attendance in their respective counties; and heme will 
arise in time district farmers' clubs, which will be more 
or less in number in each county, as the population de- 
mands, or the intelligence and enterprise of farmers in- 

O.-iier Organizations 

Already in this county Bhice our organization there 
have been organized two other clubs and we hear of 
others. Hence your Committee recommend three classes 
of corporations: 

1st. We recommend the incorporation of this Club, as 
provided by section 286 of the civil code of the Stat* . as 
a corporation "for the encouragement of, or business of 
agriculture, horticulture and stock-raising;" that we 
mail t a nour serial character, as it is at present, BO that 
none but those Interested in the farmer's progress may- 
be members thereof, and by which we may choose our 
associates. In tin- which, also we may discuss all mat- 
ters of interest to farmers, interchange views, provide 
for experiments, suggest new crops, foster an intelligent 
ami diversified husbandry, and create a brotherly sym- 
pathy for each others aims and labors. 

We recommend that we use our best endeavors to 
mime the farmers in different parts of the country tu 
organize like clubs. 

2d. In order that a pecuniary profit may accrue, we 
recommend the incorporation of a " County Fanners' 
Union," upon the basis of a capital stock of say not less 
than 8100,000. the paid-up capital of which shall be 
$10,000, and increased as necessity demands. Part of 
this Btock may be taken by the several local or district 
farmers' clubs, ami tile remainder by farmers whose 
operations are large, and whose wants ti. 
clubs could not supply. This County Union could 
enter the market, buy sacks at reduced rates senile l,v 
tlie large interest of its operations efaawp freight, both 
by ship and car, build or lease wan umulate 

funds for loaning to farmers, secured by storage of 
crops, and be the farmers' consignee and middlemen. 
The farmers holding stock would thus control both the 
capital and the crop, and could easily prevent it from 
being an engine of oppression. It need not necessarily 
be organized to secure profit and declare dividends; 
suits would be obtained by cheap freights and 
in leased prices for produce, and the profit would be 
found in "farming." We would here say that each 
stockholder should be a member of a farmers' club. 

Farmers of the State. 

Your Committee would recommend that this Club 
take some means to present this question to the fanners 
of the state, so that other counties may follow this plan. 
and have in each county a "County Farmers' Union" 
duly incorporated. 

After a number of Couniy Farmers' Unions have or- 
ganized, then the State Farmers' Union should be incor- 
porated with a capital stock of one million dollars, the 
stock of which shall be held and owned exclusively by 
the "County Farmers' I nion." 

To effectuate this plan this club should at once incor- 
porate as recommended; inaugurates "Sonoma County 
Farmers Union," and by correspondence bring the mat- 
ter to the attention of Die tanners of the State until fin- 
ally the financial arm of agriculture shall shield and 
protect every farmer in the State. 

The benefits to be derived from this organization may be 
outlined as follows: The several clubs at their meetings 
can report the prospects of the crops from time to time, to 
the Tnion and the probable amount of the several pre. 
ducts; the estimates of the county thus made and for- 
warded promptly to tho officers of the State Union will 
enable them to make estimates of the number of saeks re- 
quired and the tonnage necessary to convey the crops to 
foreign markets. 

The officers of the State Union, by observation of the 
prospects in fo eign countries, and the East, will be en- 
abled early to form an estimate of the value of the sev- 
eral products of export. Thus the farmers by their 
agents will be able to fix the prices of their own pro- 
ducts, and by the moneys and credits established by and 
represented in these exportations, they will be able to 
maintain the prices they may agree upon. 

The State Union, 

By the knowledge of the amount required to supply the 
foreign demand, can make arrangments for the storage 
of such as it is not desirable to put on the market, in 
placeB convenient to market, so that it can be drawn 
upon to supply any demand which may arise. 

By these organizations valuable tables of statistics 
can be compiled and arranged in convenient form for 
reference, so that the officers of the State Union will be 
able at any time to know the number of centals of grain 
that have been produced in the State during the past 
year, and after the 15th of May, to know the number to 
be produced that year, to know the amount shipped from 
and the amount consumed in the State, and the amount 

on hand. So of wine and wool, and all agricultural pro- 
ducts of the State. By the fund of knowledge thus ag- 
gregated, to which each has contributed his mite, each 
farmer will be advised as to the proper time to dispose 
of his produce, and also what crop will be most profit- 
able in the immediate future. 

Thus organized, thus combined for the maintenance 
of our rights, we will be able to bid defiance to the mo- 
nopoliste who have been preying upon us in the past, 
and if we cannot entirely dispose of the "Middle men," 
who stand between the producer and consumer, \sv shall 
be able at least to induce a more liberal division with 
us, of the fruits of our toil, to compel them to live less 
sumptuously, to ride in carriages less elegant, drawn 
by slower horses. 

Kespectfully submitted, 

S. T. Coulter, 
W. H. Rector, 
R. Fotsvtii, 
Isaac De Turk, 
E. W. Maslin. 

Farmers' Club Proceedings. 

The Farmers' Club, of Branch township, 
Stanislaus county, convened at Roberts* Hotel, 
Jan. 5th. The President of the Club, Mr. War- 
den, was allowed further time to report consti- 
tution and by-laws. The Committee on Circu- 
lar agreed to report in full next meeting. The 
Secretary read a communication from the Com- 
missioner of Agriculture, recommending that 
an annual election for all the different clubs to 
be held in May. Mr. Jos. Dominici then read 
his weather report for the month of December, 
accompanied with a few very appropriate re- 
marks. He states that his record dates buck to 
1867, and he does not remember that the boun- 
teous rains had been more beneficiently distri- 
buted than they have been within the last 
month There had been no floods and, not- 
withstanding the rain-gauge marked the unpre- 
cedented fall of seven inches, the Tuolumne 
and other streams had not been as high as last 
year, denoting the fact that it had been ab- 
sorbed by the earth, which would in due season, 
send forth beautiful crops. He also — judging 
the present by the past — was confident that we 
had had our coldest weather. The sack ques- 
tion was then opened for discussion, whereupon 
he read an essay on the subject. H. B. Davis 
followed, stating that we must expect to bear 
the sack burdens for some years yet, but desired 
to have the .matter done away with, and that 
the farmers should agitate the question until 
the result was accomplished. He would like to 
have the experiment made of raising sack ma- 
terial among ourselves, and thus set the waters 
of the Tuolumne at work manufacturing them. 
Why not try the jute? (We have sent him a 
package — Ed. News.) Mr. Dominici stated 
that he had seen tho jute growing iu Germany, 
where it is not only used in sacks, but the bet- 
ter quality was worked in fine linen fabrics. 
Just now, he thought, we had no time to grow 
sack material ; the fields were already green 
with our growing wheat. Mr. Warder related 
a conference with an ex-sack man of the ring. 

In Scotland the usual priee of sacks is, from 
three to four cents apiece. Allow two cents for 
shipment, three cents for government tariff, and 
we have sacks at nine dollars per 100. A Com- 
mittee for Conference, consisting of Wm. Fitz- 
hue, John Roberts and S. M. Gallup, was ap- 
pointed. The Club then adjourned to meet at 
the same place again on January 18th. 

Farmers' Club and Narrow-Gauge 

On account of the inclement weather the 
Club meeting of Saturday, Jan. 11th, was be- 
low the average in attendance; and especially 
were those absent who were interested in the 
subject for discussion. ' 

Upon invitation of the Club, Mr. Dewoody, 
Surveyor, made a statement to the following 
effect: He had examined the proposed route 
with care, and was satisfied that a practical 
grade could be found from Napa City to Lake- 
port via Pope, Chyles and Coyote valleys. Said 
gauge need not be more than three feet wide, 
or about half the widthh of a broad 
gauge ; the ties therefore need not be as long 
as usual, and the iron, being lighter, would not 
cost as much. The total length would be 
about eighty-five miles. The estimated cost of 
the Stockton & Visalia road is $8,000 per mile. 
He thought that $10,000 per mile was a liberal 
estimate for this— allowing more for grading 
than |wagon roads cost. The road, if built, 
will pass through valleys that will furnish bus- 
iness enough to sustain it. They want facili- 
ties for transporting their surplus fuel, their 
quicksilver and their grain. 

He had no doubt but that the road would be 
a paying investment. The only question he 
had not settled was: "Where's the money to 
come from?" This is the question for those 
who are directly interested in it. The subject 
should be presented to the people, so that 
they may see the benefits to accrue to them, 
and they will subscribe the necessary means. 

Several members of the Club followed by 
speeches, the general import of which was that 
other subjects of more immediate and practi- 
cal importance should engage the attention of 
the Club, and referring the narrow-gauge rail- 
road project to the attention of capitalists. 

Mr. Coombs thought that this subject of 
cheap transportation was of prime importance 
to the farmers, and that unless they take hold 
of it nobody else will. They are in a grave 

error in supposing that capitalists will invest 
money in railroads for the accommodation of 
anybody but themselves. If capitalists build 
it, they will own it and control it so as to make 
the most of it. This is the mistake common 
to farmers; they expect somebody else to fur- 
nish the means, that they may reap the benefit. 
The means should come from those who reap 
tho most direct and chief benefit — from those 
whose land is appreciated in value, and who 
are enabled to market their produce at greater 
profit. So if they would escape the extortions 
of middlemen, and exorbitant charter rates, 
they must build warehouses and own ships 
themselves; otherwise they can blame no-one 
for their oppression but themselves. 

Mr. Dewoody added to his previous remarks 
the following concerning the projected narrow- 
gauge from Benicia to Berryesaa Valley. The 
route so far is easy, the grade light; but beyond 
Berryegsa toward Lakeport the road can never 
go. For a distance of forty miles it would be 
necessary to blast most of the way through 
basalt rock; and in this space there is no trade 
to support a road, not even wood for fuel. TTh- 
less the road proposed through Napa county 
were built, the only outlet for the Lake coun- 
try will be by way of Cloverdale. 

A Communication was read by thaJSecretary 
from I. N. Hoag, of Sacramento, concerning 
mulberry trees, and the attention of members 
directed to that source for a supply. 

The Secretary also presented a communi- 
cation from Hon. W. W. Pendegast. 

It was determined to* hold the meetings of 
the Club henceforth regularly every alternate 
week — the next meeting being on the 25th 

The subject for discussion will be the best 
method of disposing of our grain; in propos- 
ing which Mr. Gridley said: " We have talked 
enough; we must now do something." 

On motion the Club adjourned. 

G. W. Henning, Sec'y. 

— Napa Register. • 

Breeding for Mutton. 

Eds. Press: — In a recent issueof the Sonoma 
Democrat, and among its excellent Agricultural 
Notes, our attention was particularly called to 
an article taken from the National Lire Stock 
Journal, entitled "Breeding for Mutton," and 
which strongly advocated the crossing of 
the Americau Merino with the large mutton 
brei ds and especially with the long-wooled 
Cotswolds and Leicesters. Although we by no 
means coincide with the conclusions arrived at, 
nor accept them as proven, since we find that 
the advantages and propriety of making this 
cross are still warmly mooted by very many, 
not only through the columns of the Live Stock: 
Journal, but likewise in tho Country Gentleman 
and other agricultural papers. Wewere never- 
theless pleased to see the article reproduced as 
we trust the question will be thoroughly ven- 
tilated in our section, and call forth from some 
of your numerous subscribers their views and 
the results of their experiments in this di- 

Being largely interested in Merinos we con- 
templated about a year ago making this very 
cross, but after having given the matter every 
consideration and read up on it extensively, 
besides consulting with various parties who 
had been long connected with large sheep runs 
in Australia and hud seen the experiment 
tested, were deterred from our intention, feel- 
ing persuaded that, however successful, or ad- 
visable it might be under certain circumstan- 
ces, it would be unprofitable to us, and more 
particularly so when large flocks were con- 

Randall, the author of various works on 
Sheep Husbandry, and than whom there is no 
better authorship in the country, says: "It is a 

Croven fact that the American Merinos will do 
etter in large flocks and on poor and dried up 
pasture, than any other breed. Mutton sheep 
consume more, demand a greater variety of ar- 
tificial food than Merinos, and much more 
care and, therefore, are better adapted to small, 
high-priced farms, where it is desirable to in- 
vest as much capital in sheep as can be rendered re- 
munerative. But the long-wool families would be 
wholly unadapled to large farms where surplus capital 
is wanting even were there not a difficulty of another 
kind. They do not herd well.'' 

The natural inference is that this also applies, though 
perhaps in a less degree, to the produce of Merinos 
crossed with Cotswolds, and therefore conceding that 
there is no danger to the ewe while lambing nor any 
very marked deterioration in other respects (which by 
the by we only assume) , the point of increased con- 
sumption of food in this State, an important one, when 
our animals have to depend almost entirely on dry feed 
at the very time when the demand for mutton is great- 
est and brings the most remunerative prices. If then 
our dry teed is adequate to sustain the Merino in mar 
ketable condition, but not sufficiently so for the larger 
produce of the cross herd, it is plain that the former 
would have the preference, not at the same but a higher 
figure. In any case we much doubt whether there is 
any appreciable difference made in favor of the ewes 
bred as mutton sheep, and which is not far more than 
ceuiuterl>alanced in all other qualities by the pure Mer- 
ino. In January last, we sold out of a baud of 1 ,:fuo 
wethers, aged 21 months, f>00 head at five dollars, and 
disposed of the remainder in -Turn — after shearing — at 
three dollars and a half per head. The fleeces of tho 
two averaged seven and a half pounds, being a full year's 
growth. Can any advocate of the cross-breed produce 
as good a showing in as large a band ? 

Another consideration in breeding for mutton is: 
Have we a market for it and one that is accessible? If 
so, it might be worth while for those possessing a few 
head of Merinos to test the experiment of crossing with 
long-wooled sheep. But as the vast majority of our 
breeders are far remote from any market and freights 
are exorbitantly high, mutton to them must be a second- 

ary object. Would it not be folly for them, tinder such 
cm umstances, to endeavor to promote breeding for 
mutton at the expense of their wool, unless indeed 
it could be shown that the fleece of tho cross is equal 
both in value and weight to that of the pure Merinos? 
On thiB point indeed we should like to hear the opinion 
of some of your correspondents, also stating th e number 
of sheep, how cared for, and whether the result of the 
first, second or third cross. It is a well-known fact that 
the wool from such a cross makes but indifferent cloth, 
and long wools generally from their nature do not enter 
into anything like the consumption of the fine, as is 
shown by our immense imports of the latter over and 
above our own large production. We believe, therefore, 
that as regards California, fine wools will prove the 
most profitable in the long run, but are open to con- 
vntion on presentation of incontrovertible testimony to 
the contrary. P B 

San Francisco, January 15th, 1873. 

Wheat Prospects in England. 

From Mark Lane Express, of December 23d, 
1872, just received, we take the following: 
* To thk Editor of the Mask Lane Express. 
Sir:— The legitimate wheat sowing season is 
now over, and we stand to be afflicted with a 
greater national loss in our home produce than 
any we have sustained during the present cen- 
tury. From personal observation in various 
districts I have come to the conclusion that 
only about one-half the wheat intended to have 
been sown has been got in, and that in the 
worst possible condition; as may be seen by 
the innumerable horse tracks left in almost 
every field, and now standing full of water to 
the brim. Much seed has, therefore, burst pre- 
maturely, and is now rotting in the ground; 
and that which has germinated and come up, 
is looking wan and sickly. The necessity of 
sowing inferior seed— there being few good 
samples to be had— has aggravated the evils of 
the weather, for it is against all experience to 
expect a vigorous plant from a weakly parent. 
Favorable circumstances between the present 
time and harvest may slightly modify the 
gloomy prospect now before us, but they can 
no more bring about a good crop than 
exterior decorations can give stability to a 
house on a bad foundation. Thos. C. Scott. 

King's Aims Yard, Moorgate-street, Dec. 21. 

. To the Editor of the Mark* Lane Express. 
Sir:— In reviewing the prospect for another 
year, I must say I never saw af worse. The 
land is saturated to such a degree that a greater 
part of the fertilizing qualities are washed out 
of it; and on the stiff clays the wheat sown is, 
with few exceptions, never likely to come to a 
crop, the seed having burst with the wet and 
therefore become rotten. What little has come 
up has been eaten off by the slugs, so that the 
laud must be sown over again, either with 
spring wheat or something else; moreover there 
is not more than a third of the wheat sown. 
The prospect for the spring seeding is also bad, 
the fallows being very foul, and labor very 
dear, on account of the people who go stump- 
ing about the country, causing dissensions be- 
tween master and man, and the land will not 
be got into a fit condition to receive the seed. 
The crop therefore, must be very deficient, and 
should the present state of things continue, a 
greater portion of the stiff clays will go out of 
cultivation (and they are the wheat-producing 
soils), for they will not repay the expense re- 
quired. I remain, sir, yours, etc., c. l. 
Huntingdon, Dec. 13th, 1872. 


If I were to give a motto to go through 
life with, one that would stand for warn- 
ing and council in any straight in which 
you might find yourselves, I would give it 
in this one word "now". 

Don't waste your time and your strength 
and your opportunities, by always mean- 
ing to do something — do it. Only weak- 
ness comes of indecision. Why, some 
people have so accustomed themselves to 
this way of dawdling along from one thing 
to another, that it really seems impossible 
for them to squarely make up their minds 
to anything. They never quite know what 
they are going to do next, and their only 
pleasure seems to consist in putting things 
off as long as possible, and then dragging 
slowly through them, rather than begin 
anything else. Don't live a single hour 
of your life without doing exactly what 
is to be done in it, and going straight 
through it from beginning to end. Work, 
play, study, whatever it is, take hold at 
once and finish it up squarely and cleanly, 
and then do the next thing, without letting 
any moments drop out between. 

It is wonderful to see how many hours 
these prompt people contrive to make of 
a day; it's as if they picked up the mo- 
ments that the dawdlers lost. If you find 
yourself where you have so many things 
pressing upon you that you hardly know 
how to begin, let me tell you a secret; take 
hold of the very first one that comes to 
hand, and you will find the rest all fall into 
file and follow after like a company of well- 
drilled soldiers; and though work may be 
hard to meet when it charges into a squad, 
it is easily vanqished if you can bring it 
into line. 

You may have often seen the anecdote 
of the man who was asked how he accom- 
plished so much in his life ? ' ' My father 
taught me," was the reply, "when I had 
anything to do, to do it." There is the 
secret — the magic word now. — Exchange. 

January 25, 1873.] 


^q^ieJLyy^i |I@tes. 



Transcript, Jan. 19: Gkain Shipments.— The 
piles of wheat in the warehouses on Long 
Wharf are growing in numbers as also in bulk. 
Ships to carry it hence come over slowly. No 
new arrivals since the California commenced 
taking aboard her cargo of 2.000 tons. Grain 
on the west side of the San Joaquin river is in 
many places six inches high. The area of land 
seeded this year will exceed that of any previ- 
ous year. 

Disappeared. — We have to go away from home 
to learn what is going on at home. Some weeks 
ago an item was published in this paper to the ef- 
fect that several horses in Oakland had been ef- 
fected with a mild type of the epizootic. And now 
comes along the Bulletin of last evening with 
the subjoined paragraph which we merely pre- 
face by stating that so far as we are advised 
there are now no animals afflicted with the 
malady in this city : 

The Epizootic in Oakland. — It has just 
transpired publicly that there have been a num- 
ber of cases of the epizootic among horses of 
Oakland during the past two months. The 
character of the disease was very mild, but un- 
mistakably the same malady that raged among 
horses in many of the Eastern cities. It was 
brought there by a six mule team, which arrived 
about three months ago. Seven horses in one 
stable and eight in another have passed through 
the disease. A few single cases are reported as 
having occured. There are but two horses now 
sick with the disease and they are nearly re- 

Gazette, Jan 16 : The Weather. — Up to date 
we have had a perfect winter. Just rain enough, 
coming just at the right time, and just in the 
right manner. We do not remember ever to 
have seen its equal, all things considered. Al- 
though it is only the middle of January, the 
hills are as green as they usually are in Febru- 
ary or March. The farmers are busy and hope- 
ful as possible. For the past three days the 
region around San Francisco bay has been 
bathed in as delicious sunlight as ever glad- 
dened the heart of humanity. A softblue haze 
floats in the warm and quiet air and softens 
the outlines of the distant hills beautifully. It 
is actually a luxury to exist in such an atmos- 
phere. You are comfortable with a woolen 
ooat, a linen coat, or no coat. You can build 
a fire if you wish and it is not disagreeable; if 
it goes out you don't miss it. Now, old grum- 
bler, pick up your Eastern paper and read 
about snow three or four feet deep — thermome- 
tor from ten to thirty degrees below zero — 
trains snowed in till only the top of the smoke- 
stack of the locomotive is visible — and then 
growl, if you dare, at the monotonously pleas- 
ant weather that we sometimes hear persons 
grumble about in this favored land. Wish we 
could transfer a piece of that Eastern country 
about a half mile square to this Coast and lo- 
cate it somewhere near town where the growl- 
ers could walk out of our warm sunshine into 
its biting winds and blinding snows. 

Democrat, Jan. 18: Angora Goats. — There is 
no part of the State, or any part of the world, 
not even excepting their native country, better 
adapted to the breeding of Angora or Cashmere 
goats than are the shrubby foothills and lower 
mountain altitudes of this country . By means 
of this industry the browsing range which is 
otherwise a nuisance can be utilized to highly 
profitable uses. It is capable of unerring dem- 
onstration — in fact it has been demonstrated — 
that when managed with ordinary intelligence 
and reasonable care, an annual income equal to 
the original investment can be realized from 
this industry after the fifth year from the time 
of starting, with lively proportionate increase 
thenceforward, but the average " old Califor- 
nian" cannot find it in his heart to be contented 
-with any business that involves waiting a term 
of years for returns. 

Placebville Exports. — Within the past few 
weeks L. Landecker, a grocer, provision and 
forwarding merchant on Main street in this 
city, has shipped overland, consigned to a Bos- 
ton firm, something over thirty-two thousand 
pounds of cleaned and compactly baled soap- 
root fiber. This article is found in enormous 
quantities through a largo extent of country 
above here, and as it is confessedly, when 
properly prepared, the best known substitute 
for curled hair, there are good reasons for sup- 
posing that it will become a prolific source of 
wealth whenever its value shall become univer- 
sally recognized. When well cleaned and 
curled, and mixed in moderate proportions 
with hair, it materially lessens the price with- 
out seriously detracting from the value of hair 
mattresses, cushions, etc. 

Havilah Miner Jan. 4: Last week, after speak- 
ing of the inducements offered by our mining 
wealth to poor men, to come to Kern county, 
we promised that in this issue of the Miner we 
would show the agricultural inducements held 
out to poor men to emigrate to Kern. 

First : Over half of this county is composed 
of fine agricultural lands, nearly all of which 
may be broken up, with a plow, and sown in 
cereals or tame grasses, or be cultivated in cot- 
ton, ramie and hemp — a great portion of which 
is also splendidly adapted both by climate and 
soil, to the growth of all the semi-tropical fruits, 
nuts and vines. These lands have as varied 
climates as their relative altitudes are above 

the level of the ocean, which runs from 370 to 
5,000 feet above the sea. Of these lands not 
one-twentieth part are under any species of cul- 
tivation — not one fifth are occupied — -and not 
more than one-half located and claimed, — full 
half being unlocated, and mostly unsurveyed, 
Government lands. 

Kern "Valley is that portion comprised be- 
tween the Sierra and Coast ranges of moun- 
tains, is on an average fifty miles in width, and 
about sixty in length— commencing at the Tu- 
lare county boundary line and extending south 
to the Tejon range of mountains. Great bodies 
of this valley have been purchased by specula- 
tors, at Government prices, and can be pur- 
chased from them in smaller quantities — say 
from fourth sections, 160 acre lots, upwards — 
at from $2 to $ 5 per acre. 

Kern Island is situated in this valley; it is 
probably the richest body of the land in the 
State, of the same extent. Scarcely one-fourth 
of this rich body of land is yet under cultiva- 
tion, and hundreds of moderate sized farms can 
be secured here at a few dollars per acre. There 
is no question but what in a few years the whole 
of this section of the valley will be covered 
with farms under a high state of cultivation 
and prosperous farmers. The Southern Pacific 
Railroad runs through the upper portion of 
Kern Island and in a few months will be fully 
completed along this district. 

Here, then, is a splendid opportunity for a 
poor mtn, with a few hundred dollars, to lay 
the foundation of a permanent home, with the 
certainty of a fine competency, and, in all prob- 
ability, a fortune. 

Mountain Valleys and Basins. — In Kern 
county the Sierras are " broken down " — here 
it is, that at the southern boundary of the 
county, the Sierra and Coast ranges of moun- 
tains close and break up. All through the Sier- 
ras, in the gold belt we spoke of in our last is- 
sue, are innumerable valleys and basins of rich 
agricultural lands, the greater portion of which 
have never been surveyed or located. The cli- 
mate and health of these valleys and basins are 
unexceptionable; and all the fruits and cereals 
of the temperate zone may be here most suc- 
cessfully produced. Thousands upon thou- 
sands of acres of these beautiful lands are 
laughing, in Nature's primitive dress of grass, 
flowers and trees, at the indolence of man in 
not appropriating them to usefulness. A thou- 
sand beautiful and happy homes could, upon 
these vacant lands, be made by the mere loca- 
tion and taking thereof. 

We say then to the poor men of the Sate; If 
you are miners, Kern county offers you induce- 
ments that no other county in the State can. 
If you are farmers, what county in California 
offers you such cheap and valuable farms and 
homes ? Come and see for yourselves. 

SouthernCalifornian, Jan. 16: Home Improve- 
ments. — We are glad to observe the spirit of 
improvement and enterprise that pervades our 
people. Not only is this apparent in the erec- 
tion of houses in the town, but it may be seen 
in the disposition to fence and improve the 
grounds in the environs, the planting of trees, 
shrubbery, etc., all of which indicates to the 
observer a determination on the part of our 
people to make for themselves homes and sur- 
round themselves with the attractions and com- 
forts pertaining thereto. We may also discover 
in these things a perfect trust in the future and 
lasting prosperity of the place. Nowhere on 
earth has nature been more bountiful or beau- 
tiful in the character or extent of her resources. 
Trees and shrubbery require so little attention, 
thrive so rapidly and add so largely to the em- 
bellishments of home, that one is surprised to 
find that the advantages here presented have 
not been more generally appropriated. 


Tribune, Jan. 18: Judge Stanley has nearly 
finished reclaiming about 500 acres of tule land 
on the west side of the river at Suscol. He has 
also about completed the erection of barns, 
sheds and necessary appurtenances for a large 

A good article of salt is now obtained on the 
Rhodes marsh, north of Columbus, in the south- 
eastern portion of Inyo county. 

A breakwater would be of great value to the 
port of Santa Barbara. During the storm from 
the southeast the swell is such as to render land- 
ing at the wharf difficult. 

Reporter, Jan. 18: Large Egg. — Yesterday 
Mr. J. S. Hogan showed us an egg from a 
Baahma hen, which should take the premium. 
The egg measured 9x7% inches. The hen was 
raised in Brown's Valley. 

The weather for the last few days has been 
very fine. The roads are drying up rapidly 
and the hills are becoming green and crops are 
growing finely. It is fine Spring weather. 

The prospects for heavy crops throughout 
Napa county never before looked so flattering. 
Grain is up and growing finely, and larger 
areas are and will be cultivated than hereto- 

Tough Fish Story. — The Calistoga Tribune 
says that a sturgeon, measuring seven feet six 
inches, and weighing one hundred and fifty 
pounds, was caught in Napa Creek by Bob. 
Fouts with a hook, and sold in the Calistoga 
market. That hook should be sent to the 
world's fair. 

Wine fob St. Louis. — On last Monday Mr. 
C. Krug shipped a car load of wine and brandy 
to the St. Louis Agency of the Napa Valley 
Wine Company. In the cargo was one redwood 
puncheon, containing about 180 gallons, by 
way of experiment, to ascertain if wine can be 
shipped in redwood casks. If it can, the ex- 
pense of casks for shipping will be reduced, at 

least one-third if not more, and all interested 
will wait anxiously for the report of its arrival 
in St. Louis. 

Title Perfected. — The claim of some three 
or four of the heirs of Edward Bale, deceased, 
to a large portion of what is known as the Bale 
Grant, covering several thousands of acres of 
land, and upon which is situated the beautiful 
village of St. Helena, has been amicably set- 
tled. The occupants who had purchased their 
land many years ago, and by patient labor and 
expenditure of a large amount of money in 
beautifying their homes, rather than be har- 
assed by a vexatious lawsuit, have agreed to 
pay four per cent, upon the assessed value of 
their real estate for the year 1872. Many have 
already paid their respective amounts and their 
deeds are upon record. Persons desirous of 
procuring beautiful homes in the garden spot 
of California, may do so now without the fear 
of a lawsuit before their eyes; We look for a 
large increase in our population next Spring 
and Summer, in consequence. 

Napa Valley. — Aline from John Allyn, Esq., 
of Oakland, who is stopping for a short time 
at St. Helena, Napa Valley, states that the 
weather is delightful, farmers busy putting in 
huge crops, the country prosperous and real 
estate high and rising. Next to Alameda coun- 
ty Napa valley is one of the most salubrious 
sections on the Coast. 


News, Jan. 18: Degenerate Braves. — The 
Piutes encamped among the hills about this 
place and Virginia no longer have visions of 
the chase, nor dream of the war-path and scalp- 
taking. They have thrown down the bow and 
gun and taken up the saw and buck, and their 
only raids are now made upon peaceful and un- 
resisting wood piles. They have learned that 
with a four-bit piece they can get more meat 
than a hunt with bow or gun would produce in 
three days, and to their credit be it said, they 
are not too lazy to earn the. four bits whenever 
the opportunity offers. The Indians in this 
neighborhood fare sumptuously every day, 
while it is very tight times with their relatives 
who still stick to their favorite s haunts in the 
wilds of their native hills. For four bits they 
can get about as much cheap beef as they can 
pack away, and then the squaws have about 
them an insinuating way which causes the good 
housewife to come out liberally with all kinds 
of broken victuals. The bucks all have good 
warm blankets; the squaws good calico dresses, 
jackets, shawls and plenty of other clothing, 
while the little ones are all fat, ragged and 
saucy. The Piutes had no swords to "beat into 
plowshares," but they have done the best they 
could in that direction with the material at 
their command. 

Thee Planting. — An immense number of 
trees will be planted this season in this vicini- 
ty, and yet not half the number that ought to 
be planted. There are many shiftless people 
who own lands and town lots, but never at- 
tempt to set out trees, and who will let this 
year pass as other years have passed, without 
making a single effort to improve their lands or 
beautify their grounds. Their barren posses- 
sions are mute but speaking witnesses of 
their own uncultured natures, and proofs which 
cannot be denied, that they are, strictly speak- 
ing, mere cumberers of the ground. But as 
they hold their lands only for the greed of gaiD 
we can expect nothing more of them. 

The big grapevine whose fame has attracted 
visitors from all parts of the country. Those 
who are familiar with the subject pronounce it 
the largest and most fruitful vine in the world. 
I learn from an European traveler that it is 
nearly twice as large as the famous vine of 
Fountainbleau, France. I was incredulous as 
to the reported size of this wonder, and so 
went to it, tape in hand, ready for a measure- 
ment. I find it fifty-five inches in circumfer- 
ence five feet from the ground— just beneath 
its point of separation into branches. It cov- 
ers 4,800 square feet of trellis and has pro- 
duced at a single crop 8,000 or 10,000 pounds of 
grapes. The maximum annual crop has been 
estimated as high as eight tons, and a most re- 
liable authority puts it at six tons, so the 
readers will see that I am not disposed to 
strain his credulity. The vine is of the varie- 
ty known as the Mission grape— brought by the 
Franciscans from Spain— and is thought to be 
about seventy years old. For want of cultiva- 
tion it is now rapidly declining, and is proba- 
bly past saving— unless it be in Barnum's 
Museum. A younger vine on the same prem- 
ises promises to take the place of the parent, 
and may, with proper care, surpass it. With 
less than one-third the age, it has already at- 
tained two-thirds the size of the mammoth 
vine. Fortunately this property — a small ranch 
attached— has lately been purchased from the 
Spanish owner by an energetic Buckeye, Mr. 
Sarver, of Canton, O., who, by improving 
liberally, will doubtless add beauty to the 
wonder of the place. 

World, Jan. 11: The Lost Sheep.— When 
the schooner A. P. Jordan set sail from San 
Geronimo Island it was compelled to leave be- 
hind four sheep that succeeded in escaping 
from the corral in which they had been confined 
after their rescue from the wreck of the Sacra- 
mento. There is a bare possibility that the 
poor animals will live, as the island is but 
sparsely covered with a plant strongly resem ■ 
bling an ice-plant, upon which it is believed that 
they will browse. Tne heavy night dews and 
ocean fogs peculiar to all the islands along the 
coast may furnish tl lem with an ample moisture to 
quench thirst, in tl;»e same manner as the nu- 

merous flocks on San Clemente Island are sup- 
plied, there being not a drop of fresh water 
known to exist on it. 


Sentinel, Jan. 18: Cool Nights. — Since the 
cessation of rains the nights have been very 
cool, with warm days. Spring, however, is 
coming, and already the almond blossoms are 
falling, making the ground white under the 

Brook Trout.— We note several strings of 
brook trout, caught in neighboring streams. 
The fish are full of eggs at this season. The 
new code will attend to these anglers, some of 
these fine mornings. 


Republican, Jan. 17: Selling Poultry. — The 
manner in which live poultry, especially hens, 
is sold in this State, outside of large cities is 
not calculated to increase the breed of fowls, 
and works to the disadvantage of both producer 
and buyer. Fowls are sold to dealers by the 
dozen, the price ranging from $6 to $8 or $9 
per dozen and no difference is made whether 
the fowls are large or small. It is well known 
that some breeds will weigh more when dressed 
or alive than others; but the method of selling 
by the dozen does not encourage poultry breed- 
ers to produce the largest sized fowls, for they 
require more care, eat more than small ones, 
and do not fetch any higher price in the market, 
except rare fancy breeds that are bought by 
fanciers for speculative purposes. The same 
grievance prevails in the indiscriminate man- 
ner in which eggs are sold by the dozen, no 
difference being made for large or small ones, 
when it is well known that some hens lay twice 
as large and twice as heavy as others, conse- 
quently containing double the amount of nu- 
triment. In other countries eggs are sold by 
weight, or at graded prices according to stan- 
dard sizes. The manner in which we sell and 
buy poultry and eggs is absurd and unfair, and 
should be with as much propriety applied to 
potatoes, live stock of all kinds, etc., which are 
more properly sold according to weight. 

Advertiser, Jan. 18 '..Valuable Sheep. — There 
arrived Wednesday at the Central Pacific Rail- 
road depot, in this city, fifty head of Merino 
sheep, consigned to L. TJ. Shippee, who pur- 
chased the same from Severance & Peet. This 
small, but yaluabl flock, was taken out to Mr. 
Shippee's farm on the Calaveras river Wednes- 
day afternoon. They are from Hammond & 
Rockwell's celebrated flock which took the pre- 
mium at the Vermont State Fair in 1872, and 
which likewise took the premium at the World's 
Fair two years ago. One of the bucks cost Mr. 
Shippee the sum of five hundred dollars. The 
sire of this buck, when two years old, yielded 
a fleece weighing 34 pounds and 10 ounces. 

Cheapest Grain for Chickens. — Now that 
chickens raised the past season have attained 
the hungry age and the frost has somewhat di- 
minished insect forage, the quantity of grain 
that will be disposed of by a large flock of 
young fowls is astonishing. The question 
arises, What is the cheapest food (and the best, 
all things considered), that can be bought? 
The reply is, Indian corn. Give cooked and 
raw, whole, ground fine, and ground course, for 
the sake of change. It is the cheapest thing 
that can .be bought, generally speaking, the 
amount of nutriment in it considered. But to 
give nothing but corn would be a mistake. It 
should predominate for economy's sake, but 
oats, buckwheat, wheat screenings, boiled po- 
tatoes, scraps from the table, and as many other 
things as possibe should be added to the bill of 


News, Jan. 17: Planting Trees.— We notice 
that within the past two weeks there has been 
a perceptible increase over other years in the 
sale of all description of fruit, ornamental and 
shade trees at this place. There is hardly a 
train arrives that does not bring more or less 
trees. This is certainly a most gratifying sign, 
and is a proof that the people are at last 
awakening to the importance of improving and 
beautifying their homes. There is also an ev- 
ident sign of improvement by the planting of 
shade trees along many of the sidewalks of our 

town. . . . _ 

Rain Fall. — Mr. Dominicia, Weather and 
Crop Reporter for the Branch Township Farm- 
ers' Club, of this county, submits the following 
as to the rainfall at La Grange since 1867, and 
which through, an inadvertency on our part, was 
omitted from his published report of last week: 
In 1867, from October ending with December, 
7 15-16 inches. From same date in 1868, the 
amount 3 4-16 inches. In 1869 it was only 
11-16 of an inch. For 1870, during the same 
period, the amount was 2 3-16, and in 1872 the 
total for the same time has been 7 15-16 inches, 
making it the heaviest on the list. Of course 
it is reasonable to expect that the rainfall of the 
foot-hills has been little in access to what it was 
in the main valley. Still Capt. J. W. A. Wright, 
of Turlock, reports over 5 inches rainfall, at 
that place, some two weeks since. 

Injured. — Last Friday as Mr. Barnes Potter 
was attempting to stop a team of run-away 
horses attached to a gang-plow, he was thrown 
down and badly injured by becoming entangled 
in the plows. For some time his recovery was 
thought doubtful, but his attending physician, 
Dr. Howard, reports that he is slowly recover- 
ing from his injuries. 


Appeal, Jan. 18: Fruit Trees.— Phillips 
shipped yesterday to Joe Jasper, on Bear River, 
a large assortment of fruit trees. 

Locust Trees.— Among the freight] from San 
Francisco yesterday were a \otoi locust trees. 



-{January 25, 1873. 

TexJILE plBE^S. 

Jate Capture in the United States. 

We find the following in the monthly report 
of the Department of Agrionltivo for D -cem- 
ber, 1872, which *e appropriate an 1 p'aoe be- 
fore oar reader**, with no apology for its length, 
because of its immense importance to Califor- 

Experiments in cultivating jnte in theSoutli- 
ern States thin far indicate that both the cli- 
mate and the soil are well adapted to its growth, 
and there is a fair promise thtt its production 
will become au extensive aud profitable indus- 
try in that section. Its fibre supplies material 
in manufactures for which there is a rapidly 
increasing demand, and which, except to a very 
limited extent, does not take the place of cot- 
ton; while, therefore, it will nut supplant the 
latter nor compete with it in the market, it 
may enlarge the area of profitable rural industry 
in the South. It i- claim, d that were the South 
to divide the labor it now bestowes exclusively 
upon cotton between that and jute, the result 
would be an increase in the value of the cot' on 
crop, it having been proved that, beyond cer- 
tain limits, an increase in the product occasions 
a diminution in the total value; that it sup- 
plies the raw material for coarse fabrics, which 
are now largely imported by the cotton grow- 
ing States, but which might be manufactured 
by thiir unskilled female laborers at a saviug 
of millions; that it can be raised and prepared 
for market at a greater profit per acre than 

The following communication has been re- 
ceived from Mr. E. H. Derby, of Boston, who 
is an enthusiastic believer in benefits to result 
to the South, and so to the whole country, 
from jute-culiure: 

"As the jute-plant has been acclimated iu 
the Southern States and I have exerted myself 
to aid in its introduction, m iny questions have 
been addressed to me from the S 'Uth as to the 
culture and h irvesting of the plaut. I have 
consequently written to a friend in India, au i 
subjoin extracts from his reply, which will be 
useful to the planter if published in your valu- 
able report. I am convinced by this reply and 
by other letters from the South that the rich 
lauls of Florida, Louisiana, Texas and Missis- 
sippi, will, with fair cultivation, yield 3,500 
pounds, or ten bales, of fibre to the acre, in 
place of one-tenth of that amount of cotton. 
I am convinced also that it can be pro lu:e.l at 
less, ih in one t -nth the cost of cotton, that the 
caterpillar will not touch it, and that if planted 
around the cotton tic! Is it may p jssibly protect 
them from that v iraoiona insect. I am also 
1 d 1 > v my letters to hope that it will attain to 
its full gro.vth in three or four months, and 
th it the same h< Id may yi Id two crops iu on.' 
sea-ion. I have just returned from Scotland, 
where I visited the jute factories in the flour- 
ishing city o{ D aid ■ ■, where tin import aud 
miuufacture ot jate is m iking wjud;rful pro- 

Tue subjoined table gives in tons the import 
aud in inafacture of jute in that city since 1837: 


Iii 1888 1.1^6 

In 1847 6,966 

In 1334 , 16,690 

In 1673 »ii,0.K 

Since 1854 the increase has b -en about 600 
per cent., aud in this interval of time the cot- 
ton in iuufaclU''e has not grown at one-fi th of 
that rate. Sonic of the jut. --yarn which I saw 
at the factories is spu t very tine and sold for 8 
or 10 cents a pound. It is u^e.l for bags and 
carpets, and some ot the later, handsomely 
col ired. h ive s .Id for 16 cents p r sq i ire yai.i 
It is aUo ini rwoven with silk, lines, and 
woolen thn ad (into ehe ip do hs. 

By the ub| lided ext acts >ou will notice Hint 
th- j ite-see.l fro u one acre will su.ri e to pl.ut 
fifty acres, and ihat the plant i. nsu illy g th r- 
ed some weeks bet ore the seed ripens I sug- 
gested ihis ,d la last summer to Mr. Chapman, 
of Poin. Coup e, but presume that most of our 
planters have this year allowed th i. seed to 
rip ni. in w.uch case they may have pl< n,v ol 
s i I but inferior liber, and po'sibly require th 
r : me- n ichme to separate tue liber f nun the 
staik, an. I possibly i ins make it available for 
coarse if uoi fn due fabrics The progress of 
e.amts c i ivinues m • tli it the jate i * j ist wii it 
the Sontu requires to diversify its industry aud 

to till up tue gap when Col ton is a failure. 
Willi the growing demand for it, jute promises 
to p.y much better ihau cotton. 

I uo.iced in the jute-mill a Du .d ■•• th it a'tcr 

the. jute was sorted a wimin placid a lay rot 
it on th',- floor; then sprinkled i» freely, first 
witu water and iftarward w.m oi'; she men 
placed auoiher liver over 'h it and p rukledit 

in the same m inner and so piled up layer Upon 
1 .yer. This Bpunkling was before the fiber 
was spun. 

Au extract from the reply above mentioned 
is given, as follows: 

" I'he quauiity of jute and seed produced to an 
acre depends greatly on the nohuess of iha 
land it is planted on Serajgunge, Dacca, 
and other northeastern districts, where 
about lour fifths of the tota' crop are raised, 
produced from 2,000 to 3,000 pounds of jute 
on au average; in some cases, however, as 
mueh as 4oii p muds are produced. The 
yield of seed is about I.OjO to 1,200 pound-, p it 
acre. Iu the country tifiy miles around Cal- 
cutta, the production of which is called (lessee 
or country jute, the yield is smaller, being only 
about GJ0 to 1,000 pounds of fiber, and more 

s»ed. sav 1.500 to l.d'Wpivindfl per acre, but on 
ri h ilieplmls the n.^dnet is almost as much 
as In the northeoH'"'-'i tvovinee-. 

Th" de^see di ■-.<■• ipfim was used only for lo- 
cal consumption ti"Ml about five vears ngo. 
when shipro nt- tvf it to England began, and 
both the shipments and production of it are in- 
erensing pvorv vear. Jnte is sown broadcast, 
and about 22 to 28 pounds of seed are required 
'o in acre. In the northeastern provinces it is 
planted in February and March, and is cut 
■iVint the end of June and beginning of Julv; 
'he desg-e is sown in Ju'y and cut in August 
and September. On rich land it grows and 
npens quicker. In the northeastern districts, 
wh<n grown on rich soil, the diameter of the 
stalk at the bottom is from three-quarters of an 
inch to one and a quarter inches, and the 
length from 7 to 10 feet, and sometimes, but 
rarely, longer and thicker. The cnnntry jnte 
is 4 to 7 feet long and one-half to three-quart- 
ers inch in diameter. The plants are cut about 
3 inches above the ground, excepting dowrah. 
which is uprooted. The butts are cut at the 
time of baling the jnte for export in Calcutta. 

When the stalks are cut thev are covered 
with a green bark, which, a'ter going through 
certain processes, becomes fiber. The planers 
cannot tell at the time of cutting the stalks 
whether any, or how far from the bottom any 
will be hard. The stalks are cut about a month 
before the seed ripens, and the poorer plants 
are generally let go to seed. Jute made out of 
the pi ints producing seed is hard and barky. 
The unripe seed cut with the stalks is of no 
use. It grows best on rich, moist ground, but 
not on low ground. Castor-oil cake is the best 
for it, and next to that cow-manure; but the 
country planters, as the ground is naturally 
rich, use no manure whatever. An acre of cot- 
ton costs much more than an acre of jute. Jnte 
and cotton do not interfere with each other in 
the least. 

The following extracts from correspondents 
give the results of their own experiments iu 
growing it: 

Orange County, Florida. 

I plowed up and thoroughly prepared a half 
acre of medium grade pine-land, and sowed the 
jute in drills May 23. It oaine up well, but 
owing to the excessively hot, dry weather it all 
dried up. On the same day sowed a small plat 
in a bay-head. It came up and grew finely. I 
am now gathering the seed. Some of it is 12 
teet high, and all as high as I can reach, show- 
ing that on damp, rich soil it will here succeed 
finely. Tuis bay-head is muck, several feet 
deep, which I cle ired off and limed two years 
ago. Upon it bananas grow from 12 to 15 feet 

Muscogee County, Georgia. 

I consider the experiment in jute-raising a 
success The cultivation is simple and the cost 
of production small. I had seeds sown broad- 
cast oh broad beds; some on sandy river land, 
and the r. st on stiff clay land The latter did 
very much better than the former. The culti- 
vition was the same, but mauy of the plauts on 
the sandy soil died out after hiving attained 
their full growth, while those on the clay lauds 
remained green and vigorous and matured ttieir 
seed. The plant requires moisture. The seed 
eas sown in May, and the plants could have 
been cut in Sep ember. A frost on the 15th 
of October, which injured the cotton, did not 
Save its mark on the jute. It attained the 
dig it of 15 feet, and iu appearance somewhat 
re.eiubles a pi ntatiou of young peach tries 
before being removed from the nursery. I had 
Uie plauts cut in October and ste. p d ten days 
in stagnaut water, after which the fiber was 
easily stripped off. 

New Ore ins, Louis'aaa. 

Jute-seed received from the Department of 
Agriculture was plant, d on the 11th of April. 

Tue soil was web plowed and harrowed and 
in g no 1 condition. Patch No. ], rich soil, 3 
, i ah ive ordinary gulf tide, plauted in drills 
• ! : ' t feet apart; patch N'u.i, very rich so.), 1 loot 
aoove tide, planted in (hops 4 feet by 2 l / t ; 
pitch No. 3 same as No. 2, plauted; 
soil very dry at planting. Seed co*er d one- 
haif mch deep, did not germinate un il rain on 
ih- 2id of Aprd. May 12. Passed the culti 
valor through pitches 1 an I 2. May 27. 
Chopped .lilh h .e the large Weeds from the 

sun •, jute 2 feet high; uo farther cultiv.iiiou. 
P tub three received no tuither attention after 
planting. Almost continuous drought this 
an umor; jute -...dtr. d but not so much as corn 
and o her Jaly 10. Cat a portion ot 
patches 1 uu'l 2, 9 and 10 feet higu; put the 
■ aim-in bayou-water for seven days, aud git 
beautiful fiber tne eiitirelleugth of the plaut. 
July 15. Plauttd agaiu the laud which was 
cm on the loth. At (his date, October 10, this 
second crop is 8 feet high, looking well, although 
ii has suffered much from excessive drought. 
Wishing to save as much seed as possible for a 
more extended planting the next season, I could 
afford but a fr.i.ti mal part of an acre on which 
to ai rive nt some idea of what amount of fiber 
we may expect per acre. Ou the 28th of Au- 
gust I cut a portion of patches 1 aud 2, plauts 
measuring Irom 11 to 13 feet; seed-burs about 
half grown. ( This was in accordance with di- 
recton in Agricultural Report of 1871, page 
172.) The quantity of fiber saved satisfied me 
that the \ ield of these p itches would be quite 
equal to 4,000 pounds per acre. 

Patch 3 broadcast, is exceedingly dense and 
heavy; portions being matted with native 
i is impossible to make a reasonably 
accurate estimate of yield per acre. 

Some of the July planting, second crop, is 
now fully matured for fiber; some planted the 

first week in August will make a full crop, un- 
less the frost is unusually early. Iuqnirv s 
from South Carolina to California are beinL' 
mad ' of me for seed for next season. I have 
none to spare. Mr. Chapman, of Red river 
landing, is asking $5 per pound He has two 
varieties, the pod-bearing and the bur-bearinp 
seed. The pod-bearing variety he thinks much 
superior to the other. This he got, I think, 
three years ago, from the Department of Agri- 
culture. The seed the Department sent out 
last spring was exclusively the bur-bearing, 
which is brown in color, while pod-bearing is 
green. I have some plants which have been 
flooded constantly for two months now seeding 
in six inches of water. 

Charleston, South Carolina. 

I have done what I could to encourage expe- 
riments with jnte, and have distributed hun- 
dreds of packages of seed raised by myself. 
Experiments have been in the highest degree 
encouraging. The plant seems to flourish 
quite as well as in India. 

Mr. H. H. Stevens, of Webster, Worcester 
County. Massachusetts, a manufacturer of jute 
imported from India, to whom this Department 
sent a sample of that grown in Louisiana for 
examination, reports that in length, strength and 
color it is fully equal to India jnte. He adds ; 

"The Department should do all in its power, 
and, if necessary, ask of Congress more power 
and more money, to extend the culture of this 
fiber in the country. Twenty-seven years ago, 
in Dundee, Scotland, the question was, whether 
there was any value in jute. To-day, of an ex- 
port from Calcutta of nearly, if not quite 3,000,- 
000(?) bales per annum, Dundee consumes a 
large share." 

The Department has received from gentlemen 
in Louisiana and Georgia very encouraging ac- 
counts of their experiments, together with spe- 
cimens of the jute-fiber which they have pro- 
duced. Mr. Thomas H. Dunham, of Boston, 
to whom a sample was forwarded, writes as fol- 

" The quality is very superior. The market 
is just now depressed very much. Some parties 
here have lost heavily ou imported jute-butts, 
and this season (before the fire) India goods 
were imported at immense loss. The present 
rate is 6 to 8 cents a pound (gold); the -usual 
rate 10 to 13 cents (gold) . Your sample is very 
superior and at 10 cents (gold) it would be safe 
to quote. 

You will understand that our merchants do 
not favor home-growth of jute, or rather, make 
light of it; but my advice to you is, leave no 
step possible to push the jute-growth; make 
every effort to g*-t it raised here. Beyond and 
above all obstacles push it on. The country 
will sustain this to any extent. The motive is 
greater than you can have any idea of. The 
moment you get the growth started, you will be 
fully assured, as capital will follow quickly, as 
in cotton. 

Suppose it were a new growth of cotton, no 
one would doubt the success, or the aid needed. 
Our growth of jute will nearly equal half the 
cotton-crop. We can cut off India supplies, as 
we have don iu cottou. 

The interests of our merchants are so inter- 
woven with Iudia importations that they will 
(as they do) say, " You will never get any quan- 
tity grown," aud make light of it. Butyour sam- 
ple shows that its cultivation is feasible, and it 
must pay when the market changes. All orders 
to Iudia are stopped now, and the revulsion will 
bring jute higher here, within the next year, 
than it Uas ever been." 

We can see no reason why jute cannot be 
grown as successfully in California as in any 
Southern State of the Uuion, aud we would 
urge upon our farmers, and particularly those 
upon tule lands, to make the experiment of 
its growth the comiug summer ; an 1 to those 
desiring to do so, we remark that seed can be 
procured, without charge, of the California jut • 
conipan.i , of San Fr ■ucisco, by addressing P. 
Susminu, Seciciuiy, No. 21 Battery street, In 
our 14tu-ol-Decemb. r, 1872, No. of the Rural 
we gave au extensive notice of jute culture, 
Horn the Agricultural Report of 1871, to which 
we reier our rentiers. 

Preparing Ramie for the Market. 

Eds. Press: — For the last three or four years 
California an I other newspapers have contain- 
ed notices of the ramie plant and fiber like 
the following: "The fiber of the amie plant 
is undoubtedly superior to any other of vege- 
table origiu. It has a fineness equ d to cotton, 
a length and strength superior to flax, while in 
luster and brilliancy of coloring it is equalled 
only by silk. In addition to this it is one of 
the most hardy perennials of a vigorous growth, 
aud under suitable conditions produces from 
two to five crops in a year." Such is the gen- 
eral tenor of articles on the ramie, but they 
all wind up with, "though the ramie grows 
abundantly, we have no machines that will 
prepare it for market at a cost that will per- 
mit it to bo growu with profit." They always, 
however, express the firm belief that the "Com- 
ing man" with a ramie machine is close at 

Something over a year ago, being moved by 
philauthrophy, national pride — or, perhaps by a 
desire to make a little money, I commenced 
making a machine for the purpose of cleaning 
ramie. As the work progressed towards com- 

pletion I was cheered by remarks like the fol- 
lowing: "If you can set it to work all right your 
pile is made; we shall have ramie until we 
can't rest." Others said, "If your efforts 
should ultimately be crowned with success, 
should you be able to solve the problem of 
pn paring our ramie for domestic and foreign 
markets, the amount of ramie that is available 
is immense, and in a short period will snrplant 
the cotton trade with an increased volume, and 
you will be known in history as a benefactor of 
the human race like Fulton and Whitney." 

After considerable time and many experi- 
ments I completed my machine, but to my sur- 
prise I have not been able to obtain the plant 
only in very limited quantities— a few tons 
at different times. Though agents of purchas- 
ers examined the fiber after being cleaned by 
my machine and were prepared to buy if they 
could get it, I found that the owners of the 
plants preferred to lay down the same for prop- 
agating young ones, rather than work them up 
for the fiber. 

I am now ready to clean Ramie either for a 
given price per ton, or for a portion of the 
fiber in lots of not less than fifty tons of the 
green plants, delivered at the Miners' Foundry 
in this city. 

If any have large crops that in amount will 
warrant it, I will take the machine to the field 
where it is grown, and clean it on the ground. 

I am also prepared to furnish large or small 
machines to parties desiring them at short 
notice. Yours respectfully. 

Wm. M. Hughes. 

San Francisco, Cal., Jan. 11th, 1873. 

We have examined the machine above re- 
ferred to, and invented by W. M. Hughes of 
this city, for dressing Ramie, and from seeing 
it in operation believe that it fully meets the 
wants of ramie growers. It separates the 
fiber from the bark, wood, and mucilage with- 
out breaking it and with less loss than by hand 

The machine weighs abont seven hundred 
pounds, is very simple, compact and evidently 
durable; requiring about the same degree of 
skill to operate it as a reaper or mower machine. 

One of the smallest size will clean one 
thousand pounds per hour of the green plants 
requiring two or three men to attend it; but 
large ones, of many times this capacity, can be 
constructed requiring a proportionate number 
of men to operate them. 

Owing to the peculiar arrangement of the 
fiber and the stalks, the ramie is the most dif- 
ficult to separate from its refuse without loss 
or being injured of any of the fiber-bearing 
plants, but this machine appears to do it ef- 
fectually, and we should think would also be 
well adapted to cleaning hemp, flax, or any 
similar plant having a laige fiber. 

Corn for Fuel. 

Among extracts from correspondence in the 
December report of the Department of Agri- 
culture we fiud the following: 

Pottawattamie County, Iowa. — Iowa coal is 
worth #7 per ton; wood from $6 to $7 per cord, 
according to quality. People are burning a 
good deal of corn; think it as cheap at 18 ci nts 
per bushel as corn or wood, while it is clean, 
neat and handy; no dirty hands and no chop- 
ping with dull - Xes. 

Harding Coustt. — We had an immense 
crop of corn iu 1871, and nearly as large in 
1872. At the gatlieing of the last orop there 
was corn enough to answer the wants of the 
couutry uutil the harvest of 1873. Thousands 
upou thousands of bushels that were purchas- 
ed by dealers and shippers last year have been 
hi d I over, as there has been no time since the 
harvest of 1871 when it would pay to shell und 
ship it. Large quantities are now being 
burued for fuel, as it is thought cheaper to 
burn at 15 cents per bushel of 75 pounds on 
the cob, thau wood at $5 to $6 per cord. A 
perpetual or " draw " lime kiln, lunning night 
aud day, burned large quantities the past au- 
tumn with very satisfactory results as to cost, 
aud an extra quality of lime over that burned 
with either coal or wood; so the proprietor 
infoi med me. I myself sold to him old corn at 
20 cents, as preferable to the present crop at 
15 cents. He ships to the whole west half of 
the s ate, to the Missouri River, and even 
beyond to Dakota. 

How to Please. — I want to tell you a secret. 
The way to make yourself pleasant to others, 
is to show them attention. The whole world is 
like the miller at Mansfield, "who cared for no- 
body, — no, not he, — because nobody cared for 
him." And the whole world would serve you 
so, if you give them the cause. Let every one 
see that you do not care for tbem, by showing 
them what Sterne so happily called the small 
courtesies, in which there is no parade, whose 
voice is too still to tease, and which manifest 
themselves by tender and affectionate looks, 
and little acts of attention, giving the prefer- 
ence in every little employment, at the table, 
in the field, walking, sitting and standing. — 
William Wirt. 

The Signal Servicb. — A suggestion has been 
put forward, that telegraph wares be extended 
to all the lighthouses on the coast, and that a 
system of siguals be arranged to be exhibited 
from the lighthouses to give notice to passing 
vessels of approaching storms or changes of 

January 25, 1873.] 

i»a©isto bssab 



Washing Wagons. 

Washing wagons is too often looked upon as 
an operation solely for the purpose of removing 
a coat of mud; this is one of the objects, and an 
important one, but the wagon should be' washed 
even when there is no mud on it. During the 
summer the varnish loses its lustre and assumes 
a dull, dirty appearance unless it is frequently 
washed. When a wagon is badly covered with 
dirt it is best to soak the dirt loose by wetting 
it with a large sponge, but not rubbing it. 

In cities, where wafer can be forced through 
a pipe, the sponge